Crop production

Russian farmers began to fertilize winter cereals

Agrarians of individual regions of the Southern and North-Caucasian Federal Districts of the Russian Federation have begun early spring fertilization of winter crops. This was reported by the press service of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation.

“As of February 22, in the whole country, out of 17.4 million hectares of winter crops, 242.2 thousand hectares were fed or 1.4% to the sown area (in 2016 - 224.1 thousand hectares)” - said in a statement.

As specified, in the Krasnodar region at the reporting date 95.2 thousand hectares of crops were fed, in the Rostov region - 101 thousand hectares, in the Stavropol region - 46 thousand hectares.

Necessary tools and materials

This grain food crop is quite demanding on proper nutrition. Moreover, its root system has a rather low ability to absorb nutrients.

Thus, winter crops need nitrogen and phosphorus in the period from the spring tillering stage to earing.

Potassium in winter is necessary in the first growing season and in the earing phase for the development of the root system and the enhancement of carbohydrate synthesis.

So, in different periods, top dressing is significantly different. In the autumn, winter wheat requires very few diverse nutrients, but at the same time it is particularly sensitive to their lack.

But an excess of nitrogen in this period will lead to a significant decrease in carbohydrates in winter wheat sprouts and reduce their chances of survival in the winter period. Therefore, you must know what the content of nitrogen and other elements in the soil.

It is better in this case to use mixtures - a product that is developed individually depending on the state of the soil.

In the spring, nitrogen again plays an important role, only now it must be given to the sprouts in abundance. Thus, the first fertilizing of winter crops with nitrogen in the spring takes place at the beginning of the spring season - in the tillering stage. During this period, the process of vegetation and growth of vegetative organs is resumed. In addition, leaves and stems are formed.

Spring dressing of winter wheat - strictly adhere to the norm

Spring dressing of winter crops begins with a very moderate nitrogen dressing (30–50 kg / ha).

At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the doses of nitrogen that have already been introduced both before sowing and directly at sowing, because an overabundance is also fraught with negative consequences.

Climatic conditions as well as other factors can influence the nitrogen content in the soil. Nitrogen can be introduced in the form of ammonium nitrate - this is the most affordable way..

But with this form of surface introduction possible 2% loss of nitrogen. Therefore, foliar top dressing of winter wheat is often replaced with a more efficient root method (the Buznitsky method), which is realized with the help of disc sowing machines.

When root feeding, it is possible to use urea and other forms of nitrogen fertilizers. You should know that if phosphate-potassium fertilizers were not introduced in the fall, they can be applied in small doses in early spring.

And best of all in the form of root dressing.

Optimum terms of top dressing of winter wheat

After the initial nitrogen fertilization in early spring, the second is carried out in the phase of planting. At this time, the formation of flowers and spikelets, and therefore, it is necessary and enhanced nutrition with nitrogen. Top dressing at this time affects growth processes.

The use of nitrogen at the rate of - from 30 to 40 kg / ha. This dose is also calculated using diagnostics. Why compute something? And not to cause lodging of plants. Because of this phenomenon, you may receive less harvest or significantly reduce its quality.

To prevent lodging, it is necessary to treat winter crops during the tillering period with the TUR preparation at the rate of 4 kg / ha.

The third nitrogen dressing should be carried out in the earing phase - during this period, the grains just gain mass, gluten and protein are formed in them. Of course, farmers have to take into account the vagaries of nature. Precipitation after fertilizing can negate all your efforts. The feasibility of nitrogen fertilization with soil moisture over 90% is almost zero.

Of course, much depends on the amount of precipitation. With timely rain, winter crops give a good harvest.

If you want to get high-quality winter crops, then as soon as possible to go out in the spring in the field you need to inspect all the crops.

If winter has to endure a cold prolonged spring, then samples must be taken, especially if there is significant damage to the leaf mass.

To help determine the condition of the plant can biological control of the cone of growth. You should also pay attention to the appearance of tillering knot tissues.

Plants that have not survived the winter or the spring frosts, become brown in color - from them you will not wait for a big harvest. The situation is further complicated by the onset of late or dry spring.

After all, the damage caused by spring frosts is usually quite serious and early spring dressing of winter wheat simply will not save the situation.

Top dressing of winter wheat

To obtain the maximum amount of the crop, it is necessary to use top dressing during the growing season. Top-dressing of winter wheat may vary significantly depending on the time of its use.

At each of the periods of plant growth, he needs different elements - certain means are used. The article will describe the technology, the time of application and the types of dressings used for winter wheat.

When to feed?

Top dressing for winter wheat should be made throughout the entire growing season of the plant, which is at least in the fall, spring and summer.

If possible, fertilizers can be applied more often, they will not harm: in the fall, before planting, the soil is fertilized, then in spring during plant growth, planting, flowering, development of tubes, earing special substances are introduced to support and improve crop growth.

When to feed

If you make the dressings correctly and in the right amount, they will not spoil the wheat, but if you add them above the norm, the plant may disappear or the taste of the grains will simply deteriorate.

What substances are important for winter wheat?

Wheat, like any other crop, needs certain substances for active growth and development. The following are the most important elements that make winter wheat grow quickly, rarely get sick and give a rich harvest.

  • Nitrogen - badly needed sprouts in the spring, when there is an active growth of all plants. It depends on bushiness and quality, the amount of grain in the ears. The physiological role of nutrients for winter wheat
  • Phosphorus improves the composition of the soil, affects the activity of nitrogen absorption by the plant, increases the resistance of the culture to cooling. Also affects the taste and quality of the grains.
  • Potassium plays a role in the formation of proteins, sugar. It acts in the intercellular exchange processes. Affects the development of the root system.

These three elements are most important for winter wheat. But besides them, the plant needs boron, sulfur, manganese, zinc, magnesium, and calcium. The last two are actively involved in plant metabolic processes. In small doses, some of them are available in complex fertilizers, but if it is necessary to increase the rate, it is easiest to purchase these substances separately and simply mix them in top dressing.

What fertilizers to choose for wheat?

The means used to improve the quality of land and plants depend on the time of their introduction. Fertilizer used to feed winter wheat throughout the growing season should contain an abundance of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

In the autumn before winter, the earth should be fertilized with complex substances. At this time, you can apply "Superphosphate" (200 kg / ha) with the addition of "Potassium salt" (200 kg / ha).

As for nitrogen, in the fall about 300 kg / ha of soil with normal values ​​are applied directly to the ground with other minerals.

As can be seen, the ratio of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus to be applied to the earth is approximately 1.5: 1: 1 - the golden mean, as most experts believe.

Influence of top dressing on winter wheat

Often in the fall used organic substances - manure. If the rate of humus in the soil does not exceed 2%, it is necessary to deposit 35 tons of substance per hectare of land. To improve the quality of the soil on chernozem apply no more than 20 t / ha.

It is important to note that there are no exact fertilization rates, it all depends on the quality of the land, its acidity, and fertility. In order to find out the exact figures, it is necessary to make an analysis of the soil, it will show what the earth lacks, and what is available in abundance.

The application rates for winter wheat are also dependent on what kind of crop the farmer intends to get. With a yield of 10 centners per hectare, on average 37 kg of nitrogen, 13 kg of phosphorus and 21 kg of potassium will be taken from the soil by plants. It is this amount that must be replenished throughout the entire growing season of the crop so that the land is not impoverished.

Do not forget that fertilizing the land for the winter, before sowing, it is necessary to balance its acidity; for this, lime or dolomite flour is added. But this procedure is necessary only on acidic soils.

External manifestations of making feedings

In spring and summer, mineral substances are usually used, it is easier to work with them. For spring feeding, which is carried out no later than March, nitrogen mixtures are used. An average of 45 kg of ammonium nitrate is taken per hectare. In the summer you can use urea (urea).

Urea is a universal top dressing for winter-type wheat. It can be used during the formation of the bush, flowering, going on the tube, earing - that is, in different periods of development. If urea is introduced into the ground, then an average of 150 kg / ha is needed. In the case of irrigation and crop irrigation, solutions of different concentrations are used:

  • spring - 20%,
  • during the flowering period - 20%,
  • during the call-out period - 11%,
  • during earing - 8% solution.

Fertilizer technology

Depending on the type of top dressing of winter wheat, it can be used in a different way. In case of sowing of winter species, the plot is fertilized from the end of August. Then the procedure is repeated in the first half of September. Organic matter and minerals in the fall are always brought into the ground before planting wheat. At the same time, the soil is qualitatively plowed up and left for a week or two.

In the spring, you can use a very simple method. Fertilizers (ammonium nitrate and phosphorus-potassium mixtures, if they were not introduced in the autumn) are laid directly over the snow that has not yet melted in early spring.

Only in this case a double dose of nitrogenous substances is used, and phosphorus and potassium are taken not more than the norm! The fact is that nitrogen is a volatile substance, as long as the snow melts, it can evaporate.

If, however, to lay a double standard, then along with the melting of snow, the fat will saturate the earth and young wheat sprouts to the full.

Urea or urea can be used in different ways. In case of fertilizing the land, you just need to sprinkle it on the soil and pour plenty of water. You can also use root and foliar application for plants. Use them in cloudy weather, but it is important that it does not rain if top dressing is foliar!

Top dressing of wheat: carbamide and other fertilizers

Grain quality is determined by the amount of protein (protein) and gluten in it. The process of formation of these substances in the grains is more influenced by nitrogen. If the soil is sufficiently supplied with nitrogenous fertilizers, the yield increases, the number of fallow grain decreases, which significantly affects the profitability of wheat cultivation in the region.

Nutrient requirements of wheat per hectare of crops

The principle of wheat growth is that with a lack of nutrients, a small amount of leaves and seeds are formed on the plant.

The more culture is provided with building material, the better the grain and the stronger the plant is protected from adverse environmental conditions and pests.

The building material in this case is carbon dioxide and minerals in the atmosphere:

High yields depend on the proportions of nutrients that are applied to the soil, as well as on the period of plant development — at what time more fertilizers are needed.

The scheme of feeding wheat depending on the growth of the culture

Fertilizers act on wheat in a complex way, so a balance and an exact ratio is necessary. Otherwise, the advantage of one type of fertilizer will prevent plants from assimilating the rest of the nutrients.

The correct ratio between the main mineral fertilizers is: nitrogen - 1.5 parts, phosphorus - 1 part and potassium - 1 part. That is, per hectare of land, 45 kg of nitrogenous fertilizers, 30 kg of phosphorus and 30 kg of potassium must be applied.

Nitrogen is especially needed for cereals during the germination stage, when the plant gains green mass and develops the root system. Nitrogen fertilization of the earth will be effective when it is laid in the soil, and not just sprayed over the surface.

When applied to the soil, nitrogenous fertilizers decay to carbon dioxide and ammonia and feed the plant throughout the entire growth and development. When foliar foliar wheat crops nitrogen fertilizers can increase the protein content in grains.

The introduction of nitrogen into the soil should be accompanied by measures to ensure sufficient moisture of the soil cover.

At the optimum water mode, fertilizers gradually release ammonia and the plants receive top dressing evenly.

With excessive moisture, nitrogen is washed out to the lower horizons of the soil faster, which can be the cause of nitrogen starvation. This process is accompanied by yellowing of the leaves and their insufficient development.

How to feed wheat with carbamide

Urea is considered to be one of the most effective nitrogen fertilizers.. Top dressing of wheat with carbamide is carried out in the root and foliar way.

: Feeding wheat on leaf

: Basal top dressing of winter wheat

Pure nitrogen in this substance is 46.2%. This is a very economical and safe combination for plants. After 2 - 3 days after application to the soil, urea becomes available for assimilation. It is recommended to be embedded in the ground a week before sowing cereals.

Spring and winter wheat varieties require different amounts of a substance per hectare of land.

Winter varieties

Winter wheat is demanding to the composition of the soil - does not tolerate excessive acidity, requires more nutrients, as well as strict proportions.

Urea for winter varieties is introduced in parts. This is a more effective way to increase productivity, since in the autumn season, urea is washed out and weathered out of the soil faster. Fractional intake of nitrogen nutrition allows you to control the level of the substance in the root zone, and also enhances tillering and the formation of a dense stem.

When you make urea for feeding wheat, you should take into account the predecessors that left behind the roots and stems in the field. For example, after leguminous plants, the amount of nitrogen fertilizers can be reduced, and after non-leguminous plants, it can be increased by one third before sowing winter wheat.

Practice shows that the introduction of 30 to 60 kg of urea for winter varieties of cereals increases their yield, but does not significantly affect the protein content in the grain. Increasing doses of nitrogen to 100 - 120 kg / ha contributes to the accumulation of protein.

and the way nitrogen is applied depends on the composition of the soil in a particular region.On clayey and loamy soils, the amount of nitrogenous additives can be reduced, since the movement of water in the ground is slow. Sandy and sandy soils are more prone to leaching. Fertilizers evaporate faster and go to a depth below the level of the root system of cereals.

Fertilization for winter wheat requires strict adherence to the schedule: nitrogen nutrition should be given to wheat only during the flowering period and before wax ripeness. In this case, the accumulation of sufficient doses of nitrogen in the tissues will affect the formation of a good ear with a large amount of grain.

Urea as a top dressing for wheat is best to make 3 - 4 times a year. Small dose - in the fall before planting to fertilize winter wheat, as large doses of nitrogen will weaken the growing season and prevent plants from going through the winter period.

The second dressing is carried out in early spring before the start of enhanced growth. The third - before the release of plants in the tube.

Spring varieties

If urea has not been introduced into the soil since autumn, this process is carried out in early spring when planting spring varieties.

Due to the unstable amount of nitrogen in the soil large doses are not recommended to be made in the fall

Spring wheat has a less developed root system than winter. Before sowing summer varieties of cereal, a single large dose of nitrogen fertilizers, urea, is recommended. Fractional introduction is not effective, since the growing season in spring varieties is two times shorter and most of the plant nutrients are consumed before entering the tube.

Especially important is the presence of phosphate mineral fertilizers in the soil. Phosphorus helps to strengthen the root system of spring wheat. Therefore, when the root is underdeveloped, the plants poorly absorb nitrogen and potassium. The yield is reduced by one third.

Phosphorus and potassium must be made in advance - in the fall, so that the composition is well distributed in the soil.

High yields can be achieved by pretreatment of the soil, so that the plants take up nutrients before the grain is poured, and then the spike formation depended on the distribution of elements in the plant itself.

Basic nutritional elements

In addition to urea for feeding wheat crops should be applied potash fertilizers, organic additives and trace elements - sulfur, magnesium, calcium. This applies to both winter and spring varieties of cereals.

Potassium is necessary for plants at all stages of growth. Affects the nutritional value of wheat - the amount of sugars and proteins.

When plowing the soil, potash salts are laid in the depth of the soil in order for the roots to have access to the mineral fertilizer. As well as phosphorus, potassium has the property to be sorbed for a long time, therefore it is introduced in the autumn.

Spring feeding of wheat with potash substances is justified only on sandy and sandy soils.

Depending on the planned yield, the amount of potassium can be increased. Accordingly, the use of other basic plant nutrients is also subject to adjustment.

Additional substances that affect the quality of the soil, are involved in the metabolism of plants, improve their nutritional characteristics, are trace elements.

  • sulfur affects the amount of gluten,
  • manganese - reduces the acidity of the soil, affects the absorption and splitting of water, takes part in metabolic processes,
  • iron - participates in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration of cereals, is part of the necessary enzymes, iron deficiency leads to yellowing of leaves,
  • copper - improves carbohydrate and protein metabolism,
  • zinc - promotes the formation of grain, in its absence in the soil, grain crops and wheat quality will be low,
  • boron regulates calcium metabolism. With sufficient calcium in the soil, the plants will be deficient due to a lack of boron,
  • Calcium - affects the acidity of the soil, reducing it. In this case, the plants have a better root system. It contributes to confronting various infections, especially if cereals are sown on one field from year to year and harmful microorganisms accumulate in the soil,
  • magnesium - affects the metabolism and respiration of cereals, the best combination - magnesium and urea for feeding wheat while making.

Trace elements are used for top-dressing in the foliar way, as well as by the method of soaking the grains before planting.

Used zinc sulfate, boric acid, manganese sulfate and copper, ammonium molybdate. Also, superphosphates can be enriched with trace elements.

Organic Feed For Wheat

Soil fertility is determined by the presence of organic substances in it in the required quantities. Organic fertilizers are usually applied to the precursors of wheat crops. Cereals are in dire need of organic supplements, if the humus content in the soil is very low - at the level of 2%.

Manure is used as organic matter, which is evenly distributed over the entire area of ​​the field, and then plowed up. Fresh manure is introduced in the fall to allow organic matter to decompose and ferment under the influence of soil bacteria.

Winter wheat is more sensitive to organic fertilizers, since in winter, organic matter is able to feed the plants and provide them with the necessary number of elements for wintering. By the beginning of intensive vegetation in spring, wheat is already picking up a certain amount of nutrients and is beginning to grow rapidly.

For spring crops, the use of organic matter immediately before sowing may be justified by the composition of the soil.

If the field alternately planted cereals and other crops, then organic dressings are used before planting a pair, that is, a different crop.

Green manure plants can be used as organic nutrition. They are specially grown, mowed and laid in the soil, which requires rest. The decay of plants in the ground ensures the replenishment of the level of nitrogen and microelements for the subsequent sowing of cereals.

The best sideratami for wheat are one or biennial legumes.

Winter wheat feed system

Winter wheat requires a more attentive attitude, since the period of growth is about 200 days from the time of planting until the time of ripening. Spring wheat has a growth period of 100 days - mainly in the warm season.

In order for winter wheat varieties not to suffer from frost, it is necessary to provide crops with nutrient fertilizers in a comprehensive manner. The calculation is made on 1 hectare of land, taking into account the amount of precipitation, the composition of the soil, the climatic conditions of the region, the fertility of the land, the intensity of grain cultivation in a particular plot.

Before planting, a small amount of urea is applied in the fall. The main fertilizers for winter wheat in this period are phosphorus and potassium. They provide resistance to lower temperatures and fungal diseases. With a good laying of the root system in the autumn period, the chances for a safe wintering increase.

The use of nitrogen fertilizer in the fall affects the quality of wintering cereal plants.

In the spring, urea - carbamide, as well as a small part of the total amount of potassium and phosphorus, acts as the main fertilizer.

Starting from the tillering stage to the earing phase, winter cereals consume especially many nutrients, which, with the optimal amount of feedings, allows to obtain high yields and nutritionally valuable grains.

Calcium and sulfur are necessary for cereals, regardless of soil type. The remaining trace elements - manganese, boron, zinc - are calculated on the availability of these elements in a particular region.

For soil deoxidation before sowing winter wheat, chalk or dolomite flour is usually used. These supplements make it possible to improve the microflora in the upper soil layer and bring the amount of harmful bacteria to a safe standard for winter wheat varieties. At the same time, the soil is saturated with calcium.

When growing grain crops to increase yields, the introduction of dressings is imperative. Frequent use of land impairs fertile properties, so the alternation of species will help preserve soil cover for a longer time.

The use of urea-based fertilizers favorably affects the growth of cereal crops, for which nitrogenous fertilizers are the main ones in the food chain.

The main and seedbed use of mineral fertilizers for winter crops

Winter crops provide sustainable yields in the main areas of cultivation and are highly responsive to the use of fertilizers. The most important condition for increasing the yield of winter crops, and in particular of winter wheat, is its cultivation using intensive technologies, which, along with other measures, provide for the complete satisfaction of the plant's need for mineral nutrition.

In the autumn period, for good growth and overwintering of winter crops, increased phosphate-potassium and moderate nitrogen nutrition should be provided.

Enhanced nutrition of winter crops from autumn with phosphorus and potassium contributes to better tillering and plant development, the accumulation of large amounts of carbohydrates (sugars) and an increase in winter-hardiness.

With an increased supply of nitrogen in the fall, wintering conditions deteriorate, which is of particular importance in regions with more severe
winters.

Nitrogen fertilizers play a leading role in increasing the yields of grain winter crops on the low-humus soils of the Non-Black Earth region under conditions of sufficient moisture.

In the Central Black Earth zone, especially in the southern and southeastern regions, phosphate fertilizers are crucial for winter wheat.

On chernozem and chestnut soils for winter wheat, nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers are most effective. Potassium fertilizers are effective only against the background of nitrogen and phosphorus in high doses.

The optimal ratio of nutrients and fertilizer doses recommended by the agrochemical service in the main zones of the country for given yields(according to VNIIA)

Wait and see

In most farms of the Chernozem region, the field came out, as soon as the snow melted: they started feeding cereals. Vasily Melnikov, Deputy Head of the Belgorod Department of the Agro-Industrial Complex and the Reproduction of the Environment, emphasizes: this event, which farmers do not always remember, is of great importance. The condition of winter crops in the regions is called quite positive after a long winter, but experts are not inclined to categorical assessments or clear forecasts.

“The first week will make adjustments and show whether crops will continue to the full extent,” reflects Melnikov, “or, after all, a long winter, high snow cover can provoke the development of diseases. Now scrupulous monitoring of the state of phytosanitary situation. In 8-10 days we will know exactly how winter crops are developed.

Attention to these crops in the Black Earth region is not accidental. As a rule, they give a significant part of the crop. Deputy Governor of Kursk, Alexei Zolotarev, notes that almost half of the grain structure is occupied by autumn crops. In other regions - at least one third. Experts note that the constant variety renewal and improvement of agrotechnologies make it possible to obtain excellent yields. However, there are other trends. Firstly, the Voronezh and Lipetsk regions increased the total area of ​​arable land, and secondly, the experts were surprised by the unexpected decisions of the farmers on the choice of a particular culture.

“Last year, almost four million tons of grain were harvested in the region, and half of this loaf is winter wheat,” reports Vasily Melnikov. “However, the structure of the acreage, taking into account market conditions and the specificity of agricultural production in the Belgorod Region, is changing. Unexpectedly for us - and, apparently, correctly - agricultural producers, having assessed the situation, decided this year to sow more spring wheat. With an increase in soil fertility, this crop began to produce good yields.

The situation is ambiguous with sugar beet: on the Belgorod fields every year it becomes less and less - this year there will be only 62.7 thousand hectares, and in fact they sowed more than a hundred before. In Voronezh, the same trend - only 120 of last year’s 133 thousand hectares is left. In the Kursk region, where nine sugar factories have to be loaded, there was almost twice as much arable land as the neighbors, but a five percent "optimization" did occur. For the processors to have enough raw materials, you need to get at least five million tons of roots, and for this you have to take care of the yield.

Experts note that the entire structure of the acreage and the choice of agricultural technologies are subordinated to one main goal - to profit from crop production. And if large agricultural holdings producing meat or milk clearly know how much and what needs to be grown for their own forage needs, farmers, according to their own words, “live happier”.

So, Voronezh entrepreneur Yulia Kalach says with regret that she refused to plant maize for grain.

“The elevator made us give him shamelessly large sums,” she complains. - But we, like most, had no other way out. Moreover, an unpleasant story came out with the enterprise itself: it was closed, and they returned such grain to us that I wouldn't have sold it to anyone for two rubles. So people abandon many cultures: everything is too unpredictable.

Buckwheat also began to sow less. This culture, as the farmers themselves say, is exclusively capricious on the shelves of stores. The price of buckwheat will fall, then take off. And apparently, these fluctuations bring no benefit to anyone: households began to abandon it and not to risk it once more, especially since retailers, as a rule, receive benefits from price increases.

Like clockwork

Promptly responding to market changes, chernozem farmers this year prefer oilseeds. Soy, rape, flax and even hemp will be sown in the fields of the regions. Experts point out that the growth of processing capacities has done its job: this is the main factor that influences product profitability.

Thus, in the Kursk region, spring rapeseed crops will be expanded to 30 thousand hectares, or 88 percent. There is not so much valuable rapeseed oil on the market, and farmers are trying to firmly establish themselves in this niche. Especially when domestic seeds have become more affordable, and the technology has someone to learn.
Soybean crops are also expanding: the culture is traditionally indispensable for the livestock complex growing in the Black Earth Region. In addition, new agricultural technologies allow to obtain high yields even in adverse weather conditions.

It is noteworthy that it is on the oilseeds that small agrofirms and peasant farms rely. Yuri Podturkin, chairman of the Farm Association of the Kursk Region, says that market demands are now felt more acutely and even beginning entrepreneurs tend to find their niche. “They sow both coriander and mustard,” he explains. - People try and choose what is profitable for them.

However, without disappointment, too, does not do. So, farmer Ruslan Kornev, engaged in the production of camelina, decided to abandon the culture demanded in the oil and fat industry.

“I don’t have time to sow him in winter,” he admitted.

In a multi-farm, it is sometimes necessary to solve several tasks simultaneously, and at some point it becomes difficult to experiment.

Yury Podturkin notes: negative experience is also experience, and it is not yet known what farmers will make in the coming year. Often, many return "forgotten" crops to crop rotation. As an example, he cites cereals that have already scored grain, every sixth ton of which in the region is produced by farms.Entrepreneurs have long been urged to abandon these crops, so to speak, “leave” them to agricultural holdings, for which feed wheat is the basis of fodder production and guaranteed sales.

“But after all, grain is still in demand, both food and feed,” continues Podturkin. - Farmers grow it and sell it on the market at good prices. And with oilseeds, the situation is even better: only next to us - in the Lipetsk, Voronezh, Belgorod regions - processing is open.

Experts add that the development of the oil and fat industry has stabilized the sown areas of the traditional sunflower for these edges, which several years ago were perceived by farmers as a crop that is simply needed in crop rotation. Another incentive for the expansion of oilseed crops was the attention to their export: this has been talked about a lot at the federal level for a long time, and the producers of the oil itself, in an effort to sell their product abroad, force the farmers to give preference to even unfamiliar crops.

Blew cool

However, to grow something new, not only for farmers, but also for the region as a whole, has already become a kind of trend. Global warming forced the farmers to try and sorghum, and the so-called Turkish peas - chickpeas. However, the past cold summer somewhat cooled the ardor of entrepreneurs.

Julia Kalach says, not without disappointment, that this spring is not going to sow chickpeas. Several years ago, it became a popular culture in the Black Soil Region. Arid summer literally burned peas traditional for these regions. Juicy crops were overwhelmed with diseases and pests. Chickpea turned out to be an excellent substitute for traditional cultures: it withstood southern temperatures, and did not attract insects. In addition, the high cost contributed to the growth of acreage under the "overseas" peas, which, by the way, as a result and went to their historic homeland.

“Prices are falling,” says Yulia. - Previously, it cost 60 rubles - frankly, the cream price, now - 15-20. Reduced at times. Mostly dealers take it for export, but last year we had a small harvest: it rained all summer and does not like chickens. The result was what turned out. Now we will sell and in the future we are unlikely to sow it. Volumes are important to salesmen, but we have them ...

The opposite situation in the economy of Alexander Gandzyuk. Thermophilic amaranth, which is also called Inca bread, the farmer will grow this year. He complains only that he has to abandon coriander, in general, soybean will appear on its fields, and while winter wheat is in good condition.

The demand for exotic continues to grow. Amaranth, which does not contain gluten, for many simply indispensable. The prices for flour and cereals are kept at a fairly high level, and, of course, those who have occupied this niche are in no hurry to leave it, despite the natural surprises.

- I share the opinion that nature has no bad weather, - summarizes Alexander Gandzyuk. “Sometimes many people blame drought or rain for their troubles, but I think it’s just important for us to know how to work in different conditions.” Then there will be success.

Vasily Melnikov is also optimistic, although he does not hide his concerns about the yield.

“Based on many years of practice and observations of scientists, I can say that the long spring will have a negative impact on the yield of the same winter crops,” he confirms. - Last year, for example, there were ideal conditions for them, and they largely provided us with a good harvest. And although it is already possible to predict with certainty a loss in yield, it must be said that we will only win as grain. The same wheat in such conditions gives the grain excellent baking properties: high in protein and gluten. It is also important that the agrarians will now have to sow all cultures very quickly - one after another, because there is very little time left for this country. It is not excluded that in such conditions production linings are also possible: high rates of sowing campaign will affect the quality of agrotechnological operations. But the experience of our agricultural producers and their professionalism will allow us to complete the whole process successfully.

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