Russian gardeners are always happy to grow chocolate chocolate in areas where climatic conditions allow. This variety has enjoyed steady popularity for many years. It is valued for its excellent taste of berries. In this article will be presented the nuances of growing and caring for the tree, as well as a description and photo of cherries "chocolate".
The emergence of a new variety
Experienced workers from the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute specializing in the selection of various fruit crops worked on its creation. A new variety was obtained from cherries "Lyubovskaya" and "consumer goods black." The purpose of the group of authors was to create a productive tree of small or medium size, which would not be afraid of cold.
Oryol breeders M. Mikheev, A. Kolesnikov and T. Trofimova did an excellent job. This variety has turned out to be frost-resistant, unpretentious, with attractive fruits that have a wonderful taste. Officially registered in 1996. It is recommended to grow in the southern and central regions of Russia.
Cherry "chocolate" in its form resembles an inverted pyramid. Can grow up to 2.5 meters in height. Its crown is of medium thickness and size. Due to this, the branches never touch the ground, which reduces the risk of infection by various bacterial and fungal diseases and greatly simplifies harvesting.
The trunk of the tree is covered with brown and sometimes slightly grayish bark. Sheet plate has an oval shape, sharpened on both sides and notched along the edges. It is clearly visible central vein, smoothly turning into a cutting, the base of which has a reddish tint.
All trees of the chocolate "cherry" variety bloom almost simultaneously - May 15-18. Their flower buds are slightly larger than normal and tightly pressed to the branches. One inflorescence usually has three flowers with white petals. The diameter of the corolla - no more than 15-18 mm. These trees are self-pollinating. This means that the ovary can form on them even when there is only one instance of such a species on the site. However, despite this, insect pollinators willingly sit on their flowers.
Harvest time in the middle lane falls on the second week of July. Trees begin to bear fruit from the age of four to 15-20 years. Chocolate berries "chocolate", the description of which can be read below, have a rounded shape. They are painted in maroon, almost black. The diameter of the berry is from 16.5 to 19 mm, and the weight is 3.5-4 g. The pulp is juicy and dense, colored in dark red.
Ripe fruits contain about 12.4% of sugar and only 1.6% of acids. This means that their taste is close to sweet. Professional tasters gave him a score of 4 points. If this variety is used in industrial gardening, it can produce approximately 77-97 centners of berries from one hectare.
Soil preparation for planting
The pits for saplings are dug in the fall and immediately put necessary fertilizers in there, leaving them for the winter. For areas with a temperate climate, the time of planting young trees in the ground falls in the middle of April. In the south of the country, where subtropics prevail, this procedure can be performed in early autumn. In this case, the hole is prepared a few weeks before disembarking.
Since the chocolate "chocolate", the photo of which is presented in this article, is a low tree, too deep a hole will not be needed. It is enough to dig a hole with a depth of no more than 60 cm and a width of 70-80 cm. When making a hole in the soil, the top 15-20 cm of sod soil needs to be set aside separately, since it will need to be mixed with fertilizers and then back to the bottom.
To increase the fertility of the land, manure or already rotten compost is introduced into it. As for mineral fertilizers, potassium chloride and superphosphate are used. However, they can be replaced by natural dressing, such as wood ash.
Before this, the roots of the seedling must be dipped in water with potassium permanganate granules dissolved in it for several days. This will help destroy all pathogenic bacteria and fungi. You can also apply and stimulants rooting, which include zircon, Kornevin and potassium humate.
Immediately before planting, the roots of the seedling are dipped into a mixture consisting of powdered clay and fresh manure, and a creamy consistency should be obtained. Then at the bottom of the pit pour at least 10 liters of warm water and wait until absorbed. A little away from the center of the hole fix support, which at first will serve to maintain the plant. It should be 35-45 cm above it.
Now you can lower the seedling into the hole, while straightening the roots and directing them down. Then they fall asleep the ground, periodically sealing it with their hands in order to remove air from there. The neck of the chocolate "cherry" barrel should not be placed too low. It is enough if it rises 7-10 cm above the ground. Now you can tie a tree to a support.
It's time to make an earthen roller around the hole. After that, about 15 liters of water are poured into the limited space. Half an hour later, this area is filled with a mixture of rotted sawdust and compost.
It is very important to know that when planting seedlings of this variety, it is impossible for coniferous trees and apple trees to be near, because these crops will not allow the cherry to develop harmoniously.
Cherry "chocolate" transfers drought much better than excessive moisture. That is why in no case can it be poured. High humidity prevents effective aeration, and without it the tree will not be able to develop normally.
If the weather conditions are normal, then only four irrigations per season are sufficient. The first of them falls on the period when the tree has faded, the second - at the end of June, the third - 10-15 days before the harvest begins, the fourth - 4-5 weeks before the predicted frosts.
Proper watering requires the presence of two annular furrows simultaneously. The first of them do in half a meter, and the second - a meter from the trunk. The outer ring should always be deeper than the inner one. Half an hour after each of the irrigations, the earth in the circle of a circle is first loosened and then sprinkled with fresh mulch.
If the cherry hole was properly prepared, then next season you will not have to re-fertilize. The first dressing is produced until the leaves start to bloom. During this period, the tree needs nitrogen more than ever. We must wait until the earth warms up, and dig it. At the same time, fertilizers are added to the tree circle: ammonium sulfate, urea, manure or compost. After that, the plant is watered with plenty of water. This is considered root feeding.
In order for the chocolate "chocolate" to produce a good harvest in the future, potassium and phosphorus are needed for its fruit ovary. To do this, in the first days of June it is necessary to spray the plant with a solution of urea at the rate of 15-20 g for 5-7 liters of water.
After taking a break for two weeks, prepare the following solution: 150-170 g of potassium chloride and 250-270 g of superphosphate are dissolved in about 35 liters of water. This amount is enough for watering two seedlings or one adult tree.
10-15 days before the berries begin to ripen, they prepare a special infusion of wood ash. To do this, you need to pour a glass of raw material with one liter of water and insist at least 3-4 hours. Before use, the infusion must be filtered. It should be noted that the cherry of this variety responds equally well to mineral and organic fertilizer.
Cherry "chocolate" is extremely winter-hardy, samoplodna, drought-resistant and unpretentious in the care. All gardeners speak with this in one voice. The wonderful taste and aroma of the berries also mark most of them. Even beginner gardeners can grow such a tree.
However, some are unhappy with fruiting. For example, in the Leningrad region it is noticed that the harvest of cherries is insignificant, but the berries are juicy and sweet. In addition, the main disadvantage of this variety is its susceptibility to diseases such as moniliosis and coccomycosis. Another drawback noticed by gardeners is the short lifespan, which is no more than 15-18 years. After that, the trees will have to be replaced with new ones.
The tree grows up to only two and a half meters in heightits crown resembles a pyramid, turned upside down. The leaves are beautiful with a rich dark green color, pointed, not shiny. Each inflorescence consists of three flowers of white shade.
Inflorescence Chocolate consists of 3 flowers
A decent lifespan - with good care, feeding and cutting old branches a tree can live for about twenty years. The fruits are round, on well-groomed trees can reach 20 mm in diameter and weigh up to 3.5 g each. The flesh is juicy, tender, taste sweet and sour.
The tree does not require special care for itself, Chokoladnitsa is unpretentious and gives a bountiful harvest ripening earlier than on other varieties of cherries.
Cherry Chocolate variety description
Cherry Shokoladnitsa - the result of the work of breeders, obtained in 1996 when crossing varieties Lyubskaya and Consumer goods black. The species is obliged by its name to the rich maroon color of the fruit.
The tree, up to two and a half meters tall, has an average density of a pyramidal back crown with a pointed tip, the branches are elevated above the ground. Belong to the bushy varieties. The bark of brown, shoots upright with grayish bloom. The foliage is flat, oval-shaped, dark green without gloss. Chocolate has a simple inflorescence in the form of an umbrella, consisting of three snow-white flowers. The flowering period falls on the first half of May.
Chocolate Cherry plentifully fruits. The berries are medium in size, similar to cherries. They have a dark burgundy, almost chocolate, color. They are characterized by harmonious taste - very sweet and sour. The flesh is dense, easily separated from the small yellow bone. Juice crimson color with a ruby shade. Berries contain more than 12 percent sugar. The ripening period falls on the second decade of July.
Cherry is already fruiting for 3-4 years after planting. Berries most often appear on last year’s branches. The life of such trees is 15-20 years.
This species deserves special popularity due to a number of positive features:
- self-fertile, does not require additional pollination,
- resistant to summer droughts, can do without watering for a long time,
- endures winter frosts, preserves fruit buds,
- has a fairly high yield.
It is important to remember that this variety of cherries is susceptible to fungal diseases.
Planting and cultivation of cherry wood
Choosing a place in the garden for planting cherries, stop at a well-lit area in the southern part. If it is shaded by other trees, it will negatively affect the yield.
Chokoladnitsa prefers a light sandy sandy soil with a slightly acid or neutral reaction. It should not be planted in places with high groundwater levels and in lowlands, since excess moisture will lead to rotting of the root system and the death of the plant.
Cherry care: key points
A prerequisite for the cultivation of a beautiful and healthy cherry trees, bringing a rich harvest, is regular care.
Pruning cherries start at a young age and is carried out every year, as these trees are characterized by rapid growth, which leads to crown thickening. It is necessary to cut off in early spring before the buds swell so that the tree can regain strength before the period of active growth.
Up to 10 branches are left on the planted seedling, it is advisable to remove the rest without leaving stumps. The cut place is treated with garden pitch. To form a beautiful crown, make sure that the left branches are located evenly on all sides of the tree. In the future pruning will be subject to old diseased branches, as well as growing inside the crown.
The Chocolate Chocolate needs plenty of watering during flowering, active growth, at the stage of fruit ripening and at the end of the season to make it easier to transfer the winter. Watering is carried out in the following way: 5-6 buckets of water are poured into pristine circles or annular grooves at a time. Due to this, moisture is impregnated with 50 centimeter layer of earth.
During the first 2-3 years after planting the cherry does not need fertilizers. Subsequently, organic fertilizers are applied every 3-4 years. Adult trees older than 7 years old need mineral fertilizers, which need to be fed annually.
Cherry Shokoladnitsa gardeners reviews
Since Chokoladnitsa is not demanding to care and is perfectly adapted to adverse climatic conditions, she quickly gained popularity among professional gardeners and amateurs. It is worth noting the positive reviews of summer residents, whose plots are located in arid regions.
Cherry Chocolate is a wonderful copy of modern breeding. This small tree, like a bush and giving a good harvest, can be a worthy decoration of your garden. Proper care and care of it will provide you with tasty and healthy berries.
External signs and features varieties of chocolate Chocolate
Mature trees of the Chocolate Chocolate variety have a height of not more than 2.5 meters. The crown, resembling a pyramid turned upside down, has an average thickness and size. Thanks to these characteristics, even the branches, which are leaning under a bountiful harvest, do not descend to the level of the soil, that:
- reduces the risk of spreading fungal and bacterial diseases,
- reduces the availability of fruits and leaves for cherry pests,
- facilitates harvesting ripe berries.
The trunk and skeletal branches of the tree are covered with brown, sometimes grayish bark. Young, not yet lignified shoots have a greenish tint. Leaves appear from cone-shaped, tightly pressed to the branches of the buds up to 4 mm long. The plate plate of the Chocolate Chocolate variety has a shape close to an oval, pointed at the base and at the end. The edges are notched. The leaves are clearly visible central vein, turning into a strong stalk 1.5–2 cm long with a reddish color visible at the base. The bottom of the sheet is lighter than its front surface.
According to the description of the variety Chocolate Shokoladnitsa, the trees bloom together from May 15 to 18. Flower buds are larger than normal. In one inflorescence, as a rule, there are three flowers on elongated reddish-green pedicels up to 35–40 mm long. The diameter of the corolla is 15-18 mm. White petals, freely located around the future ovary.
Flowers are readily visited by insect pollinators.
Gardeners wishing to achieve high yields, it should be noted that the Cherry Chocolate variety belongs to self-pollinating, that is, the ovary is formed even when there is only one fruit tree of this variety on the plot.
This is a significant advantage, but experienced gardeners prefer to hedge themselves and do not limit their choices only to Chocolate. As an additional pollinator for a plant, cherries of Vladimirskaya, Lyubskaya, Studencheskaya, Turgenevskaya varieties are planted nearby. These varieties themselves are worthy of the attention of the owners of personal plots, and will provide a bountiful harvest on Chocolate.
Under favorable weather conditions, the harvest in the middle lane begins in the second week of July.Four-year-old trees enter fruiting season, the age limit for steadily bearing plants is 15–20 years.
The mature cherries of the Chocolate Chocolate variety, as in the photo, have a harmonious almost rounded shape and a characteristic maroon, almost black color. In the middle berry, the height is 16.5–17 mm, the width reaches 19 mm, and the thickness is 17 mm. Mass ranges from 3.5 to 4 grams. The pulp is dense, dark red, juicy. The share of a pulp that is slightly lagging behind, the round bone of a yellowish color accounts for only 8–10% of the weight of the fetus.
When describing cherries of Chocolate, it is indicated that mature fruits accumulate up to 12.4% sugar and contain only 1.6% acids. This provides the berries with a good, closer to sweet taste, rated by professional tasters by 3.8–4 points. In the conditions of industrial gardening, cherries of the Chocolate Chocolate variety per hectare yield 77–97 centners of berries.
A gardener can get about 15 kg of vitamin products from a single tree with proper care and a properly chosen landing site.
Planting and caring for Chocolate Chocolate
Cherries and other stone fruit cultures do not favor sour, excessively dense, soil moisture accumulating much. The variety of Chocolate Chocolate, according to the description and already gained experience of cultivation, is no exception. Therefore, for landings choose elevated areas:
- with light aerated soil, in which mineral and organic fertilizers are applied before planting the crops, and when necessary, they are deoxidized,
- with protection from the cold wind, but completely open to the sun,
- with groundwater, located no closer than one and a half meters from the surface.
To facilitate acclimatization and care for Chocolate Chocolate cherries, planting is carried out in April, before budding, or in September, when it is still warm and the tree has time to get used to a new habitat. Suitable for planting are one-year-old saplings from 1 to 1.5 meters in height, with developed roots up to 20–30 cm long and lignified stem with a thickness of at least 10–15 mm.
Landing is carried out as standard. For young trees, pits are prepared with a diameter and depth of about 70 cm. The soil is mixed with potash, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers. If organic is used, it is better to take well-rotted fertilizers that cannot burn the delicate root system of cherries.
When diving into a hole, it is important not to bury the root neck. For each seedling provide reliable support. After backfilling, the soil is compacted, watered and sprinkled with organic mulch.
In order to avoid overgrowth and thickening of the crown of Chocolate Chocolate, as in the photo, they must be cut. It is more convenient to do this in spring, before the first leaves appear. Pruning should be old, weak, with signs of disease and pest damage shoots.
Particular attention is paid to the symptoms of infection with moniliosis and coccomycosis, to which this variety of cherry has no immunity.
With the same purpose pruning combined with the treatment of planting systemic fungicides or Bordeaux liquid. Repeated spraying chemicals perform in the second half of flowering.
In the care of Chocolate Chocolate cherries include watering trees and feeding them. Although plants are classified as drought tolerant, during the flowering and ripening of berries, moisture for cherries is essential. When watering, one tree must have at least 3-5 buckets of settled warm water.
Since autumn, potash and phosphate additives are added under the crowns of fruit trees, in the spring cherries need “food” for rapid active growth, so they are fed with nitrogen-containing compounds. If the planting and care of the Chocolate Chocolate cherries are carried out correctly, already the first year of life the plants give a stable growth, and in the fourth year they start to bear fruit.
Description of Cherry Chocolate
The variety was bred in the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops of the Oryol Region and is recommended for use in the Central region of Russia. Shokoladnitsa entered into the State Register of breeding achievements in 1996.
According to the European classification, ordinary (not felt, steppe, sand, decorative and Sakhalin) cherries are divided into two types:
- moreli - varieties with dark-red, almost black fruits in the ripeness stage and dyeing juice,
- amorely - red varieties with colorless juice.
Chocolate chocolate refers to the moreli. Her varietal "parents" from which she was bred - Consumer grade black and Lyubskaya. This is a medium ripening cherry. Shokoladnitsa begins to fructify in 5 years from the beginning of the growth of an annual plant, and a 1.5–2-year-old seedling that is planted yields a crop for the 3rd – 4th year.
- small height - fully developed adult tree does not exceed 2.5 m. When planting seedlings in large quantities, they are planted in the range of 2.5 m between the trunks and 3.5 m between the rows,
When planting Chokoladnitsa type cherries, they observe an interval of 2.5 m between the trunks and 3.5 m between the rows.
- compact crown - the main volume is located at the top, because the tree takes up little space, which makes Chocolatnitsa appropriate in small gardens,
- high yield - suitable for cultivation both on an industrial scale and in small farms. Normally developed tree gives up to 15 kg of valuable berries,
- one of the most surviving varieties of cherries in frost and drought - these qualities were one of the main goals of breeders,
- sweeter berries than many other kinds of dark cherries - accumulate up to 12% of sugars and about 1.5% of acid,
- a significant lifetime of the tree "at full capacity" - about 12 years. The life of the Chocolate Girls is up to 17–20 years. But after 15 years, an aging tree is already beginning to noticeably reduce yields,
- partly self-fertile variety - does not require mandatory cross-pollination with neighboring cherries during the flowering period.
The self-fertility of a variety means that a single tree will also bear fruit. However, many gardeners recommend planting Chokoladnitsa in a group with other varieties - the old variety Vladimirskaya (commonly known as Vladimirka), Turgenevskaya, Lyubskaya and others. It is believed that pollen transferred from variety to variety during insect flowering improves the quality and increases the yield of a group of cherries of all varieties growing nearby. And at the same time it will be possible to explore and get the benefits of different varieties. The important point is that when planting different varieties you need to know their tallness and, if necessary, increase the distance between the trunks so that they do not overshadow each other.
With regard to the shortcomings of the variety, in a review gardeners call a great disadvantage of the Chocolate Girl susceptibility to two diseases - coccomycosis and moniliosis. However, in the description of the variety given by the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation, the relative resistance to coccomycosis is mentioned. Since there is no information on other deficiencies, it can be concluded that the lack of immunity to moniliosis is the only deficiency of the variety. And well enough to know the measures of prevention and control of the disease, to get rid of it.
Monilioz appeared in Russia and the near abroad relatively recently: according to some data, in the late 80s and early 90s. At this time, gardens suffered from him, first in Belarus, then in our country.
Often, the causative agent of moniliosis penetrates the cherry stem during pruning, through fresh open sections.
Often the infection penetrates the trunk during pruning, through fresh open sections. Therefore, the procedure is combined with spraying crown Bordeaux liquid or special anti-fungal drugs or proven folk remedies. For safety, the same treatment is repeated after flowering.
Spores overwinter under a tree in fallen foliage. Therefore, the measure of moniliosis prevention is to rake up and burn down all the fallen leaves in the fall, sprinkle the ground with quicklime and powder and fill the tree trunk for the winter with new mulch to cover the roots from freezing. And also it is impossible to leave dried or rotten fruits on the tree - they can become nurseries for many pests.
A well-developed, well-lit, non-capped, blown tree without stagnant dampness in the crown has strong immunity and can better withstand any diseases.
Choosing a place
The chocolate bar will develop well on a lighted, not wetland place, preferably without drafts. It is relatively shade-tolerant, but in a strong shade the tree will grow more slowly, the berries will grow small and sour, and because of the dampness without the sun, the risk of diseases is much higher.
There are places where cherries cannot grow, in principle, due to the high level of groundwater - closer than 1.5 m from the surface. As soon as the roots of a growing tree reach this depth, the tree dies. And this can happen not immediately, but a few years after planting - on the 4-6th year, the roots can reach a depth of 1.6 m.
Chocoladnitsa cherry will develop well on a lighted area with a low groundwater level
Selection and planting of a sapling
One-and-a-half-year-old seedlings up to 60–80 cm in height with a well-developed root system are most often used (seedlings of this age take root well). But there are also recommendations to plant 2–3-year-old saplings in order to get the first crop in 1-2 years faster. Landing is carried out during the rest period - in autumn in October or in spring in early April. This is done like this:
- Dig a landing hole on the size of the roots in the straightened form. As a rule, for 1,5-years it is 40 cm in diameter and about 80 cm in depth.
- The soil chosen from the pit is mixed with humus (about 3 liters per 10 liters of soil) and wood ash — 0.5 liters per 10 liters of soil.
- In the center they drive in a stake. Young cherry seedlings must be tied to a cola to protect against strong winds.
- Ground is poured into the pit with a hillock of 15–20 cm high.
- A seedling is lowered on a mound, carefully straightening the roots. Plant on the same depth at which the seedling grew in the nursery, which can be clearly seen from the color of the bark. But the root neck should not be filled. If it is significantly lower than the ground level, the seedling is raised and spud mound higher. The optimum height of the root collar above the ground is 3-5 cm.
The root neck of a cherry seedling should be 3-5 cm higher than the soil
- The roots are poured with loose soil to prevent large air voids.
- Seal the soil around the trunk.
- Water at the rate of 10 liters of water per barrel.
- Bind a seedling to a cola with a non-injuring bark with a cord or a strip of soft cloth.
- They mulch with humus, peat, rotted sawdust, or a grass layer of about 5 cm. After planting and watering the saplings are mulched with a layer of at least 5 cm
Care for Chocolate Chocolate
Further care in the first year of the sapling is simple:
- it is necessary to make sure that the stem is clean of weeds,
- in the absence of heavy rain in late May - early June, a sapling will need to be watered with 10–15 liters of water. Further watering may be required during the summer and autumn only in case of anomalous drought.
In the future, Chocolate Chocolate cherries will require pruning, which is carried out in early spring before the start of sap flow. Cherry should be cut carefully and precisely: this is not the sort that grows up to 7 m and has a powerful branched crown where plus or minus the bough has little value. Chocolate can not be cut only for the sake of pruning and the formation of the crown. Types and objectives of pruning:
- sanitary - remove all diseased, broken, dried branches. All root growth is cut out below - it only weakens the tree,
- Forming trim:
- if irregular branches have grown - inward-growing crowns, to the ground, intertwined, then they are removed. The branch is cut "on the ring", that is, without hemp. The cut place is covered with garden pitch, because if cut incorrectly, a hollow hole can form with time at the cut point, the tree will rot, get sick and may die, It is important to properly cut the branches of the cherry so that the center of the disease does not form at the cut point.
- thin the skeletal branches so that there is at least 10–15 cm between them to eliminate the thickening. An adult tree should have 10–15 main skeletal branches,
- rejuvenating - they are carried out if the adult tree is bare - at the ends of the branches there is no foliage and buds - and it does not bear fruit well. About a third of all main branches are shortened by about 1 m. In the summer, numerous young shoots will appear at the site of cuts.
The main thing you need to know - cherry gives fruit almost exclusively on the young growth of the previous year. These are single or bouquet foliage branches with a large number of buds. And if they are all cut off, the harvest simply will not. Therefore, the main pruning is done in the spring in order to stimulate the active growth of young shoots in summer, which will give a bountiful harvest for the next year.
And also in the spring you can prune the branches bearing fruit last year - this year there will be no harvest. Their ends are cut into several buds, in no way touching last year's replacement shoots, which will bear fruit this year. And in place of the cut may appear several young shoots that will bear fruit next year.
Cherries are very sensitive to abnormal and excessive pruning. Her annual growth is small, and after each pruning she doesn’t recover quickly. Therefore, the principle “it’s better not to cut than to cut too much” fits.
Chocolaty samoplodnaya that she plus, of course. But the taste of the cherries themselves is not perfect, and even a big minus, IMHO, it is susceptible to the main cherry sores - coccomycosis and moniliosis. I tried to plant it, but the sapling (was with ACS) did not start and, having suffered the summer, died. It was replaced by Kharitonovskaya, which is tastier and more resistant to fungal sores.
The fruits are great, but we get very little. Thrushes eat everything. The grid must be closed. And care like any cherry.
I still have a small tree, the first time the fruit gave. But close to him pollinator seems not to be noticed. The closest one is a felt cherry from a neighbor, but she does not pollinate regular cherries. This means that either the self-fertile or the second young cherry, next to Chocolatnice, blossomed unnoticed.
The taste of cherry is familiar to everyone from childhood, and Russian gardens are unthinkable without this tree. Among the many varieties, Chocolate Chocolate looks like a very worthy option with good frost resistance and drought resistance, as well as the sweetest taste of berries among black varieties. Alone or in a group, this variety, of course, can be of great benefit to its owners.
Breeding history and breeding region
This cherry refers to young and developing generation fruit culture.
Getting to the formation of a new species, experts All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Breeding Fruit Crops (Orel) proceeded from the interest of Russian producers in such a fruit tree, which would satisfy two principal parameters - it would have a sufficiently high degree of frost resistance and would be low.
The first condition stemmed from the prospects for active breeding of Chocolatnits in horticultural farms in the Russian regions.
And, as is known, most of the territory of the Russian Federation is located in areas with a temperate and subarctic climate, at least, rather severe and problematic for effective cultivation of thermophilic fruit crops.
On the territory of Russia, the following sorts of cherries are the generous, Vladimirskaya, Moscow Griot.
As for the factor short staturethis requirement is the decree of the last decades when most gardeners strive to make their production most convenient and quick to return.
A low plant that is easy to maintain. without the use of special tools and additional equipment, is the best suited for this.
So in 1996, as a result of crossing a variety of late mutation Consumer black and cherries Lyubskaya a new beautiful and productive variety was obtained (authors - A. Kolesnikov, T. Trofimova, M. Miheeva).
In the same year, Chocolate, which got its name for the characteristic "Chocolate" color fruit was entered into the State Register for the Central Region of the Russian Federation.
Besides winter hardiness and low growthThis cherry is marked by a number of other virtues, which will be discussed further.
Such varieties as Volochaevka, Morozovka and Vyanok show excellent winter hardiness.
Appearance of Cherry Chocolate
This variety is characterized by the following features that distinguish it from other types of cherries.
It has a relatively small growth, the maximum tree height varies on average within 2.1–2.5 m. The bark on the trunk (trunk) brown or gray-brown.
The plant is crowned with an average density of crown, quite compact and elevated above the ground, having the shape of an inverse (inverted) pyramid (with a sharp base and a wide blunt top).
Shoots. Grow into medium length. As a rule, straight. As on the trunk, on the main branches, the bark is brown with a grayish tinge. On shoots develop buds cone-shaped, about 3-4 mm long. The buds are in a tight position, close to the shoots.
Leaves. Developing from the kidneys, they acquire the contour of an almost regular oval. The bicuspid leaves of the Chocolatnica have a pointed base and a rather blunt tip. Kept on the branches by means of a stem about 1.5 cm long. The bottom of the leaf is light, the top is dull dark green.
Flowers Pleasant white color, with loosely spaced petals. In one small inflorescence 3 flowers are collected, which contributes to good average yield. The calyx of a flower has the form of a small bell with strongly serrated sepals.
Characterized by wide rounded shape and size of about 18-19 x 16-17 mm. The mass of a single cherry reaches 3.5 - 4 g.
Yellowish round bone in weight is one tenth of the total weight of the fetus. Ripe Cherry Chocolate gets a maroon color, which at the stage of full ripening of the fruit often turns into a rich black.
The fruit is not kept escaping with a stalk length of 32-36 mm. The dark red medium dense flesh of the cherry and the stone are well separated from each other.
Magnificent large fruits have Black Large, Volochaevka and Zhukovskaya.
Chocolate Cherry classified as self-fertile fruit crops - that means she can be fertilized by its own pollen and does not need additional pollinators.
Self-fertility also has the memory of Enikeeva, Mayak and Novella.
However, in order to ensure initially sufficiently productive "Chocolate" even higher yields, experienced gardeners and practitioners recommend planting a tree, an additional pollinator, next to the cherry of this variety.
In the process of pollination, Chocolate can be a good help. Cherry variety Griot and cherry varieties Vladimir and the bottle. If trees are planted in a group, for greater effect between them. Leave a clearance of at least 2-3 meters.
Fruit tree of this variety refers to enough heat-loving plants.
This means that it develops in the best way and gives the maximum possible yield, growing in the garden plot, well lit by the sun.
Nevertheless, this grade is estimated by experts as quite hardy. In any case, this winter-hardy cherry is able to tolerate both very low temperatures and strong droughts.
To manage for a long time without irrigating the tree allows highly developed root system.
Cherry blossoms usually begin in May. Already in in the middle - in the second half of July, the fruits of the Chocolate Woman ripen. The first harvest she usually gives gardener in the fourth year own life.
With proper organization of agrotechnical measures and careful care, this cherry gives enough high yields.
According to statistics, the average yield of a variety is 78 centners of production per hectare (11-12 kg from one tree)The maximum yield was fixed at almost 97 centners.
Robin, Generous and Lyubskaya can boast excellent yields.
At the exit the tree forms a fruit with the following content chemical substances:
History of the variety
Scientists of the All-Russian Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops (VNIISPK) A. F. Kolesnikova, M. V. Mikheeva, and T. A. Trofimova conducted a crossing of the cherry varieties: the late mutant Consumer goods, black and Lyubskaya. As a result, a new variety appeared, which its creators called Chocolate. The color and quality of the berries were transferred to him from the first parent, and from the second parent - winter hardiness, short stature and partial self-fertility. In 1996, Chocolate was registered in the register of selection achievements of the Russian Federation in the Central region. Gardeners of middle latitudes show great interest in him.
Description and characteristics of Chocolate Chocolate
The tree is not high (2–2.5 m), which is an advantage of the variety, since short stature has always been valued by gardeners. In this case, easier to care for plants and harvest. The crown is not very thick, compact, elevated, inverse pyramidal shape. Shoots of medium thickness, straight, per season can grow up to 70 cm.
The low tree (2–2.5 m) of Cherry Chocolate has a reverse pyramidal crown shape of medium thickness.
Fruit ripening occurs in mid-July, which characterizes the variety as mid-season. Flowering occurs in the second decade of May. Inflorescences consist of three large flowers. According to the State Register, the variety is partially self-fertile. The description of VNIISPK contains information about the complete self-fertility of the Chocolate Girl. Scientists All-Union Research Institute of Plant. N. I. Vavilova also consider Shokoladnitsa to be stably self-fertile.
The inflorescence of Chocolate Cherry Chocolate consists of three large flowers with loose petals.
Fruits of flat-rounded shape with an average funnel and a weakly depressed tip, large (height 1.7 cm, width 1.9 cm), their weight is 3–3.5 grams. The color is almost black with a mirror shine. The name Chocolate is due to the color of the fruit. Small bones are well separated from the pulp, the fruits are easily removed from the stem.
Fruits of Chocolate Chocolate large, almost black color with a mirror shine
Chocolate Fruits are good not only fresh, they make excellent products after processing
Variety begins to bear fruit in the 4-5 year. 11-12 kg of fruits can be obtained from one tree. The average annual yield on an industrial scale is 78 c / ha, the maximum - 97 c / ha, which is not bad, but not the best indicator for this crop. For example, the maximum yield of cherries Turgenevka reaches 200 kg / ha.
Winter hardiness of wood and buds is high, which is a big plus for the growing region of the variety. And also the trees are hardy to drought. The variety is affected by coccomycosis and moniliasis, which is a significant disadvantage.
The main advantages of the Chocolate Chocolate variety are endurance to low temperatures, drought resistance, relative short stature and excellent taste qualities of products.
Do Chocolate Shoppers Need Pollinators?
There are some contradictions not only in the information of official sources, but also in the reviews of the cultivators of this variety of gardeners regarding the degree of self-fertility of Chocolatnits. In discussions on the forums, most users note a high degree of self-pollination, however, there are some reviews from the fact that Chocolatnits without a pollinator does not bear fruit at all.
Scientists engaged in the study of fruit crops for the ability to self-pollination, came to the conclusion that this property can be influenced by various factors and, depending on them, the degree of fertility can manifest itself in different ways.
Accumulated by researchers information indicates inconsistency indicators of self-fertility varieties in different years and different climatic conditions. The same variety can exhibit stable self-fertility in some conditions, while in others it can be partially self-fertile.
S. Orlova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, A. Yushev, Doctor of Biological Sciences, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry named after N.I. Vavilova, St. Petersburg
Garden and Garden № 3, 2009
The presence of pollinating trees increases the yield not only of self-fruitful and partially self-bearing varieties, but also stably self-bearing. Therefore, planting next to the Chocolate variety of cherry varieties that bloom in the same time frame will be an additional factor contributing to the formation of a larger number of ovaries. For cross-pollination, Chocolatnitsa (and not only for her) is recommended to plant Vladimirskaya cherry next to them, which is considered an excellent pollinator. And also the productivity of a tree will increase, if the following varieties grow close: Lyubskaya, Bottle, Student's, Turgenevka.
The chocolate has a rather high degree of self-fertility, but the presence of pollinating trees next to it will increase the number of ovaries.
Features of growing varieties
Agrotechnical methods for growing chocolate in general, apply the standard. There are some nuances associated with the characteristics of the variety, if you take them into account, the tree will not remain in debt and will thank for the increased harvest.
It is better to plant Chokoladnitsa in the spring, as in the region where it is zoned, there is a risk of freezing that did not have time to settle down during the autumn planting of a seedling. To place the tree, choose either a flat area, or with a small elevation or slope, open, well lit and ventilated. Lowlands, where moisture accumulates, are categorically inappropriate for Chokoladnitsa due to her penchant for fungal diseases. And also cherry feels bad on steep slopes, where snow practically does not linger.
The most suitable would be well-permeable loamy or sandy soil, with acidity close to neutral. Groundwater should be at a depth of not less than 1.5 m. Trees are planted at a distance of 2.5 m with a spacing of 3.5 m.
The planting scheme for Chocolate Girl (2.5x3.5) must be observed so that there is no excessive thickening.
Planting pits are prepared in advance, their size is 60x60x60, on poor soils it can be increased to 80x80x80 in order to fit more fertile mixture. The top layer of the earth is mixed with humus or compost, and also mineral fertilizers are added. Further, the planting process is standard, as for any other cherry.
Crown formation and other types of trimming
Chokoladnitsa tree is best formed in a bushy form, like other low-growing cherries. In this case, they leave a stem 30–40 cm high and choose 5–6 strongest skeletal branches, growing in different directions and at least 12–13 cm from each other. The rest are cut, leaving no stumps. From the second year, the focus is on thinning. As a rule, the shoots growing on the skeletal branches are left and the branches directed towards the crown, as well as weak and intertwining, are removed. In 2-3 years of formation, up to 10–12 skeletal branches can be left.
To form the crown of Chocolate is better for bushy type
When pruning cherries thinning is used more often, less often - shortening shoots, it is usually carried out on lateral branches. In addition to crown shaping, the following types of trimming are also carried out:
- Sanitary. Remove dry, diseased and damaged branches in late autumn and early spring (if necessary).
- Regulatory. Such pruningis held annually, it consists in thinning the crown and is mandatory for susceptible to fungal diseases Chocolatemaid.
- Supportive. It is also important for Chocolatnitsa, since the yield of the variety is not very high at the genetic level and must be stimulated. The pruning of fruiting begins to be carried out with a decrease in annual growth of up to 15–20 cm and exposure of the shoots. In this case, the biennial branches are shortened over the nearest side branches.
Watering and feeding
Drought-resistant Shokoladnitsa suffers a lack of moisture much better than its excess, so watering trees is quite rare, but abundant. If precipitation falls within the normal range, it is enough to water the plants 4 times: after flowering, in the second half of June, 2 weeks before harvest and a month before the start of frost. During ripening can not be watered, because with excess moisture fruits become watery. Before the start of fruiting, 30–40 l of water is used per tree, and then its amount is doubled. In order not to expose the root system, water is poured not under the root, but into the ring grooves.
Shokoladnitsa does not like excess moisture, it is watered infrequently, but plentifully, and it is not recommended to pour water under the root.
Feed Chocolate Chocolate in the standard way, without any features. In the spring, before fertilization, nitrogen fertilizers or liquid organics (infused with water, infusion of bird droppings or cow manure) are applied. After flowering plants need phosphorus and potassium. In early June, you can feed urea once more, after which nitrogen fertilizers are no longer applied. And then spend 3-4 supplements superphosphate and potassium chloride (can be replaced with wood ash) with an interval of 3 weeks. In mid-September, organics are introduced in combination with phosphate and potash fertilizers.
In the description of VNIISPK, Chocolatnits susceptibility to coccomycosis and moniliosis is noted, which is also confirmed by the rather numerous reviews of gardeners - such characteristics to some extent reduce the value of this variety. Recently, in central Russia, and in other regions, coccomycosis and monilioz cherries have become a real disaster for gardeners. Fungal diseases are especially evident under favorable conditions: cool weather combined with heavy rainfall. Coccomycosis and monilioz are extremely contagious, their spores are easily carried by the wind.
The threat of these diseases should not be underestimated, since their consequences consist not only in loss of harvest, but also in reducing the winter hardiness of weakened plants. In order to minimize the problems associated with diseases, or even to avoid them at all, it is important to prevent thickened landings and to thin out the crowns in a timely manner, creating conditions for good ventilation. As well as collect and destroy infected plant debris as they form.
A sign of the disease is chaotically located small brown spots on the upper side of the leaves; on the opposite side, white pads of fungal sporulation are clearly visible in the places of damage. Infected leaves fall prematurely. With the defeat of fruits coccomycosis on them are formed depressed, relatively large, brown-brown spots with a bright touch. The disease usually appears in the first half of June.
Kokkomikoz primarily affects the leaves, on the upper side, small patches of dark brown color are formed, and on the lower side - pinkish-white pads of fungal sporulation
For prophylactic treatments, as well as if the lesions are not too large, it is better to use biological preparations (Fitosporin, Actofit and others). When the disease spreads intensively, fungicides are used to combat it: Bordeaux liquid, Hom, Abiga-Peak, Skor, Fundazol, as well as Horus, which is considered the most effective. Preparations are recommended to alternate, as they get used to them. In early spring, a first spraying of 3% Bordeaux liquid is carried out on the green cone. After flowering, treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid or another fungicide. If the lesion is severely affected, repeat every 12–14 days until the end of June. In August or September, when the harvest is already harvested, carry out the last processing.
The disease is also called monilial burn. The branches and leaves turn yellow and dry, and then turn black, while they look like burnt. Then, small seals appear on the affected areas. Later, the fruits are affected, grayish-black outgrowths form on them, after which they quickly rot and crumble.
When moniliose branches and leaves dry up and look like burnt, and the fruits rot
The fight against moniliosis is carried out by the same drugs that are used against coccomycosis. Processing carried out in a similar time frame.
Video: signs of monilioz and methods of dealing with it
The sources do not have information about the stability of Chocolates to defeat pests, therefore, most likely, the probability of attack of harmful insects is very real. Of these, the most common are:
- Cherry weevil. It feeds on buds, leaves, buds and ovaries. Its larvae damage the fruits, which then fall off.
- Leaf aphid. Settles on young leaves and tops of shoots, eats their juice. The leaves are rolled into a tube, shoots cease to grow.
- Cherry fly Its larvae damage the flesh, an unpleasant smell appears, the fruits become watery and inedible.
- Plum moth. Butterflies lay eggs in green fruit. Caterpillars, feeding on pulp, leave waste products in it.
Photo Gallery: The most common pests of cherry
To protect the cherry from pests, preference should be given to preventive measures. The use of chemicals can be avoided if you regularly perform the following work:
- Collection and destruction of plant residues, weed control.
- Whitewash in the fall of trunks and skeletal branches with lime mortar with the addition of copper sulfate.
- Deep digging of the soil in the fall with a coup of layers.
- Fastening of trapping belts on tree trunks in early spring.
- Preventive spraying with biological products (Fitoverm, Aktofit), as well as insecticides (Aktellik, Fufanon, Spark Double effect).
Gardeners reviews about Chocolate Chocolate
Chocolaty samoplodnaya that she plus, of course. But the taste of the cherries themselves is not perfect there, and even a big minus, IMHO, it is susceptible to the main cherry sores - coccomycosis and moniliosis.
I still have a small tree, the first time the fruit gave. But close to him pollinator seems not to be noticed. The closest one is a felt cherry from a neighbor, but she does not pollinate ordinary cherries. So either the self-fertile, or the second young cherry next to the chocolate bar bloomed unnoticed.
I have. The fruits are great, but we get very little. Thrushes ... (radishes, in short) eat everything. And care, as for any cherry.
My Chokoladnitsa is about 10. Now it’s about 1.20–1.30. But she was in the second year of life on our site accidentally pulled down the top, grew out of the side branches. I thought she was therefore so low, growing bush. It was bought in two or three years, I don’t remember well. Almost no berries, a couple of handfuls, but sweet. Most likely, my cherries are not pollinated, as they bloom later, when they have almost faded.
The only disadvantage is the poor resistance to coccomycosis and moniliosis. This is the main disadvantage, as now these diseases are everywhere. Yes, and the yield of Chocolate is low - the berries are large, but they are few.
Chocolate is a mixed variety. Its most significant advantages are the excellent quality of commercial products and winter hardiness. However, rather moderate yields and susceptibility to fungal diseases confuse some gardeners. Those who are not eager to work hard and protect the trees from diseases will receive large and juicy berries with excellent dessert taste, which can be eaten fresh, as well as various home-made preparations from them.