Cultivation of felt cherries in the garden - a beautiful ornamental tree, bringing a tasty and sweet harvest, will be easy and interesting if you follow the advice of professionals and follow the rules of planting and care.
Felt cherry is a distant relative of the common cherry, it differs from it by a special pubescence covering shoots, leaves and even juicy fruits. Many gardeners have already appreciated this variety, its decorative properties and tasty fruits. And they grow these small but very beautiful trees on their plots.
Felt cherry photo and description of the variety
The plant looks like a shrub or small tree up to 3 m tall with a thick oval crown. Felt cherry leaves are small with a rough relief surface.
Pink flowers, which bloom by mid-May, turn white by the end of their blooming (after about 2 weeks). During this period, the cherry turns into a huge delicate bouquet. The color is not afraid of frosts up to 3 degrees of heat, so the felt subspecies is widely distributed in the Moscow region.
Felt cherry photo
Fruits are famous for their sweetness, unforgettable aroma, as well as tender and juicy flesh. They contain many beneficial substances, such as vitamin C and polysaccharides, which have a positive effect on the human digestive system, blood pressure and heart function.
The plant usually begins to bear fruit in the second year of its life, and the ripening of the berries itself occurs at the end of June. With proper care and good weather conditions, gardeners harvest up to 15 kg of fruit from an adult tree.
The earliest varieties
- Children's - with a wide oval crown of medium thickness. Its sweet and sour berries have rich scarlet color and dense flesh, weighing up to 4g. Productivity grade high - up to 15 kg.
- A fairy tale is a type of felt cherry with an oval-shaped bush and also medium thickened. Maroon fruits, weighing about 3 g, have dense cartilaginous flesh and a pleasant sour taste. The average yield per plant is up to 10 kg.
- The vigorous variety of Natali is distinguished by large dark red berries up to 4.5 g and a rich sweet-sour flavor. They can be stored for up to three days in a cool room and up to a week in the refrigerator. Harvest with adult cherries - up to 7 kg.
Middle varieties of felted cherries
- White - with a sprawling crown and small sweet-and-sour berries, weighing up to 2 g. The variety is named because of the color of the pulp - dull-white and very juicy. Productivity - about 10 kg.
- Jubilee felt felted cherry is characterized by an oval not too dense crown and large berries of a rich red color up to 4.5 g. Dense cartilaginous flesh has a pleasant sweet taste with subtle sourness. Average yield - 7-8 kg.
Felt cherry planting and care
In order to pollinate the flowers well, you need to plant several varieties of cherries next to each other, in which the flowering period coincides, but keeping the distance between them at least 1 m. Gardeners recommend planting in early spring before buds or early autumn. Saplings bought at the beginning of frosts should be prikopat before the onset of the new season.
- Cherries are suitable sunny areas with loamy or sandy soil, where water does not linger. Excess moisture in the ground is detrimental to the root system of the plant.
- For seedlings, it is necessary to dig small holes (up to 0.5 m in diameter and depth), which are filled with soil mixture with phosphorus and potash funds, as well as with lime and manure.
- When planting near a tree, the roots should be cut about 20 cm. This will help them develop and grow better.
- The seedling placed in the prepared well is filled with soil mixture, compacted.After that, abundant watering is required.
- The soil around the new plant should be mulched peat, which will regulate its moisture.
Felted cherries are planted not only with purchased seedlings. For its reproduction, you can use cuttings, cuttings and ordinary bones that are sown before winter.
Felt cherry care and growing pruning
After flowering, cherries are usually fertilized with nitrogenous supplements, which are applied at the very edge of the tree trunk circle. To do this, the ground must be loosened up to 3-4 cm in depth, but very carefully, so as not to damage the root system of the plant.
With the onset of autumn, nitrogen is excluded from complex fertilizers, which can activate the growth of young shoots so that frost will not destroy them. Watering the felt cherry bushes during this period should also be moderate (10 l per week in dry weather), because the excess moisture is bad for the fruiting of the plants and their preparation for the winter period.
In order to form a beautiful and neat tree, young saplings are shortened to a height of 40 cm, and from the second year of their life all lateral branches are cut from them by a third.
For the crown of felt cherries also need regular care. It can not be thickened at the trunk. For good growth and yield, pruning of branches is carried out every spring, leaving up to 10 strong shoots, removing the diseased, old and otlodonosivshie.
To make your garden decorated with felted cherries, you need to follow the simple rules of care and pruning. The main thing - do not leave the plants unattended. Then they will certainly delight you with an excellent harvest!
Felt cherry: landing (photo)
Place for planting felted cherries must be selected correctly. For it does not fit areas with close groundwater, flooded, as well as shady. In such areas, the cherry is lagging behind in growth, its winter hardiness and productivity are reduced. The best option for this plant would be a fertile, well-drained soil with a neutral reaction. It also does not tolerate the neighborhood of coniferous trees (its viability decreases).
Planting 1-2-year-old seedlings of this crop is better in spring before buds bloom.
The root system of felt cherries is superficial (located at a depth of 0.3-0.35 m from the level of the soil), so it does not require a large area of nutrition. Before planting, experienced gardeners recommend cutting 20-25 cm long roots to stimulate the development of lateral roots and dip the root system of the seedling in a mixture of clay, ash and a growth stimulator diluted to the consistency of sour cream. This procedure is appropriate if the roots have bare roots. In the case of acquiring plants in a container, such manipulation is not needed.
Landing pit do 0,5h0,5h0,5m. At the bottom of the pit, a layer of drainage from large pebbles or broken brick is poured, and a small mound of earth mixed with compost or rotted manure (at the rate of 3 buckets per 1 planting hole) is poured over it and the root system of the seedling is spread on it. For stability, the tree is tied to a driven support. After that, the pit is covered with earth, adding 500 g of lime to it and 100 g of ammonium nitrate and phosphate-potassium fertilizers each, compacted and watered abundantly. Cover the top layer with sod or mulch. After planting, the branches of the sapling are cut to 1/3 for better branching.
Felt cherry planting
Also, when planting felt cherries, it is worth considering that not all varieties are capable of self-pollination. The self-infertile varieties include: Natalie, Alice, Autumn Virovskaya. Self-fertile varieties: Eastern, Fairy Tale, Summer, Tsarevna, Beauty, Delight, etc. In order not to be left without a crop, it is better to plant several copies of this crop. The distance in the row between the trees should be at least 1.5-2 m, and for multi-row planting - 3 m between the rows.
Important!When planting felted cherries, it is not recommended to bury the root collar - this is fraught with the swelling of the bark and the death of the plant.
Felt cherry: growing methods (photo)
Agrotechnika felt cherries is quite simple. This plant is grown both from seed and vegetatively. The first method is the simplest and most accessible.
Growing felted felted cherries
Bones for sowing are taken from ripe berries. For better germination, they need natural stratification for about 3-3.5 months, so it is better to sow them in September-October. In a prepared garden, the stones are buried to a depth of 2-4 cm and sprinkled with sand on top. In the spring, after seedlings appear in 3 true leaves, they are thinned out, leaving a distance between plants of 10 cm. When young plants reach 0.25-0.3 m in height, their tops pinch to stimulate branching.
Seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place on the third spring before bud break. Young seedlings begin to bear fruit for 3-4 year of vegetation. However, it is worth remembering that plants grown from seeds do not retain varietal characteristics.
Growing felted cherries vegetatively
If you have an adult bush of felted cherries in your garden, you can grow new seedlings with layering. For this, a young and healthy twig is bent to the ground and fixed with a metal stud. The pinning site is covered with earth and moistened periodically. After about 4-5 weeks, roots will appear in this area of the shoot. The new plant is separated from the parent, but transplanted to a permanent place next spring.
For the cultivation of felt cherries from cuttings, semi-woody healthy twigs of 2-3 orders of branching are used. They are cut into pieces with 3-4 buds on each. After that, the cuttings are soaked in a solution of Heteroauxin or Zircon and planted in a greenhouse in a light substrate (the lower layer is a fertile soil layer, the upper one is sand). At the same time in the greenhouse should be high humidity. In such conditions, the cuttings take root within a month.
Felt cherries can also be propagated by green cuttings. They are cut to a length of 6-10 cm with 5-7 leaves. The 2 lower leaves are removed, the base of the stalk is dipped into the root-former and planted in the greenhouse. These plants will begin to bear fruit for 3 years.
Reproduction of felted cherry green cuttings
During the reproduction of new varieties, felted cherries are grafted onto the rootstocks of shreds, apricots, cherry plums, Vladimirskaya cherries.
Felt cherry: care (photo)
Care for felt cherries consists of weeding, loosening the soil in tree trunks, irrigating in dry weather, applying fertilizers, pruning, and combating diseases of pests.
The first time feeding is made when planting seedlings. In the subsequent application of mineral fertilizers spend every spring during the flowering period. One bush requires 70-80 g of phosphorus, 30-50 g of nitrogen, 20-30 potassium. The effectiveness of the applied drugs will be higher when liming the soil (every 5 years at the rate of 200-300g of lime / m2). Organic matter (rotted manure or compost) is introduced in the autumn after trimming the bushes. For every adult plant over 3 years old it will take 4 buckets of such fertilizers. After this pristvolny circles dig up or spend deep loosening.
Felt cherry grows rapidly and ages. Therefore, for the formation of its crown and rejuvenation annually pruning.
The branches of young bushes (1-2 year olds) are cut to 1 / 3-1 / 4, if their length exceeds 0.6 cm. At the same time, remove the extra shoots, leaving 10-12 of the strongest.
First pruning felted cherry
Starting from 6-7 years old, the yield of felt cherries is sharply reduced (only young shoots bear fruit), so it needs rejuvenating pruning. The center of the crown is thinned out. To do this, on the "ring" remove the old branches of the first and second order. As a result, new shoots appear next to the cut, of which the strongest are left.
Sanitary pruning is carried out annually: only dead and weak branches are removed. 15-year-old plants are best replaced with new ones.
Diseases and pests of felt cherries
The most dangerous illnesses for felt cherries are monilial burn and venereal spores.
Monilial burn or monilioz - wet fruit rot caused by pathogenic fungi. Infected plants in spring during flowering: spores, falling on the flower pistil, germinate in the underlying tissue. To notice the disease is simple: wither flowers, leaves and branches. They look like burned, hence the name of the disease. Monilioz rapidly develops in rainy weather. With a massive infection, the bushes of felt cherries weaken, after 2-3 years the plants finally die.
In case of klesterosporia, the leaves are covered with small brown spots, in the place of which later “holes” are formed. Berries are covered with scabs and rot. There is a premature fall of the leaves and weakening of the plant.
Another fungal disease of felt cherries is pockets. At the same time, from the affected ovaries, hollow (boneless) sacciform fruits with inedible pulp are formed.
To combat these ailments during the "green cone" (swelling of the kidneys), it is necessary to spray plants with fungicides: 3% Bordeaux mixture, copper sulphate (0.5%), 0.1% solution of basezol (10g / 10 l of water). Infected branches are cut with the capture of healthy tissue. Processing is carried out again at the end of flowering.
Of the specific pests of felt cherries worth mentioning a pocket mite. As a result of its activity, galls form on the leaves - growths similar to warts. Photosynthesis deteriorates, plants weaken and die. To combat the pest, before blooming the kidney, bushes of felt cherry are poured hot water from the watering can, and after harvest, they are treated with Malathion, Aktar or Karate.
Cherry Felt: photo and description
The natural conditions of the spread of felt cherries are the mountain slopes of Mongolia, Korea and China. There are historical facts that representatives of this kind of tree were previously encountered on the southern coast of the Mediterranean. However, they were not introduced into the culture, as they did not find recognition from gardeners. It is believed to be due to the poor quality of the fruit.
In our country, felt cherries have gained fame after its description by Michurin. After evaluating the characteristics and experimental plantings, this scientist noted the importance of this type of cherry for development in gardening.
- Felt cherry - This is a shrub with several trunks that reach a length of 1.6-2.1 meters and have a spreading crown. It is quite rare to see mature trees up to 3.5 m and above. The perennial plant has thick and dense shoots of brown color. In turn, the annual trees are brown-green with 3 fruit lateral buds collected. At the same time, fruit branches are active up to 5 years.
- Characteristic feature of this tree - pubescence of fruits, leaves and trunks. This is a protective function of the shrub against external factors. Trichomes (hairs) do not allow the plant to overheat, as they reflect the rays of the sun. This additionally makes the berries more resistant to storage and transportation. In the aggregate, the light and soft hairs are similar to felt, this causes the varietal name of the tree - felt cherry.
- Flowers - pale pink, over time, get a white color. The flowering stage occurs at the beginning of June and lasts 12–17 days. At this time, the decorativeness of the tree reaches its peak. The flowers on a rather short stalk are covered with dense branches, and the plant receives the appearance of a flowering large ball. Flowers can tolerate a decrease in temperature to minus 5 degrees.
- Leaves with a corrugated surface, oval, small. In summer, they are painted in a rich green color, in autumn - they have an orange tint.
- The frost resistance of felt cherries is pretty good. - the tree can withstand a temperature drop of -45C. It has an average winter hardiness, the weak point of the plant is the neck heating around the root.The life span of the shrub is insignificant and is about 7−12 years.
- Stages of fruiting different varieties may vary from early July to early September. Approximately it lasts up to 2 weeks. High resistance of the berries on the branches. Taking into account the variety from one tree, you can collect about 7−15 kg of berries.
- Polymorphic fruit - significantly different in different varieties. The approximate weight of a berry varies in the range of 1.2−5.5 grams. The color of berries from dark cherry to pink, in rare cases, you can see a tree with white fruits.
Felt cherry: growing and care
Regardless of the variety, genetically felted cherry is significantly different from steppe and ordinary cherry, much closer in all indications is to other cultures: peach, apricot and plum.
This feature should be taken into account if you plant this type of shrub in your home.
Preparation and choice of location
This tree loves scattered and intense lighting. In shaded areas or in thickened plantings, shoots begin to stretch, and fruiting deteriorates.
During the selection of a site for plantingIt is necessary to take into account the main drawback of this plant - root neck heating. This damage often occurs in wintertime, if heavy snow falls on unfrozen land. During damage to the root neck, the development of root shoots ceases, which leads to the death of the tree.
because it is necessary to pick up the land, in which the cover of snow lies a small layer. To minimize the risk of subsidence in the fall, earth should be ground near the root neck to a depth of 8–12 cm and sand should be poured into the hole.
This tree is well developed in sandy and loamy soils with high aeration with a depth of groundwater of no more than 3.5 meters, as well as a light soil texture. The main roots are at a depth of 40 cm, so this layer of the earth must be rich in nutrients and structured.
The chosen place is being dug up and feeding at the same time for every 1 square meter. m .:
- superphosphate 300 gr.,
- potassium chloride 150 gr.,
- compost or manure 20 kg.
Then they form a landing hole with steep walls 60 cm deep and 55 cm wide. The upper part of the ground should be put aside for future filling of the hole. The landing hole and the site for spring disembarkation must be prepared in the autumn, for the autumn landing - during the summer.
Care for felt cherries in the Moscow region
You can plant felt cherries in autumn or spring. Taking into account the average winter hardiness of the plant, experts advise that this should be done in spring, when the temperature stabilizes in the region of + 15C. In this case, the shrub will strengthen the maximum surface covers and root system. This provides more guarantees of a good survival rate than during planting in the fall.
For planting you need to choose a sapling up to 2 years. Qualitative material for planting is a sapling up to one meter in height, with a mass of fouling roots and with a healthy root in length not less than 30 cm.
To fill the landing hole will be needed:
- potassium chloride 25 gr.,
- superphosphate 45 gr.,
- compost or dung 2 buckets.
These components are mixed with the deposited earth. When the level of soil acidity is significantly increased, then you need to add 350 grams to them. to lime.
In the middle of the pit, you need to make a mound and spread the roots of the tree along its surface. The most important thing is that the root neck should be approximately 7 cm above the ground level. This will prevent its penetration after shrinking of the soil. The roots of the plant are filled with soil mixture and the surface is rammed.
The seedling must be poured 3−4 buckets of water at room temperature and after shrinking the ground, the void should be supplemented with soil. Then the near-stem circle is milled with sawdust or peat.
When caring for felted cherries, one should not forget about the weak points of this tree: root budding, susceptibility to fungal diseases and crown thickening. In all other the bush is unpretentious.
Main rules of care:
- Liming. With a significant deviation from the average normal alkaline reaction in a tree, metabolic processes are disturbed. This is immediately reflected in the fruiting, because the liming of the earth is produced every 5 years.
- Watering. Watering is done only when the weather is very dry, controlling humidity.
- Top dressing. The seedling does not need to be lured in the first two years. Mature trees fertilize 2 times a year. After harvesting, in the autumn, potassium chloride (25 grams), superphosphate (20 grams) are added to the near-stem circle, and ammonium nitrate (25 grams) is added to blooming in spring.
- Disease prevention. By all means it is necessary to process the shrub with fungicides in spring and autumn. This procedure is carried out in September and until the buds appear in spring. For what the shrub sprayed Bordeaux liquid.
- Pests. The danger for the tree is only a massive defeat of the shields and aphids. In this case, chemical insecticides are used.
- Wintering. Young seedlings bend to the ground and covered with straw or spruce branches.
An important procedure in the cultivation of this tree - pruning. Pruning shrubs necessary for thinning the crown every year.
How to trim?
Trees of all types of cherries of this variety prone to thickening of the crown. This significantly reduces their productivity, therefore it is imperative to form a crown and in the following years optimally maintain the level of density.
Formation and pruning of the crown of cherries is done in the third year after disembarkation. What it is necessary to choose in the middle of March is a sunny day, to prepare a garden pitch and a sharp shears.
Pruning is done before the onset of sap flow., it is activated at the initial stage of the awakening of the kidneys. When this time is missed, it is advisable to wait for the fall, when the shrub begins to go into a state of relative rest. Otherwise, the plant will expend strength to restore injuries, which will reduce the development processes.
- choose 12−15 most strong branches,
- completely dry, damaged and diseased branches are removed,
- increments greater than half a meter are cut by a quarter.
In the following years, you must constantly adhere to these recommendations, controlling the development of gains. The main goal of the annual pruning is the maximum coverage that should come to the krone.
Given the aging of the tree is anti-aging pruning. At the same time cut several side shoots. As a result, annual shoots are formed near the section of the slice. Then you need to cut off all the old shoots above them. In the same way, pruning is done to restore frozen bushes and enhance growth.
Sections are performed only on the developed kidneys. So on the cut surface will not begin to collect water. During the removal of whole branches, the cut is carried out on the surface of the annular influx, the failure to comply with this rule leads to a significant development of tops. Large wounds need to be covered with a small layer of garden pitch.
When choosing a material for planting, attention should be paid to tree condition. The best seed qualities are the kernels of fully ripened fruits of small plants without painful and drooping branches.
Separate bones from the pulp, washed and dried in a shaded room. Then they are transferred to layers of wet sand and rearranged to a cool place.
Seeds are sown before winter. What is the pre-prepared ridge of well-cultivated and breathable soil. Seeds are planted in the ground 2 weeks before frost.
- a groove is formed on the surface of the ridge with a spacing of 35 cm and a depth of 2.5 cm,
- seeds are planted simultaneously with sand with a distance of half a meter,
- the surface of seedlings is mulched with peat or sawdust,
- after the formation of the 4th leaf, the bush is thinned out, leaving only strong sprouts,
- before the end of the growing season, 3 bait nitrogen fertilizers are produced,
- watering twice a week.
A sapling can be transplanted to a permanent place only after two years. The trees planted in this way become fruiting after 5 years.
Reproduction cuttings in the spring and autumn
The main vegetative breeding method of this shrub - green cuttings. Material for planting is prepared at the beginning of summer from young increments when they grow to 17–25 centimeters.
- growth is pruned with 4–5 buds,
- a cut from below is performed under the kidney, observing the inclination of 45 degrees, and horizontally above the upper kidney,
- Calcined sand (5–6 cm) is poured into the enriched soil layer in the greenhouse,
- cuttings are planted in the ground at a distance of 20 cm at an angle of 75 °, leaving 2 buds on the surface.
The cuttings begin to take root in a month. At this time in the greenhouse it is necessary to maintain high humidity and periodically moisten the ground. Before planting a permanent place a tree needs to grow one year on a ridge or in a greenhouse. During this breeding process, the tree begins to produce fruit after 3 years.
Growing this shrub is of interest not only among lovers of culinary quality blanks.
Felt cherry berries have high dietary properties and are used successfully during the treatment of hypertension and atherosclerosis. They value this tree and landscape designers, often planting for the formation of hedges.
Felt cherry: description
The culture received its name because of the characteristic pile on the branches, leaves and fruits, similar to felt. Trees grow to a maximum of 2.5-3 meters in height. The berries contain organic acids, carbohydrates, vitamins of group B, PP, C. They ripen 7-10 days earlier than regular cherries, do not crumble.
Culture is propagated most often by rooted cuttings and air layering. On seedlings of plum, apricot, cherry plum, you can plant a felt cherry by eye or cutting. The plant is also used to strengthen the slopes, creating hedges. The main lack of culture is fragility, but thanks to competent pruning the life span of a tree can be increased from 10 to 20 years. Thus, cherry felted has a description, in many respects similar to cherry ordinary.
How to plant felt cherries, and what must be taken into account?
To the disadvantages of the shrub in the description, it is possible to mention that it is important to conduct a regular rejuvenating procedure with pruning. Otherwise, the cessation of fruiting begins after 7-8 years.
- Planted cherry trees are poured abundantly with water (20-40 liters).
- Pest felts are:
- During the whole season of branches directed inside the crown. Spring pruning of dry and broken branches and old branches, which will no longer work for the harvest, is obligatory.
- Seedlings, not older, since the survival rate of these plants is painful.
- Often, felt cherries for their decorativeness throughout the season, and especially in spring during flowering, are used in landscape design to create hedges and on slopes, to strengthen their surface, but widely diverging roots.
- East dusky. Maroon fruits I have the tender flesh of a sweet-sour taste. Productivity - seven kilograms from one bush.
- Felt cherries can be planted not only with ready saplings - they propagate it also with green cuttings (in greenhouses), layering and even simple sowing of stones before winter.
- Video about felt cherry
- When it comes to the cultivation of cherries, most often refers to the common variety, widespread in Russian gardens.Properly selected felt cherry seedlings are more than half of the future success. Purchase of planting material should be from trusted suppliers who guarantee varietal purity and complete absence of contamination with various bacterial and fungal diseases. With self-reproduction, attention should be paid to the conditions of the formation of the root system.Strong-growing, trees reach a height of 1.8-2 meters. Large fruits of a dark red shade begin to ripen on July 17-20. The yield of one plant is 5-7 kilograms. Frost-resistant variety, flowers tolerate small spring frosts,
On the photo - planting felt cherries
Leafworm. If there is insufficient thinning, the bush will lose yield and decorative effect. Therefore, pruning is a necessary agrotechnical device for felt cherries. It must be remembered that the crop is formed only on young twigs, old skeletal branches that do not have young shoots, must be removed. After 10 years of fruiting, the yield of felted cherry drops sharply.
In recent years, a sandy graft is imparted to felt cherries, since its commercial qualities are much higher. But the seedling obtained in this way does not have root overgrowth, which is problematic in the care of this tree. The root system of felt cherries removes root growth.
The reproduction of felt cherries is not difficult. There are several ways:
In the spring, after the end of the flowering of the cherry, it is fed with complex mineral fertilizers with a nitrogen content, making a top dressing around the edge of the tree trunk. At the same time, the soil is loosened no more than 4 cm deep, otherwise there is a risk of damaging the roots of the seedling. In the fall, when feeding cherries, nitrogen is eliminated so as not to cause active growth of the shoots, which will freeze during the first frost.
Taking into account the self-infertility of felt cherries, for better pollination, it is necessary to plant at least two varieties that bloom at the same time. So, Nataly's cherry felting is of average maturity with large tasty fruits and yields up to 7 kg per bush. Among middle-ripening varieties are also common: cherry felt Tsarevna, East, Fairy Tale. Early varieties: Children, Alice, Delight. Of the later varieties are popular: Summer, Beauty, Ocean Virovskaya, Altana.
- However, some gardeners much more like felt cherries, and for good reason:
- You can grow seedlings within 1-2 months depending on environmental conditions. The easiest way to breed is to select young shoots that are bent down to the ground and secured with wire. A small amount of earth is poured in from above and is poured with plenty of water From above you can cover with plastic wrap in order to retain moisture and save yourself from regular watering. The film is pressed against the brick. In this condition, at least 5 weeks should pass in order to form a powerful root system on saplings of felt cherries. When the root system becomes sufficiently developed, pruning of the shoot and its rearing are carried out at the same place.
- On the photo - felt cherry variety Natali
- Experienced gardeners recommend planting felt (Chinese) cherries on ridges (knolls) so that water during warm winters and spring floods does not stagnate at the root collar, which can lead to the death of the plant. It is recommended to cover the root zone around the neck with coarse sand, protecting the micro-cherry from sticking out.
- Plum moth,
- After planting for three years the plant
- On the cuttings take healthy twigs in July, when the cambium has already turned into wood. At the same time it is necessary that the branch had 3-4 buds. Such branches with a good clean cut are kept in a solution of heteroauxin and
- Seeds with stratification and direct sowing before winter,
- Ocean Virovskaya.This sort of felt cherry has maroon fruits with a sweet and sour taste. With one bush you can get a harvest of nine kilograms.
Watering shrubs should be moderate, since an excess of moisture has a bad effect on the growth of felt cherries, their fruiting and winterization.
Very unusual is the cherry felt, of the White variety, covered with fruits of dull-white color during fruiting. The variety has a high yield and decent taste.
Felt cherry care basics
Felt cherry photo
Planting felted cherry at a permanent place of growth is carried out in September. Before the formation of a permanent snow cover from the time of landing should take at least 30 days. During this period, the seedlings have time to acclimatize at a new place and prepare for wintering. Although in the first year after planting, it is advisable to still build a small shelter of coniferous spruce branches or dense burlap.
Attention! A prerequisite is planting two felt trees side by side, maintaining a distance of one meter. The peculiarity of the spray cherry is self-infertility (independent pollination is impossible), a cross-grade is needed, the middle-ripening, Natalie and Fairy Tale are best suited.
Felt Cherry Varieties
Planted in a greenhouse
- We dealt with the varieties, so now we proceed directly to the question of how to plant a felt cherry. Felt cherries have one drawback - self-infertility. That is, if another cherry does not bloom near the felt cherry, then you will not see the harvest. This fact must be taken into account when planting cherries, as well as the question "why do not felines bear fruit?". So, you need to plant felt cherries in a sunny place so that water does not stand there. The pit should be filled with a mixture of manure, lime, potassium and phosphorus. The land around your seedlings is recommended to be mulched with peat to regulate the humidity.
- Video about growing felted cherry
- Planting is recommended in the spring, until the buds have dissolved, or in September. If the seedlings were purchased later, they need to prikopat until spring.
- The fruits of felt cherries are fragrant, very juicy, tender, sweet, with or without slightly sourness,
Proper planting of seedlings of felt cherries simplifies the subsequent care of them, so it is important to know the basic requirements for growing crops. You need to find a suitable place and form the optimal structure of the soil. This shrub likes well-structured fertile soils, in which there is no stagnant moisture. Acid-alkaline reaction should be neutral, therefore, on acidic soil, it is better to preliminarily conduct liming and refrain from group planting next to coniferous crops. Of great importance is the lighting of the area - when shaded, the felt cherry is drawn out, the fruits become shallow and become acidic. Pollinator can be another bush of the same culture. Therefore, you need to land in pairs to avoid the mass falling off of fading buds that have not been cross-pollinated. Self-pollinating varieties not yet bred.
- Short (up to 1.5 meters). Delicious sweet and sour berries ripen in the twentieth of July. Felt trees come to begin fruiting two years after planting the seedlings. Yield with proper care reaches nine kilograms.
- Basic care is the correct dressing, timely pruning, pest and disease control. Fertilizing felted cherries begin in the second year of planting, the need for these actions improves the fruiting and quality of the berries. With the onset of early spring, nitrogen fertilizers are introduced (20 grams of urea or ammonium nitrate), phosphate fertilizers (15-20 grams of superphosphate) and potash supplements (20 grams of potassium sulfate) should be applied in autumn.
- Control measures are compliance with agrotechnics.Collecting and burning last year's foliage in the garden in spring and autumn. On the sprigs of all trees, the cocoons of wintering caterpillars should be plucked Fight against garden ants, peddlers of aphids, should be conducted regularly. One of the main measures to combat aphids will be
. Like all stone fruits, cherries love ash pouring. Comprehensive feedings are needed in the spring, and only phosphorus-potassium in late July and early August. The latter are important for giving winter hardiness to the plant in order to stop the growth of green mass and direct the forces towards lignification of the shoots.
With the bottom loose fertile layer, and the top - sandy. The sandy layer must always be wet. The petioles on top of the covering material should also have high humidity. In such conditions in a month there will be roots.
Planting and care for felt cherries
With the questions of growing felt cherries, we figured out, and now let's move on to what care we need felt cherry. In the spring, when the cherry has already finished flowering, it needs to be fed with fertilizers containing nitrogen. The plant is also fed in the fall, but this time it is necessary to exclude nitrogen. Watering felt cherries should be moderate, she does not like a surplus of moisture. Felt cherry pruning should be done every year approximately at the beginning of spring, cutting off the lateral branches from one year to about one third of their length.
Felt cherry - breeding
To form a neat shrub, annual saplings of felt cherries are cut at a height of 40 cm, and from the second year all side branches are shortened by a third length. In addition, the crown of cherries will need to be constantly monitored, avoiding thickening in the center of the tree. To better grow and bear the felt cherry, pruning of branches should be annual, it should be carried out in early spring. It is enough to leave 8-10 strong shoots, and cut the rest, paying special attention to the unsuccessfully located, sick, old, otklodonosivshim branches.
Cultivating felt cherries - planting and care
Before landing, the plot is marked. Shrubs should be at a distance of at least one and a half meters from each other. If a multi-row landing method is used, then up to 3 meters is left between rows. Planting pits rummaging 50 cm deep. The width of the hole is 70 cm. A drainage from broken brick is laid on the bottom. Then a layer of organic fertilizer is laid (compost or rotten manure). In the top layer of soil is added 500 grams. lime, 100 grams of ammonium nitrate, phosphorus-potassium mixture. Before planting, saplings of felt cherries are prepared: long roots are cut, a lobe with a length of no more than 10 cm is formed. Then the root system must be treated with a mixture of clay, a growth stimulator and wood ash. After dropping, the top layer of soil is compacted, spilled abundantly with water and mulched with rotted sawdust.
Cherry felt and its features
On the photo - wild cherry variety TsarevnaIn the spring, sanitary and regulatory pruning of felt (Chinese) cherries is made annually, and since the fifth year they have been rejuvenated. Cherry begins to bear fruit quickly enough, by this time the tree must be formed. They remove old, diseased, damaged, dried and inward-directed branches. In the first year, young annual saplings are cut at a height of 0.4-0.5 meters. Annual shoots are left, it is they who bear fruit, give a good harvest. From the second year of growth, all side branches are cut to a third of the length, the center of the crown is thinned, leaving 10–12 strong shoots.Balanced plant nutrition
Irrigation of felt cherries should not be carried away. In dry weather, two irrigations are enough for her.
Propagation by layering consists in bending one branch from the trunk to the ground and pinching it. As a result, the branch takes root and gives several vertical branches in places of contact with the ground. They will be planting material.Layering.The main method of reproduction of felt cherries is sowing seeds - seeds. For planting, the stones are washed, dried and stored in the sand until October. Planted in the soil in October, the bones sprout in spring, which by the autumn reach half a meter in height. Reproduction of felt cherry cuttings is also effective.
If you want a high-yielding cherry felt to grow in your garden, it should be planted, cared for and trimmed according to all rules. The main thing is not to leave the tree unattended and not to allow the development of moniliosis, otherwise the disease will go to other stone fruit plants in your area.
Felted Cherry Reproduction
Important rules for planting felted cherry:
- Blooming felt cherry is incredibly beautiful (photo attached to the article), so it is also used for decorative purposes,
- Aftercare for felt cherries includes constant weed control, hilling, soil loosening and watering during dry periods. Application of mineral fertilizers is best carried out in the spring during the period of active flowering. On 1 bush it is necessary on 50 gr. nitrogen and potassium and 80 gr. phosphorus. Organic fertilizer is better to make in the fall after trimming the bush. Under each bush over the age of 3 years is enough to make 4 buckets of humus and compost. After making a deep loosening of the soil. The introduction of lime, it is advisable to carry out after chemical analysis of the soil. Without this, it is recommended to make 500 gr. lime 1 time in 3 years.
- Buying saplings of felt cherries pay attention to the varieties, Spark, Children's, Delight, Oriental, Beauty, Fairy Tale, Ocean Virovskaya, Zhelannaya, Yielding, White. Beautiful harvest felted cherries can grow in your garden, proper planting and care will give you a generous harvest.
- On the photo - felt cherry after autumn pruning on the photo - harvest of felt cherry, after the formation of a bush
Cutting felted cherries is a mandatory event in the organization of care for shrubs from the second year of the plant's life. With the correct formation of the crown culture begins to bear fruit from the third year after planting. In the autumn or spring, pruning felt cherries should be pruned on your own plot depending on the time distribution of each gardener. Many do not have time to carry out these procedures in the sowing period, because there are enough other concerns.A variety of berry bushes on the plot allows providing with seven different fruits used in fresh and canned form. Felt cherry is an unpretentious and frost-resistant crop. The area of its distribution is large enough - it can be grown in warm regions, and in Siberia, in the Urals.A micro cherry is often affected by diseases, the most dangerous is moniliosis (monilial burn), in which the tops of the shoots, flowers, and ovaries of felted cherries dry out. It is necessary to remove the affected shoots 10-15 centimeters more and burn. Biological drug Alirin-B is recommended for the treatment of the disease. It can be used throughout the entire growing season.
As a measure of spring processing, ash extract can be recommended for spraying plants. This will be foliar feeding and protection from insects. Spring treatments of hot straits along sleeping branches with a weak solution of potassium permanganate serve as the prevention of insect pests.
Reproduction of cherry cuttings
Monilioz,Definitely neededThe largest berries are selected
Care for felted cherries is simple enough and if you follow all the rules of care, you will get a bountiful and tasty harvest that will delight you and your loved ones.
Conditions for proper placement and landing
The varieties of this cherry can be divided into three conditional groups: early ripening, middle and late.Light loamy or sandy loam is desirable, peatlands and overmoistened heavy soils are not suitable,Cherries begin to ripen from the end of June and do not fall for a long time,
To begin with, cutting the excess shoots inside the future crown. You can leave no more than 12 strong branches. In the future, cut out only dead shoots. Thinning may be required when excessive fertilization of nitrogen fertilizers into the soil.
For cultivation in the suburbs of felt cherry is optimally suited, but it is worth knowing that this crop is botanically located closer to the plum trees, on the basis of which this hybrid is created. To use all other varieties of cherries even as rootstocks during grafting should not be, will not take root.A common pest is a pocket mite that forms warts on the leaves. Scalding of cherries in spring with boiling water up to the period of kidney swelling is considered an effective way to fight. The procedure can be repeated in the fall after leaf fall. Mite lays eggs in the month of July, at the end leaves the plants, this month it is necessary to spray the preparations (Karbofos, Aktar, Karate).Felt cherry (Chinese) has many advantages, planting and caring for which do not require special skills. Stable good yield, the possibility of fruiting in the second year after planting, resistance to frost, decorative allow you to grow cherries in many climatic zones.
Care of young trees
At least two girlfriends who will bloom simultaneously with her. Only then will the harvest. The distance between the trees should be about three meters, and more.From the productive bush, are exempt from the flesh and the drupes are dried and disinfected. In order for the seeds to slip, cold processing is obligatory.Spring flowering of gardens is unthinkable without the presence of such decorations as a cherry tree. Therefore, cherry is common for a long time everywhere. Previously, this unpretentious tree grew throughout the entire central region of Russia, but then in the 70s, it was imported from Scandinavia, and in the 90s, moniliosis came from the East, fungal diseases that can destroy the cherry, if you do not fight it in the first stage diseases. After that, it is believed that without treatment with fungicides, the plant will not be able to remain healthy.
For a seedling, dig a hole with a depth and a diameter of up to half a meter,Cherry yield is high - with good care and suitable climatic conditions the bush is densely covered with berries, like sea buckthorn,It is not enough to know the basic rules of planting and caring for this, in general, unpretentious culture. It is also necessary to select suitable varieties of felt cherries, which will sustainably bear fruit for many years.
Felt cherries are small in size and can be used as a hedge along the fences of the site. It turns out both beautiful and useful. Look at the photo of felted cherry in adulthood during the fruiting period:
Felt cherry planting rules
Description of felt cherries should begin with an indication of the botanical affiliation of the shrub to garden crops. In reality, the culture is Chinese wild cherry, the bush is abundant in the nature of the central part of China. Scientists in the process of studying have identified a variety in the class of mini cherry bushes. The Latin name - Prunus tomentosa, refers to the genus "plum".
- Sort Damanka
- Planting felted cherries can be in spring and autumn, preferably spring planting, the plants have time to root well, get stronger before the onset of frost. Spring cherries planted before blooming buds. In the fall, landing is carried out no later than the end of September. There are several basic principles, using which, the correct planting of the cherry will be guaranteed, good development and a tasty harvest will not keep you waiting:
- As burned. Instead of the ovaries in some places brownish buds. If flowering coincides with cold bad weather, then you can wait for the appearance of the disease.
- Cropped soil
- Spiked seeds
- , As it is self-infertile.
Dip the roots into the clay talker,
How to care for felt cherries
"Children's" felt cherries for the Moscow region are more suitable due to the short period of fruit formation. Flowering is observed at the end of May, and already in the middle of August, dense sour berries begin to ripen. Differs simply gigantic yields, reaching 20 kg with 1 bush.
On the territory of our country, culture appeared at the end of the nineteenth century as a shrub for landscaping parks. The conquest of the hearts of gardeners began from the Far East, where felt cherries were grown in gardens precisely as a berry. The great Russian breeder Ivan Michurin took an active part in the further spread of culture in the European part of the country.
Refers to late ripening, ripens in late July, early August. A new variety with large fruits, excellent taste characteristics, recognized as the best of the variety of felt. The maximum yield is 10 kilograms,
A place to land should be chosen sunny, without stagnation of water, close to the groundwater,
The treatment consists in the ruthless cutting of all branches of the crown affected by the "burn". Anyway, the foliage will fall off at the bottom and they are doomed. The challenge is not to miss the disease. Copper sulfate and lime preparations to combat this scourge.
. The soil for filling the seedling is made up of humus in the amount of two buckets, 2 matchboxes of simple superphosphate and one tablespoon of potassium sulfate. From microfertilizers it is not bad to add half a liter of ash and a spoon of sodium humate or another fertilizer with salts of humic acids.
The best and most popular varieties
And they sit at a distance of 6 cm from each other and to a depth of 5 cm. Transplant to a permanent place also next spring.
A native of China and Korea, in the wild felted cherry grows in the Far East, in the steppes of Kazakhstan and on the slopes in Kyrgyzstan. In the cultural form in the gardens often grow the same kind that is found in nature. Now practicing the cultivation of new varieties of felt cherries with different in color and size fruits from white to almost black. At the same time, varieties of early, middle and late ripening periods appeared.Yield. Dark pink berries sweet-sour taste. Harvest - twelve kilograms from a bush.
So that the new place is well felt felt cherries, planting seedlings should be made at the same depth as in the nursery,
Coccomycosis"Yield" is distinguished by a paler color of the fruit. But at the same time its berries are sweeter and more fragrant. Suitable for long-term storage, and for fresh canning.
If you look at the photo of felt cherries, then immediately there is an explanation for the peculiar name:
On the photo - felt (Chinese) cherry Damanka varietyCherry grows well on loamy, sandy soils, peatlands. Heavy land with stagnant water, lowlands are not suitable for growing,
Klesterosporiosis is another fungal disease, no less destructive, but it came from Scandinavia. It is expressed at the initial stage in
Mix thoroughly and prepare the root system of the seedling by cutting the spoiled roots and trimming them so that they fit in the pit in the straightened state. For this, the roots are dipped in a clay mash with heteroauxin. After that, give the composition to dry. Dip the plant in a hole and cover it with prepared soil.After that, the mound is compacted with hands and poured over with a bucket of warm water. So, they put the felt cherry on a permanent place.Some sow the seeds in the fall immediately to the garden without additional preparation and the seeds also germinate. Cold treatment is a necessary operation. This method of reproduction is the least painful for seedlings that are grown immediately in their native land and they do not need to adapt. The development of the seedling is accelerated.
Since the berries of a cherry come off without a stem, they are stored without special conditions for only two days. Therefore, an excess of berries
To begin with - a description of felt cherries and photos of shrubs
In the allotted place a hole is dug out 0.5 meters deep, 80 centimeters wide,
Brown spots on leaves
Felt cherries tend to overgrow the crown. Therefore, the main thing in the care of this culture is not to overgrow the bush. At the very beginning, when planting, the sapling is shortened to 40 cm from the surface of the earth and does not allow the growth of twigs on the lower part of the stem. At the top, 7–8 branches are allowed to grow, which will become skeletal. Further
You can purchase a seedling in a specialized company. They produce graded varietal seedlings. You will receive a plant with varietal characteristics for precocity, fruit size and other qualities valued by consumers of berries. Are chosen
Requires urgent processing
White The fruit of this cherry variety has a dull white color and the same white flesh. The taste of berries is sweet and sour. Harvest from the bush - ten pounds.
Planting felted cherry seedlings and caring for them
Ground the peat around the cherry seedlings to regulate the soil moisture and reduce the need for watering.
It would seem that felted cherry is good for everyone - the care for it is quite simple, the fruits are tasty, the crops are abundant. But there are also enough shortcomings in this type of cherry: you will not find fruits of felt cherry commercially available, because they are poorly stored and transported, the tree grows old after 10 years, the bush becomes heavily thickened without pruning, felt cherry is often affected by moniliosis. In addition, the felt cherries are self-fruitful - other varieties must also grow nearby (even if ordinary cherries or steppe ones), otherwise there will be no harvest.
The photo shows the average varieties of felt cherries - this is “Darkie”, “White” and “Jubilee”:
Gorgeous decorative properties of graceful foliage, rich green color allow you to use the shrub as a green fence area. And if we add to this the natural unpretentiousness of the climatic features of the northern regions, then it is safe to say that felt cherries are of interest to a wide range of amateur gardeners. Frost resistance of the crop makes it unnecessary to shelter shoots for the winter. Withstands short-term cooling to minus 35 degrees Celsius. However, spring return frosts during the period of active flowering also do not cause much harm to the future harvest. Fruits ripen together and evenly. The height of an adult shrub is about 250 cm, in rare cases, shoots stretch up to 3 meters. Not observed abscission of berries, even if they are overripe on the bush. All these circumstances make it possible to coincide with the collection of all ripened fruits at a certain time.
Grows a low bush up to one and a half meters. Cherry winter-hardy, drought-resistant, shows good resistance to diseases. Fruits of saturated dark claret color, sweet-sour, ripen in the middle of July,
A mixture of fertile land, three buckets of humus (compost), a tablespoon of superphosphate, 300-400 grams of dolomite flour (can be replaced with lime) is poured at the bottom of the pit,
Suitable for the Moscow region varieties of felt cherries (with photos)
Annuals or biennials
.One of the ways to preserve vitamin products for the winter is deep freezing, which preserves all the nutrients and vitamins.
Anniversary. This variety has dark red juicy fruits. Harvest I single bush equal to eight kilograms.
On the photo felt cherry
Knowing how to grow felted cherries and care for them, you can easily cope with the disadvantages of this type while enjoying the benefits listed above.
Of the later varieties, we can recommend “Ocean virovskaya”, which is best suited for long-term storage of fresh fruits. At observance of a temperature mode of storage berries can remain fresh until the end of March.
Undoubtedly the benefits of felt cherries for human health. The pulp contains a huge amount of iron and vitamin C, which helps it to fully digest. In addition, in fresh berries there is a large amount of various vitamins of group B.
On the photo - felted cherry variety Alice
The sapling is set vertically, covered with earth, without deepening the root neck,
Felt cherry description
Homeland cherry felt is China, Korea and Mongolia, where it grows wild. From China, culture spread throughout the world, and at the end of the nineteenth century it reached the Russian borders. In the Far East, the concept of “cherry” is still associated precisely with cherry felt, and mostly unvaccinated seedlings grow in the gardens. She is obliged to appear in the European part of our country to Ivan Michurin, who derived the large-fruited form and described it under the name ‘Ando’. Felt as it is called because of the pubescence, which covers the shoots, leaves and even fruits.
The fruits of felt cherries are rich in carbohydrates, organic acids, vitamins of group B and PP. Vitamin C contains 1.5–2 times more in them than in the varieties of ordinary cherries, and they exceed apples in the amount of iron.
In addition, felt cherries not only decorate the garden in early spring and bear fruit in the summer, its bushes with a thick spreading crown are suitable for creating hedges, borders, they can strengthen the slopes.
The main disadvantage of felt cherries is a short lifespan, only about 10 years. But rejuvenating pruning it can be extended to 20 years.
Felt cherry grows best on fertile and light (loamy, sandy) sand, well drained soil with a neutral reaction. Heavy waterlogged and peat bogs are not suitable for it. Excess moisture adversely affects growth, fruiting and overwintering, which leads to the destruction of the bushes. Sour soil is desirable to lime. The place of felt cherry needs to be sunny, it does not tolerate shading at all.
Depending on the variety’s self-fertility, it is advisable to plant several seedlings or several varieties (at least three) for better pollinating at the site.
Self-Felt Cherry Varieties: Delight, Eastern, Children's, Beauty, Summer, Dream, Spark, Fairy Tale, Eastern Darkie, Triana, Tsarevna, Jubilee.
Self-infertile felt cherry varieties: Alice, Natalie, Ocean virovskaya, Autumn Virovka
Felt cherry planting
Planting seedlings 1-2 years of age can be in the fall and spring. The best planting time is early spring, before bud break. You can plant felt cherries in autumn - in September, but not later. Saplings purchased in the middle - end of October, it is safer to prikopat until spring.
A soil mixture (per 1 m²) must be added to the planting pit or trench not less than 60 cm wide and not more than 50 cm deep: organic fertilizers - at least 3 buckets, lime - 400-800 g, phosphorus - 40-60, potassium - 20 -30 g. Everything should be evenly mixed. The root system must be cut to 20-25 cm, treated with a clay mash and plant the bushes to the same depth as in the nursery. In no case can not bury the root neck - this will lead to the death of the plant.After planting, the soil should be compacted, watered abundantly and mulched with peat or organic fertilizer.
On the site it is enough to plant 2-3 plants of felt cherry. Of the specific characteristics of the cultivation of felt cherries, the following can be noted. A more rarefied planting pattern is used: 3-3.5 x 1 - 1.5 m. It is carried out by seedlings of 1-2 years of age at the same depth as they were grown before.
Felt cherry pruning
The center of the crown of felt cherries must be thinned annually, leaving 10–12 strong shoots. Annual shoots carrying the bulk of the crop are cut to one-third only if their length exceeds 60 cm.
Every four to five years, to enhance growth, rejuvenating pruning of felt cherries is carried out. At the same time, the center of the crown and peripheral skeletal shoots are lightened. Several side shoots are removed "on the ring." As a result, annual shoots appear near the shortening site. All parts of the old crown located above them must be removed.
The same pruning is used in frozen bushes.
Early varieties of felted cherries
Natalie. Bush with a wide crown, vigorous, thickened medium. The flowers are large pink. Fruits are dark red in color, sour-sweet in taste, weighing 4-4.5 g. The flesh of fruits is dense, gristly. The stem is 0.5 cm long, the separation from the branch is semi-dry. Stored at room temperature for up to three, and in the refrigerator for up to six days without loss of quality. The yield from an adult bush is about 7 kg.
Children's. The shape of the bush is wide-oval, with medium thickening. Fruits are bright red with dense, gristly pulp, weighing 3.5-4.0 g. The taste is sweet and sour. The length of the stem is 0.5 cm, with a semi-dry margin. It is characterized by high yield - up to 15 kg.
Fabulous. Bush wide, sprawling. Color of fruits is maroon with a glossy shine. Fruit weight 3.0-4.0 g. The pulp is fibrous, dense. Sweet and sour taste. The length of the stem is 0.5 cm, with a semi-dry margin. Average yield - up to 12 kg.
Fairy tale. The shape of the bush is oval, medium thick. The fruit is a maroon, weighing 3.0-4.0 g with dense, cartilaginous pulp. The taste is sweet and sour. The length of the stem is 0.5 cm with a semi-dry separation. Average yield - up to 10 kg.
Fruitful. Sprawling bush, wide. Fruits are dark pink in color, weighing 2.6-2.7 g with dense, gristly pulp. The taste is sweet and sour. The length of the stem is 0.4 cm with a semi-dry separation. Average yield - up to 12 kg.
Monilial Burn Felt Cherry
Unlike other types of cherries, felt cherries are very resistant to coccomycosis. However, it is prone to moniliosis or monilial burn, a fungal disease that infects cherries during flowering. Its spores fall on the pistil of a flower and germinate there. Then the mycelium penetrates into the branch through the peduncle, developing further inside the wood and destroying it. As a result, by the end of May - the beginning of June, there is a massive drying of the branches on the tree. Externally, these branches look like burned, hence the name of the disease - monilial burn.
Particularly intense infection occurs in wet rainy weather during flowering and in summer during the period of fruit ripening, when they crack due to an excess of moisture. Therefore, moniliosis is a particular threat for regions with wet rainy spring and summer. First of all, these are the North-West, the Non-Black Earth Region, the northern and western regions of the Black Soil Zone, as well as the south-western regions of the North Caucasus. With the massive development of moniliosis, the crop completely dies and the tree is greatly weakened. If this happens for several years in a row, the tree dries out.
The massive spread of moniliosis, at present, the accumulation of infection in gardens has led to the fact that it is almost impossible to grow cherry (including felt) as a fruit crop without fungicide treatment.
In the spring, in the period of kidney swelling, it is recommended to spray a 3% Bordeaux blend solution (300 g / 10 liters) or 0.5% copper sulfate (50 g / 10 l). In the subsequent period, you will need to repeat the treatment with copper preparations several times.
At the first symptoms of the disease, it is recommended to cut out diseased shoots.
Proper planting of felt cherries also includes the selection of the site that is optimal in illumination. For abundant fruiting, the tree needs a lot of sunlight, otherwise the berries become smaller, deformed, and later mature. Therefore, it is not necessary to plant a plant in the shade of other trees.
Felt cherry: what should be the soil for a rich harvest
Before planting felt cherries, it is necessary to choose the right soil for it. The best option would be light (sandy, loamy), fertile soil with a neutral reaction and good drainage. Excess moisture in the soil can kill the plant. In the acidic earth it is necessary from time to time to make lime.
For pereovleniya on the site should be planted several varieties or several seedlings, depending on the characteristics of the variety. So, the self-fertile varieties of felt cherries include Delight, Children's, Oriental, Beauty, Dream, Summer, Spark. To the self-infertile - Natalie, Alice, Autumn Virovka and others.
Important!It is not recommended to plant felt cherries near coniferous trees.
How to prepare a pit for planting
The optimal size of the pit for planting:
It is necessary to make:
- 3 buckets of organic fertilizers,
- 800 g of lime,
All components should be poured into the bottom of the pit and mix thoroughly.
How to plant a felt cherry
The roots of the seedling before planting should be cut to 20-25 cm and carefully smeared with a clay mash. Planted it at the same depth at which the plant grew initially.
Important!It is impossible to deeply deepen the root neck of a tree into the ground, as it will die in this case. The neck should not be below 3-4 cm of soil level.
After planting, the land is plentifully watered, compacted and mulched with organic fertilizer or peat.
Caring for the soil is a prerequisite to successfully grow felt cherries. It includes:
- timely destruction of weeds that deprive the tree of nutrients,
- periodic loosening of the ground to ensure the flow of air and moisture to the roots. At the same time trying not to go more than 5 cm,
- soil moisture in dry periods.
Top dressing and watering
Feeding of felt cherries can be carried out immediately after flowering. To do this, in the tree circle each tree contribute:
- 5-7 kg of organic fertilizers,
- 70 g phosphate,
- 30 g of nitrogen,
- 20 g of potash.
Every five years, the soil under the plant should be lime.
Felt cherries are poured over if during the growing season and the formation of the fruits there is a clear lack of precipitation. Excessive moisture can damage the plant's root system and affect fruiting.
Major pests and plant diseases
Despite the fact that felt cherries are characterized by resistance to diseases, there are diseases that can attack her. Monilioz (monilial burn) is caused by spores of the fungus that fell on the leaves of the pistil and eventually penetrate deep into the shoots. Usually the disease makes itself felt in the flowering period. By the end of May, the branches and leaves wither. In rainy weather, the disease develops faster than in the dry. For prevention, it is necessary to spray seedlings with fungicides (Fitosporin-M, Abigak-Peak, Bordeaux liquid). Affected shoots cut out. Coccomycosis is a fungal disease that leads to early abscission of foliage. Because of this, the natural cycle of the cherry is broken, the immunity is reduced. Struggling with the disease treatment shoots Bordeaux mixture, the drug "Horus". The pests of felt cherries include:
To protect against them, cherries require adherence to agricultural cultivation, including the destruction of fallen leaves, cocoons of hibernating caterpillars, as well as the proper feeding. In the spring, we can recommend spraying of plants with ash extract and watering the branches with a warm, weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Felt Cherry: Harvesting
Three years after planting, the felted cherry begins to bear fruit. Up to 4 kg of berries can be harvested from one tree. The crop ripens on all plants at the same time or at short intervals. The color of the fruit depends on the variety - from pinkish to dark red.
If you plan to transport cherries, it is better to pick them as soon as they are fully formed and become characteristic of the mature fruit color. Felt cherry is an excellent option for those who want to grow an unpretentious plant that not only gives tasty and healthy fruits, but also pleases the eye with delicate foliage and abundant flowering.
Did you know?Berries do not tolerate transportation, so they rarely go on sale.
This sort of cherry belongs to plum cultures. Since the cultivation of the variety, they have learned to cross the felt with the trees such as: peach, apricot, plum and cherry plum.
The variety has many advantages: resistance to sudden changes in temperature, beautiful appearance, the ability to consistently produce high yields, etc. With all the rules of planting and maintenance, the yield of this type of cherry can reach up to 4 kg from one tree.
Positive qualities of the variety
In addition, felt cherries are distinguished by the following features:
- the variety is characterized by tasty, juicy fruits, sweet taste, but there is a touch of sourness,
- Cherries are rich in beneficial trace elements, vitamins B, C, PP, polysaccharides and others,
- after planting a tree the fruits appear two years later,
- the fruiting period lasts from the second half of June to the end of August,
- the cherry variety is unpretentious to the growing conditions,
- the tree tolerates high temperatures, drought and erosion,
- the tree is resistant to many diseases
- root growth is not typical for the variety.
The fruits of this class can not be stored for a long time, so they are not suitable for long-term transportation. The average lifespan of a cherry is 10 years, then the tree stops producing fruits and dries out.
Requires periodic pruning, because without it the bush grows heavily. This helps the plant to live for almost 10 years longer.
Felt cherries have immunity to many common plant diseases, but it is susceptible to moniliasis - fruit rot. An important condition for the tree to bear fruit is the presence of other varieties in the neighborhood.
Felt cherries were first grown in China, then it became popular in Mongolia and Korea, and then quickly spread throughout the world. Short presentation of the variety:
The name "Chinese cherry" variety received from the country of origin, and the "fluffy" cherry is called because of its fluffy leaves and branches. Below is a more detailed description of the variety.
Felt cherry is a small plant that looks more like a shrub than a tree, but it grows vertically. The average height is 2.5 m. On the branches and leaves of the plant there is a small layer of villi, similar to felt. From this came the name of the cherry.
The variety is characterized by slightly wrinkled, with pointed tips, dark green leaves of elliptical shape, 5–7 cm long. At the time of flowering, small white flowers with a pinkish tinge appear with a diameter of 1.5 cm. June - July.
This culture is propagated in two ways: grafting and air layering. In some regions, the tree is grown as an ornamental plant. In most countries, this variety is intended to produce fruits.The tree has relatively strong roots, so they are planted to strengthen the slopes or as a living fence.
This variety has fruits of scarlet color, mostly sweet in taste, ranging in size from 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter. Externally covered with thin, smooth, delicate skin.
The flesh is juicy, aromatic, contains organic acids, carbohydrates, certain groups of vitamins, as well as iron, which is more than in apples. These and some other beneficial substances help to normalize blood pressure, heart function, and improve the work of the digestive system.
Fruits have a short stalk, which grows tightly to the branch, because of this the berries do not fall off the tree during strong winds, rains or hail. The tree is capable of producing high yields. Because of the large number of fruits, they completely stick over the branches. Ripen usually a week earlier than other varieties of cherries. Berries can be used to make pies, jams, jams or jelly.
Choosing a place
When choosing a place for landing you need to take into account its illumination. For a tree to grow quickly and well, it needs a lot of sunlight. If the shrub is located in a predominantly shady place, where the sun's rays fall a little, then this will affect its fruits: usually cherries shrink in size and become drier, and their maturation will come later.
It is important that water does not accumulate on the site of the seedling and does not stagnate. This can lead to root rot, since young roots are particularly sensitive. Other varieties are needed to fertilize felt cherries, so you need to plant several of these trees at once.
Ideal varieties: Delight, Triana, Summer, Fairy Tale, etc. It is better not to plant next to Chinese cherry conifers. If within a radius of five meters they are, then this place is not suitable for this variety.
Proper cultivation of felt cherries involves choosing a fertile soil. Ideal light loamy or sandy soil. Peat and other heavy soils are not needed for this variety.
Recommend to choose a neutral soil, well drained. Ensure that the soil is not waterlogged, because the plant may die due to this. If the acidity of the earth is increased, then periodically it must be fertilized with lime.
Planting felted cherries in the open field is carried out in a previously prepared recess, the depth of which is not less than 50 cm. The width of the pit should be 60 cm. In the soil mixture should include: 3 buckets of organic fertilizers, 500-800 g of lime, 30 g of potassium and 50 g of phosphorus.
Before planting, the root system of a cherry seedling must be cut to 20 cm. This will help the lateral roots to develop better. It is recommended to process all the roots with a clay talker to prevent all possible problems, and then you can immerse the seedling in a hole to a depth of 5 cm. The depth should be the same as in a greenhouse or other place where a young tree grew before.
After the seedling has been placed in a hole and covered with fertile soil, the ground should be compacted and watered well. It is recommended to mulch the soil with peat or organic fertilizer. This will help regulate its moisture and reduce the amount of watering.
In order for trees to develop well and get all the necessary nutrients, you need to adhere to the planting scheme. At one site it is not recommended to plant more than three felted cherries. Trees should be at a distance of 1.5–2 m from each other. It is important that the seedlings be at least 1 year old. The ideal age for landing is 2 years.
Agricultural engineering rules
Properly plant seedlings - this is one of the components of a good harvest. To succeed in the cultivation of cherries, you need to constantly care for her.
Care for felt cherries includes soil care.We need to pull weeds, because they prevent the tree from growing, absorbing all the nutrients from the earth.
The soil tends to harden, because of this, air and water do not flow well to the root system, so the soil should be periodically slightly loosened, going a maximum of 5 cm in order not to damage the roots of the seedling. It is necessary to moisten the soil during periods of drought, because it can crack and cause damage to the plant.
Fertilizers and watering
The chosen complex of mineral fertilizers is of great importance for good growth of a cherry and a crop. The first feeding should be carried out immediately after the end of the flowering period. A mixture of fertilizers should consist of a certain amount of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and other mineral substances that are mixed when applied along the edge of the stem.
In the fall, nitrogen is eliminated from the fertilizer complex because it promotes the growth of new shoots. The emergence at this time of new branches is undesirable, since with the onset of frost they will die. Another important rule: every 5 years, the soil of plants should be fertilized with lime.
Watering young felted cherries should be moderate. During dry periods, as well as during the formation of the fruit and the growing season, water should be watered more often.
It is important not to overdo it, because an excess of moisture leads to a deterioration in the growth of the shrub, the appearance of some diseases. Because of this, there may be poor yields or even the death of a plant.
Cutting off the shoots not only helps to prolong the life of the plant, but also improves fructification, promotes the rapid growth of other branches, and maintains a beautiful, neat appearance of the tree.
Pruning is usually carried out in March or April, when the kidneys do not yet have time to appear. In the first year of life, the shoots of the cherry are pruned so that the seedling is not more than 40 cm high. The following year all side branches are shortened by one third.
It is necessary to cut such branches:
- the old, on which the fruits no longer appear,
- dried, frozen, damaged, sick,
- unsuccessfully located
- those that grow in the central part of the tree crown,
- those that prevent other branches from growing normally.
In order for a tree to develop normally, no more than 12 strongest shoots should always remain on it.. Every year the life of the plant pruning is carried out deeper. This allows replacing old branches with young ones. Every 5 years, a rejuvenating pruning is carried out to remove all unnecessary branches from the center of the crown and the peripheral part.
It is necessary to cut branches every year. This can be done in the autumn period, but then the care of the tree also includes cleaning the fallen leaves. Usually they are then burned to prevent the appearance of pathogens in them.
Pest and disease control
Felt cherry practically does not give in to diseases. Pests attack the same as other trees.
This disease is triggered by a fungus, which first falls on the flowers, then on the leaves, and then transferred to the shoots. Penetrating into the wood and destroying it, it quickly spreads throughout the tree. Blossoming cherry is most vulnerable to monilioz. Externally, the branches affected by the fungus, like burnt.
Under the influence of fungal spores, the tree dies by the end of spring, if you do not begin to fight the disease. Promotes its development rainy weather. Because of this disease, the tree is greatly weakened, and all its fruits rot. If this phenomenon occurs for several years in a row, the plant will die.
To prevent the appearance of moniliosis or to cure cherries at an early stage of the disease, it is necessary to process the leaves and branches of the sapling with fungicides - special preparations against fungal diseases. To prevent the fungus from spreading from affected shoots to healthy ones, they must be cut out.
Another disease caused by fungal spores is coccomycosis.Because of him, the leaves on the tree fall early. From this, his immunity deteriorates and the development cycle changes.
To overcome the disease, it is necessary to spray the sapling with chemicals. If you do not do this, the fungus will not only destroy the cherry, but also be able to move to other stone trees located on the same site. Very rarely on the felt cherry can be observed bacterial cancer.
For pests, this sort of cherry is no different from other trees, so you can see aphids, caterpillars, leaf moths and plum moths on saplings. To prevent their occurrence, you need to follow simple rules:
- fulfill basic agrotechnical requirements,
- collect and burn fallen leaves, preventing it from rotting and spreading infections,
- destroy cocoon caterpillars,
- use the necessary fertilizers and adhere to the rules and rules of feeding,
- spray seedlings with pesticides.
These rules are simple even for beginner gardeners. By following them, you can protect your trees from pests and save the crop.
In order for the cuttings to stick, it is necessary to create certain conditions. It is recommended to take cuttings from branches that are at least 15 cm long, second or third in the crown.
The cutting scheme is as follows: a one-centimeter green cutting of a given year is grafted onto a two-centimetric cutting of the last year. Then the cuttings are planted on the beds that need to be warmed with a film.
In order for the cuttings to take root, the greenhouse constantly needs to maintain warmth and humidity. It is impossible for them to fall into direct sunlight. If the greenhouse is in open space, it may be necessary to create a shadow. Be sure to ensure that the cuttings are not dry.
The reproduction of felt cherries can also be done using layering. But this method is used less often than the previous ones. Last year's woody shoot needs to be placed in a hole and pinned. Do it better in early spring.
The variety is unique in that it can be grafted not only on its own shoots, but also on other fruit trees, such as: plum, dwarf, and some other cherry varieties.