Breeding domestic animals is a complex process that requires preliminary preparation, including the study of theoretical foundations. So, the pairing of rabbits should be carried out at a certain moment and special rules should be observed. This allows fertilization to occur the first time. In addition, knowledge of some important details helps to get healthy offspring on time.
Favorable age and season for the first mating
First, let's look at the age at which rabbits begin to breed and when it is possible to happen the first time. The rabbit reaches puberty by 3 months after birth. Avoiding accidental coatings, from this age, animals are sorted and seated, based on their gender.
However, to get healthy and strong offspring, 3 months is still an early age. Therefore, 4-month-old rabbits are suitable for the planned mating of rabbits.
This age is not considered an exceptional rule. So, if the farm contains rabbits of meat breeds, then the first mating starts from 5 or even from 6 months.
However, it is not necessary to overdo it. Non-breeding animals are gaining excess weight, lose interest in the partner, and there are few such animals.
Volcanoes in natural conditions occur year-round. On average, a healthy female has 6–7 okrols annually. In late autumn and winter, their frequency is less frequent due to weather factors. October and November are considered unfavorable for bonding.
Selection of rabbits for mating
but the best offspring grows more often in winter. Rabbits born during the cold season are healthier, stronger than their summer relatives. If the goal of raising rabbits is to get fur, then winter is the most favorable season for mating rabbits. It is also worth avoiding the bunnies of rabbits during active molting.
For successful mating, time of day also matters. In summer, morning hours are best suited for mating, as it is not yet hot. In winter or in cold weather, the warmest hours of the day, that is, daytime.
Partner selection and pairing
In the selection of males and females suitable for mating, the following criteria are based:
- Animals must be healthy and be in the right age and condition. To obtain high-quality offspring, individuals over 3 years old, fattened rabbits, animals with underdeveloped or damaged genitals, are not suitable.
- Rabbits must carry the best attributes of their breed or their individual qualities are most suitable for the rabbit breeder,
- For jacketing, it is advisable to select winter rabbits, as well as those born in early litters from the rabbit. These rabbits are best suited for the role of producers,
- No mating of related individuals is allowed.. With a lack of animals, they can always be found on the side. It is worth remembering the need for quarantine and a thorough health check for new animals poured into the herd, especially when it comes to producers.
In addition to the choice of active and strong individuals, experienced rabbitrels also pay attention to the mother and brothers (sisters) of the future producer. If there were many weak or sick rabbits in the litter, and also the mother has flaws (frequent miscarriages, poor temperament), then the likelihood of their recurrence is high.
Choice of breed for mating
In addition to individual choice of partners, experienced breeders pay attention to the formation of pairs. Ideal option - carrying out several coverings at the same time. In this case, the surplus (shortage) of rabbits in litters can be mutually compensated, and the choice of future producers will be more.
When forming a pair, they also take into account the experience of the male and female.
What rabbits are suitable for mating
How should the pairing of rabbits occur, you will find the video in the tab, from the article you will learn what to look for when choosing males and females for mating, from what age you should allow rabbits to mate, as well as other important nuances that are important when breeding rabbits .
If some bunnies were seen eating the cubs, they should be removed from the breeding stock.
Sexual maturity in females and males begins as early as four months, but by mating it is recommended to allow rabbits not earlier than five months, and rabbits after seven months, then the offspring will turn out to be healthier. Some rabbit bosses are of the opinion that first time rabbit should occur at the age of one year, in this case rabbits will be born large and resistant to diseases, and the uterus will have more milk to feed them.
In order to achieve the best results in the breeding of rabbits, for subsequent breeding you should choose those females that give rise to multiple healthy offspring and feed the rabbits well. If some bunnies were seen eating the cubs, they should be removed from the breeding herd.
All useful information about the males and females involved in breeding work, it is convenient to write on the stencils nailed to each cell:
- date of birth rabbit
- what breed were parents
- dates of covering and covering
- how many rabbits were in each litter (and how many were stillborn).
Rabbits intended for mating should not be fattened, as obese animals lose their sexual activity, fertilization is difficult. Low-weight females also have problems with fertilization, rabbits are born weak and grow poorly. Therefore, poorly well-fed rabbit for a couple of weeks before mating need to feed boiled potatoes with bran, oats, twigs and hay, but not allowing the animal to become obese.
If the crossing of rabbits was successful, the males, distinguished themselves by high fertility, and the females, which gave multiple litter, are used for breeding for another five years. The remaining males are used for no more than three years, and females up to four years, after which the animals are sent for slaughter.
How rabbits breed and how to determine the hunt of a female
In the domestic rabbit breeding, the rabbit is usually applied by hand, when the female is placed in a cage for a male for a short time (not vice versa, otherwise the rabbit will long be mastered in someone else's cage), and after mating it is taken back. Feeders and drinkers should be removed from the male cage.
Pregnancy is evidenced by the nervous behavior of the rabbit and the active preparation of a nest of hay.
In females, hunting occurs every nine days in the winter and every six days in the summer; the length of the hunting period is about five days. To understand that the rabbit came into the hunt, it is possible by the following signs:
- she shows anxiety, scratches, growls,
- refuses feed,
- pulled out by stroking the back, slightly lifting the ass,
- genitals look puffy and have a bright pink color.
Being in a state of hunting, the rabbit calmly admits a rabbit. The mating process takes a few seconds, after which the male collapses on its side, issuing a characteristic squeak. It is recommended to leave the rabbit for another five minutes to repeat the attempts at mating. Longer stay of the female in the cage only leads to exhaustion of the male.
After five days, you can put the rabbit in the cage again to the rabbit. If the female bites and runs away, it means that the first mating was successful, and she became pregnant.Pregnancy is evidenced by the rabbit's nervous behavior (she stomps her paws, growls and bites when trying to touch her fur), as well as the active preparation of a nest of hay, paper and everything that comes into the cage. Pregnancy of rabbits lasts no more than a month, and within a couple of days after the hunt the female is ready for mating again.
Breeding rabbits is recommended in the summer in the morning or evening, in the winter - in the daytime. It is worth noting that in hot summer weather the rabbit reluctantly goes to the mating, but in the winter months the pairing of rabbits is risky in that the newborn rabbit can freeze in unheated cages with insufficient fatness and poor health of the female.
When are animals ready to mate?
Usually, rabbit breeding can begin at the age of 6 months. By this time, the formation of the body in females is over. In males, the period of sexual activity begins at the age of 7 months.
The case of large breeds can be carried out earlier. However, it is not recommended to start doing this before the animals are 5 months old.
The California craw is considered to be an early maturing breed, but even its representatives are not ready to breed for 4 months.
Getting strong and healthy offspring is possible only under the condition that his parents are large and well-fed rabbits.
When the animals have reached puberty, the best representatives on the farm are selected.
A rabbit case occurs as soon as the rabbit has a period of sexual activity, which is determined by the following features:
- frequent urination,
- restless behavior, great mobility,
- saturated red sexual loop.
In order for the insemination process to be successful, it must coincide with the ovulation period of the rabbit, which in turn falls at the time of the sexual hunt.
The case can be carried out for 4-6 days daily. Thus, in the end, it is possible to achieve insemination.
How is the pairing of rabbits?
When individuals are selected for breeding, you can proceed directly to mating. It is held in the usual for the male environment, so the female sits in his cage. In summer, this process should occur in the early morning, and in the cold season - at any time during the day, up to 16 hours, while it is light. The cage should be free; drinkers and feeders should be removed from it.
The process of mating rabbits is completed when the male fell on its side, making a rumbling sound, after which the female can be sifted back. In case of failure after a few hours mating is carried out again.
If this attempt is unsuccessful, the female is brought to another male. After 5-6 days it is necessary to carry out the control mating.
If the female, being together with the male, does not allow him to approach, it means that she is fertilized.
How to determine the pregnancy rabbit?
12 days after mating, its effectiveness is checked. To do this, feel the female's belly in the pelvic region, sitting her on a flat surface and holding her withers. If the rabbit is fertilized, the back of her belly will be dense. In the uterus enlarged after mating, small rabbits are already palpable. Determine their presence and allows palpation of the abdomen.
How long a pregnancy lasts in rabbits often depends on the number of rabbits in the litter. The more of them, the less time. If the rabbits in the litter a little, the pregnancy will last longer. As a rule, it lasts about a month.
Knowing how much a pregnant rabbit walks, it is easier to plan the next mating. Theoretically, the female is able to bring rabbits about 10 times a year. Moreover, in each litter their number can reach 10. In order for the female to feed the pups, often only a part of the rabbit is left from the litter.
When can a rabbit happen after a moment?
The rabbit's body is physiologically ready for new fertilization a day after the birth of the rabbits into the world.However, he needs to be given time to recover, so usually mating is carried out after a month.
At this time, the rabbit is already being weaned from the mother, and a couple of days after it the rabbits mate again. If you pick up babies from their mother earlier, they will develop worse and gain weight more slowly.
It is possible to start mating when the female has signs of a sexual hunt.
There is also a technique of compacted okrolov. It lies in the fact that the female is covered again 2-3 days after the birth of the rabbits. During the feeding period of the first litter, the embryonic development of the second passes. Rabbits are taken away on the 28th day after birth. Soon a new rabbit appears in the rabbit.
However, the use of such a technique adversely affects the body of the animal, it does not have time to recover. Therefore, the use of compacted okrol is possible for a short period of time, usually in the summer. If you resort to it all year, the animal can not stand and die.
In summer, compacted okrol is easier to carry out due to the fact that a large amount of cheap and juicy food is available.
There is also a simplified version of this method. It involves fertilization 2 weeks after the birth of the rabbits, which in this case are deposited at the age of 35 days. This okrol is called semi-condensed.
After jigging of baby rabbits, it is necessary to clean the cage in which the rabbit will make a nest for the new offspring. By compacted technology is difficult to obtain high-quality offspring for further breeding.
This method allows only significantly and in a short time to increase livestock.
Therefore, in some farms, two rabbits are fertilized simultaneously, one of which is pedigree. After giving birth, her rabbits are given to another female, whose detour is destroyed. The breeding female can be fertilized immediately again. Her offspring after suitable for further breeding.
To facilitate the recovery process after pregnancy and nursing nursing, the farmers leave the rabbits, the number of which is one less than the nipples of the rabbit. It is important to know how to determine the sex of the rabbit.
In females, the genital opening is like an oblong gap, while in males it resembles an elongated tube. However, if it was not possible to accurately determine the sex of the little rabbits, it is recommended to re-do it after 3 months.
By this time, the genitals will already be well distinguished in females and males.
How to carry out the selection and culling of rabbits for mating?
The selection of males-producers is carried out soon after the birth of the offspring. Choose them for the following reasons:
- For the tribe suitable individuals of the male sex, born from the 1st or 2nd litter. If in the 3rd litter of the rabbit there is a male with good performance, he can also be selected for reproduction.
- Immediately after the birth of the rabbit choose the largest.
- The final selection is made at the age of 1.5-2 months, after jigging from the mother. At this point, pay attention to the body build of the individual, assess the quality of the fur, the state of health of the animal.
Later, when the rabbits reach puberty, they are screened. Unsuitable for reproduction are:
- females that regularly have idle bonding,
- rabbits bringing less than 4 cubs
- females that destroy their litter,
- males that do not fertilize a rabbit in every 3rd case,
- inactive individuals of the male sex.
Reference. Rabbits differing in high milkiness are recommended to be left for reproduction.
At what age can rabbits mate?
Puberty in rabbits is completed by 5-6 months. At this age, rabbits of any breed can be allowed to mating. Male individuals reach maturity by 6-7 months. If we are talking about large rocks, then with the first mating you need to wait another month and a half.
Weigh rabbits before mating
When selecting individuals for mating, pay attention to the weight of animals. The body weight of the sexually mature rabbit exceeds 3 kilograms (we are not talking about dwarf rocks).
Attention! Decorative dwarf breeds reach puberty earlier.
Determine readiness for mating in rabbits
If the male rabbits are mature enough to start breeding, the females are different. The bunny rabbit is ready to mate only during the sex hunt. It occurs every 8–9 days in the warm season and with an interval of 15–20 days in winter. Hunting is a state of sexual arousal caused by a change in the hormonal background of the animal. Mating of rabbits is carried out when the female shows signs of sex hunting. Consider them:
- Behavior. If the rabbit is usually calm, then during an increase in sexual activity, she becomes aggressive.
- Loss of appetite.
- External signs. During the hunt, the rabbit's sexual loop slightly increases in size, and its color becomes more saturated, bright pink.
Attention! The bunny rabbit is ready to be mated in 1-2 days after the roundabout.
Mating rabbits is recommended when they are most active. In the summer, a favorable time for mating is evening or morning when there is no intense heat. The decline in sexual activity occurs in late autumn - from mid-October to late November.
When can I let the bunny rabble on?
When breeding rabbits, it is crucial to receive high-quality and healthy offspring from livestock. How to choose and prepare manufacturers, choose the time for mating rabbits and check the result, we will tell in this article.
Rabbit case requires careful preparation. To obtain healthy offspring, it is necessary to allow only healthy individuals to mate. 2-3 weeks before the planned mating date, all males and females are subject to inspection.. What activities includes preparation for mating:
- Weighing animals. Those individuals that have not reached the recommended body weight, are not allowed to mating, as well as too well-fed.
- Inspection for diseases. Before mating, it is important to examine the reproductive organs of the rabbit, her nipples and other parts of the body to make sure that the animal is healthy.
- Pets that are in the active molting phase are temporarily not allowed to mate.
Animals suitable for breeding, change the diet. In the menu of rabbits enter more concentrates, if their body weight is within normal limits. The volume of the branch feed and hay remain the same. Krolya is fed with boiled potatoes, mixing it with pre-steamed oat grains. This is done to increase the level of energy that will be actively spent on mating.
Attention! Too well-fed individuals are transferred to the diet - remove starchy food from the diet and reduce the number of concentrates.
Rabbit case always occurs in the male. Otherwise, he will feel insecure and may allow a misfire. Experienced farmers recommend planting mature rabbits to young rabbits and young male females to experienced rabbits. This technology allows to reduce the percentage of ineffective cases.
When mating rabbits is carried out, it is recommended to remove the trough and the feeder from the cage. Animals need free space for love games. Leaving them alone is not recommended - if the rabbit does not want to mate, she can start to fight. If within 2-3 hours the sexual contact did not occur, the female is returned to her cage, and after a while they are brought back to the boyfriend.
It also happens that during the second date the pairing did not take place. In this case, the next day the female should be placed on another cavalier, perhaps the first one could not “enchant” her.
Attention! If the rabbit has done his job, he lies to the side and makes sounds resembling a rumbling cat.
About a week later, the farmer should make sure that the rabbits were mated successfully. For this, he gives a rabbit to the crawl. If she does not let her boyfriend to her, behaves aggressively, it means that she has become pregnant.
The little rabbit ignores the male
In large farms they practice artificial insemination of rabbits. This allows you to achieve the best results in breeding rabbits. To collect the sperm, the farmer sits a rabbit on the male and, at the time of ejaculation, inserts a small container under the crawl's penis. So it is possible to collect seminal fluid for fertilization 1-2 females. Next, sperm is collected in a syringe and gently inserted into the vagina rabbit.
Attention! All the data about the rotations made are recorded in the log. This will allow the farmer to navigate when waiting for a moment at a particular rabbit.
Case at home
With pets, things are about the same as with those that live on the farm. If the age is suitable for mating rabbits, you can set the female into the crawl during the sex hunt. Since ornamental rabbits are very shy, it is important to provide them with complete peace - to keep quiet during their acquaintance. In a room where there is a cage with animals, there should be a comfortable temperature - about 18-20 degrees and good ventilation.
Breeding rabbits at home is associated with some difficulties. If the rabbit, after the birth, refuses to feed the offspring, you will have to do it instead. There are no such problems on the farm - there are a few little rabbits at the same time, which makes it easy to find a nurse for the cubs, which her mother refused.
Attention! If two rabbit females live in the apartment, it is recommended to fertilize them on the same day, so that the circling occurred approximately at the same time.
Is it possible to pair rabbits-relatives (inbreeding)?
Inbreeding is incest. Rabbits in kinship are not crossed, this negatively affects the health of the offspring: mutations occur, and the progeny degenerates. Inbreeding is actively used by breeders for breeding new breeds.
Rabbits for mating
To avoid incest, youngsters need to be placed in different cells on time.. This is done after weaning from the mother. If you are late with animals, it is possible to occasionally inbreed when animals reach sexual maturity and mate.
There is a concept of forced inbreeding. For example, when rabbits are bred in pits. The farmer cannot constantly control the process of mating; in order to renew the blood of the genus, it is necessary to regularly replace the male. He is taken from another family. If for some reason this cannot be done, then rabbits, which are distantly related, mate.
Decorative rabbit case
The reproduction of ornamental rabbits requires some knowledge from the owner of animals. It is necessary to take into account the features of pets:
- dwarf rocks have a lower libido than large ones
- they more often have idle mating,
- females produce a few offspring.
Attention! Dwarf females cannot be seen with males of large breeds, otherwise there will be problems with the bearing and birth of the little rabbits.
A rabbit of a decorative breed is placed in a crawl for a period of at least a week to increase the chances of fertilization. It is important to observe the behavior of animals. If they do not get along, they will have to be seated in different cells, and the date will be postponed for another time. The rest of the pairing of decorative pets is the same as among representatives of other breeds.
Dwarf rabbits before mating
Is it worth it to mate at all?
In the event that you are not breeding rabbits for sale (if it is an ornamental breed) or for meat, but simply keep the animals as pets, you should think a few times before holding an event like rabbit mating.First decide for yourself whether you can attach the offspring in good hands and whether you have enough time to care for the pregnant rabbit and newborns.
Peculiarities of breeding in winter
Breeding rabbits in winter has a number of features:
- in the cold season, the sexual activity of animals decreases,
- rabbits hunt less often
- day length affects fertility,
- in winter, it is important to take care of the newborn baby rabbits so that they do not freeze.
Rabbits tolerate low temperatures normally, but they are sensitive to drafts and dampness. In such conditions, animals are sick more often and reproduce worse.
Attention! In winter, you need to protect pets from drafts and dampness.
It is recommended to equip the room where rabbits live with light sources. It is advisable to turn on lights every day at 16 o'clock. Slot is better to spend in the daytime, when animals are especially active. After birth, rabbits should provide them with an additional source of heat or move the cage with the rabbit and offspring to a warm place.
What is the best age for mating
Different rabbits breed puberty at different times. As a rule, the smaller the species, the faster the rabbits mate. Thus, in ornamental breeds (and not too large meat ones), the organism is more or less ready to bear offspring as early as 3.5-4 months. The first mating of Californian rabbits and other early maturing varieties takes place at 5-6 months, that is, about a month and a half after the onset of puberty. In giants, the body becomes an adult in 5-6 months. The case, respectively, is carried out in 6-7 months. Owners of rabbits - and especially decorative breeds when kept in an apartment - need to be prepared for the fact that during this period the animals begin to actively mark the territory. And not only males do this, but also females.
The first rabbit mating is carried out in the usual manner. About how, let's talk a little below. To begin with, let's look at some of the nuances.
How do I know that the rabbit is covered?
The easiest way to find out if the sukololnost has come is to conduct a test mating 7 days after the previous one. A pregnant female will not accept the crawling courting, but will fight back, snap and hiss.
Another way to check the sugaryness is applied at a later date: 12-13 days after fertilization. The rabbit is put on the table, one hand is held over her withers, and the other is passed between the hind limbs. The palm is put on the lower abdomen and gently probe it with massage movements. The embryos in the uterus of the rabbit already reach 2 cm in diameter, and their weight is about 2 grams. They are located in the lower abdomen by a chain.
Attention! The method of palpation should not be used without experience in this matter, so as not to harm developing embryos.
If the sukroolnost is confirmed, then after more than 2 weeks they wait around, because the pregnancy in these animals lasts 28-33 days. It is important to properly care for the rabbit, to provide her with good nutrition, so that she brings a healthy offspring.
Having all this knowledge, the farmer will not be confused if you have to happen rabbits for the first time. In most cases, the process takes place without human intervention. In order for the offspring to be born viable and numerous, it is important to properly cull and select animals for the tribe and provide them with good living conditions.
When mating is done
The female is allowed into the mating when she comes to the hunt, which happens every 6-7 days. This period increases to 3 weeks, when it is cold, but it is shortened in summer. At the end of autumn the animals mate reluctantly. Readiness for fertilization is determined by the following features:
- unnatural hyperactivity,
- the genital loop acquires a red color and slightly swells,
- frequent urination.
Mating is carried out in the male's cage, otherwise it will take time for him to get used to the new environment before covering the female. In summer, animals are reduced in the morning, in other seasons - at any time during daylight hours. Rabbit from the first time can not admit to his partner, if she is exhausted by the previous bearing of offspring. A couple is seated, and the next day they happen again.
In terms of frequency there are 3 types of pairings: normal, semi-compacted, compacted. 45 - 50 days after childbirth - the optimal time when the rabbit can happen. She finishes feeding her cubs and is ready to carry the next offspring. The event is carried out earlier, after 26-30 days, if there were a small number of animals in the last litter. They are taken from the mother 2 weeks before the birth, when they are 45 days old.
If a pregnant female doesn’t separate the rabbits from a previous litter from a pregnant female, it’s likely that she will not build a nest and scatter the newborn in a cage.
Intensive use of females
Increase livestock as soon as possible and make a profit? For the fastest replenishment of the herd, reinforced okroly, starting in spring and summer, are used.
Again, the female's body is ready for fertilization as early as the next day after the birth of the baby rabbits, so it is allowed into the mating after caul after 2-3 days. Be careful and use the approach is extremely rare, because the animal's body quickly depleted.
In addition, the young are born weak, grow worse, because the nursing mother for lactation is a big consumption of nutrients. Offspring is used only for meat.
The 28-day-old fledglings are weaned before their next birth. To relieve the load on her body, farmers resort to various tricks. Some leave little animals in the litter one less than the mother's nipples. Others simultaneously pair several females so that a part of the little rabbits from a numerous litter is planted to those with a small offspring.
There is an inhuman reception when a pair of females is simultaneously covered: a breeding and unproductive breed. Litter of the latter is destroyed, and in return are placed other young ones. Breeding rabbit on day 3 again goes into the mating and bears new offspring, suitable for the replenishment of the repair herd. On industrial krolefermah the female manages to get covered 7 times and goes to the bottom, but the young of the litters are not allowed to mate.
The female is mated 2-3 weeks after delivery. Then the young are transferred to independent feeding for 35 days after birth. With warm rabbitry and a sufficient amount of food - matings are held all year round.
It has been noticed that rabbits from autumn litters grow sick more often and worse, and the strongest are born in winter.
The female used for intensive breeding of livestock should be carefully monitored. Before you reduce with the manufacturer, it is examined so that there is no mastitis or secretions from the genitals. If, after 3-4 rounds, the rabbit becomes lethargic, reluctantly goes into mating, or a false cover occurs, this indicates that she needs rest. Perhaps, after a 1-2-month break, everything will return to normal.
For intensive breeding of the herd, one-time rabbits born at the beginning of winter are used. They are seated in separate cells and heavily fed. One-time rabbit can happen in 4-5 months. By the end of the year she leads 2-3 litters. Females are allowed to meat after autumn molting, if they have shown poor maternal qualities.
The use of intensive okrols is a complicated matter, it requires a lot of knowledge and skills, and a good food base. Beginner breeders for it is better not to take.
The following are unsuccessful births:
- premature appearance of litter,
- natural death of offspring,
- eating rabbit mother.
In rabbits, the uterus consists of 2 sections that are not interconnected. Therefore, if the rabbit breeder wants to reduce the male and female again a week after the previous mating, he must prevent the fertilization from happening again. If after 5 - 7 days after the first mating, the female does not allow her partner to come to her, she is immediately taken away. It is bad when re-mating occurs, causing premature labor. It happens this: first a dead rabbit is born (or two), and then, in due time, the rest of the offspring appears, developing normally.
If litter is born dead or dies after a few days, childbirth is considered unsuccessful. And you can not hurry with the pairing. First, the cause of the incident is determined, endometritis is prevented. To do this, apply antibiotic treatment.
A bad roundabout happens if the animal has listeriosis. The result - the pregnancy is terminated by spontaneous miscarriage of the fetus or resorption of the embryo. After an abortion from the genitals purulent discharge. Such a rabbit is killed, because the disease is infectious, but there is no effective treatment. As a rule, whatever the cause of the abortion, after it females are not allowed into the mating again.
Rabbits need to competently, avoiding complications, such as paralysis of the hind limbs, gastric diseases, exhaustion. Violation of the rules of mating and errors in the content of pregnant females lead to the death of the rabbit or litter.
Rabbit case after okrol: timing, industrial and standard technology
Among all livestock areas, rabbit breeding is rightfully considered one of the most profitable.
And this is primarily due to the exceptional fecundity of these domestic animals, which makes it possible, with a small initial investment, to quickly increase their livestock.
High growth rates of young stock provide a good profitability of the farm. The main products obtained from rabbits are their tasty and healthy dietary meat, as well as skins and down.
In this regard, issues related to the reproduction of these pets are crucial for this livestock industry, and one of the main issues is the frequency of offspring. When it is possible to happen to a rabbit after a roundabout and how many times a year it is possible to cover it - our article is devoted to this.
Terms of puberty rabbits
At what age can the first pairing be performed?
Rabbits are very early animals. Depending on the breed, these animals sexually reach maturity in the period from four months to six months, which is a very good indicator.
Depending on the size of the species, they must reach a weight of from three to six kilograms. If the rabbit is provided with a good balanced diet, then they can be allowed on the first mating as early as four months. Males mature somewhat later.
Experienced rabbit breeders do not recommend first mating for them before the rats reach five months of age.
The term of puberty of these animals also strongly depends on their breed.
For example, large rabbit varieties, such as the Gray and White Giant, are capable of producing viable, healthy offspring at the age of six months, reaching a live weight of 3.7 kilograms.
If we take medium-sized rabbits (for example, Chinchilla or Vienna Blue), then at five months they are already able to bring the first healthy offspring to the wave. The weight of the animals should be two and a half kilograms, but not less.
Too early mating, as a rule, does not give positive results, since the female has not yet reached the necessary physical condition.
Timely correct mating at the optimum age for animals is most cost-effective, since in one calendar year the rabbits can be obtained from one rabbit, but also from her offspring, obtained as a result of the first and sometimes the second circle.
The main advantage of rabbit breeding over other branches of animal husbandry is the almost year-round possibility of livestock reproduction, regardless of whether it happens in summer or in winter. Only in the period from October to November, the sexual hunt of rabbits is poorly pronounced.
The rest of the year, they willingly mate, if you provide them with proper nutrition and good conditions.
To maximize profits, experts recommend not to neglect winter okrols, which will be successful if the optimum temperature is maintained in cages or aviaries (depending on the method of keeping animals).
Such factors as proper nutrition, competent care and comfortable maintenance of animals directly affect the time of puberty. The rabbitry must meet all necessary sanitary and hygienic requirements.
It is necessary to take into account the fact that mating, carried out during the first hunt of a female in life, usually does not bring good full-bodied offspring. However, experts also do not advise overdosing rabbits before the first mating, as this may adversely affect their fertilization capacity.
According to the opinions of practicing rabbit breeders, the highest productivity, both in females and males, is observed during the first two years of their life, and then begins to gradually decline.
A good breeding rabbit can fertilize two rabbits in one day already in the sixth month of its life. However, the young male rabbit must not be overloaded. The optimal mating mode for the young - two, a maximum of three rabbit in one week. At the age of one to two years, the intensity of its use increases.
When to re-admit the female mating?
In terms of physiology, the rabbit after childbirth is ready for re-covering the very next day. However, it should be remembered that in the very first days after the appearance of offspring into the world, the female's body spends a lot of its resources to produce milk for the young.
Abuse of too fast casings leads to a significant weakening of the female's body. In addition, a re-become pregnant rabbit, still nurturing the previous offspring, can significantly deteriorate maternal instincts.
Be that as it may, with a large number of litter with a nursing mother, there should be left so many rabbits, which coincides with the number of her nipples (better - one less).
For mating females after childbirth in rabbit breeding, there are several techniques, about each of which we describe below.
How many days does a rabbit pregnancy last? The term of gestation of offspring in these animals ranges from 28 to 34 days. The average number of calves in one litter is usually between five and ten. Rabbits grow very quickly.
In theory, you can get from one rabbit to ten litters in one year, however, at large rabbit breeding enterprises, 7 okrols per year are considered the norm.
When choosing females on industrial rabbit farms, special attention is paid to the level of their natural resistance. The usual period of use of females for reproduction in such farms is only one year. Tribal females with high quality characteristics of offspring use up to two years.
With such intense mating, females must be fed intensely. This allows you to get them to early puberty. In large farms, after a hemlock, the female is re-mated somewhere on the twentieth day.
If the farm complies with all the necessary requirements for feeding and maintenance, in one year a healthy rabbit gives offspring seven times, after which it is subject to rejection. Some females are rejected earlier.
The main reasons for this are various kinds of postpartum complications: diseases of the digestive system, poor results of three consecutive okrols, hind limb paralysis and so on.
Method of compacted okrolov
When using this technology, females are covered on the second or third day after hatching.
Usually, by this time, she is already quietly feeding the little rabbits, without doing any harm to the embryos that have appeared as a result of the repeated fertilization. In such cases, baby rabbits are taken away from the uterus already on the 28th day after their birth.
Most often, this technique is used on professional rabbit farms, but its use is also possible in personal gardens.
In the second case, great care should be taken and all dietary and animal welfare requirements should be carefully observed.
The technology of so-called semi-compacted okrol is also practiced. With this method of breeding mating carried out two weeks after delivery.
Weaning calves using this technology produces on the 35th day the field of their birth.
Immediately after jigging of the young, the cage should be thoroughly cleaned, sanitized and the litter replaced. Then it is necessary to provide the female with materials for the construction of a new nest.
If the mother liquor is used, it must also be cleaned and sanitized, and only then returned to the cage.
It should immediately be said that no rabbit can withstand the use of compacted technology throughout the year. Her body is rapidly weakening, and her health is deteriorating.
Experts recommend applying this technique in the spring and summer, when there is plenty of cheap natural juicy and green food. To increase the herd, you can apply a one-time or two-time coverage of females.
In order to better understand the principle of this method of breeding, we give a specific example.
For example, in your farm there are young rabbit, who were born in the period from March to May. Thus, the first pairing can be carried out from June to August, respectively. Given the average duration of pregnancy, the offspring is obtained in the period from July to September.
At the end of the year, the young are usually ready to slaughter for meat.
Often there are cases that even with the use of semi-compacted technology, the female gets tired, her behavior becomes sluggish, she herself looks weakened, she either does not react to the male, or begins to squeal at all and does not let him close.
In this case, experts advise to give the female a monthly rest, and only then to cover it. If the rabbit's age is less than three years, then all her reproductive characteristics will almost certainly be restored.
Why does the rabbit weaken? Any rabbit breeder should understand that the use of compacted methods of okolov quickly wears the body of females.
The offspring obtained by this technology, most often not suitable for replenishing the breeding herd, and goes for slaughter. However, there are some tricks here.
Experienced rabbit bosses invented a way to get breeding youngsters even in conditions of frequent rounds. To do this, they carry out simultaneous coverage of two females at once.
Accordingly, both give birth almost simultaneously. The offspring received from the “second” females are thrown out, and in return, they enclose rabbits from the breeding rabbit. With such a scheme, the breeding individual has time to fully recover for the birth of the next offspring, and the breeding youngstock is fully fed by the “spare” nurse.
It is worth saying that the offspring born in winter or in early spring (in March) are much stronger than their later counterparts. In addition, when weaning from the mother, fresh green and succulent fodder becomes available in abundance, which contributes to their active and harmonious growth.
Rabbits born in autumn grow much worse and much weaker than the winter offspring. Females born in the summer are allowed to go to the first mating one month later.
This is due to the fact that at the same time with sexual maturity a seasonal molt begins, which weakens the rabbit's body, and it takes time to recruit the necessary reproductive conditions.
Terms for fertilization
Rabbits - fertile animals, females, depending on the breed, can become pregnant at the age of 4-5 months, males - from six months. At the same time, size matters: more miniature ornamental rocks are capable of breeding earlier, in large meat breeds maturity occurs 2-3 weeks later.
- behavior - she can pull out fur on her stomach around her nipples, lie down on her stomach, rush around the cage, carry hay from place to place,
- the state of the genital organs - the loop increases, changes color, becomes saturated pink.
This condition is called sex hunting, it speaks of the onset of ovulation and readiness for procreation. If, at the same time, to lay the female's hand on the back, she will freeze and slightly push her back, such a reflex is another sign of the hunt.
Since rabbits breed all year round, ovulation in rabbits in summer occurs every 5-7 days, in winter the interval increases to 8-9.
Rabbits mate after the end of the first molt. Males - after the second. For breeding quality offspring, the optimal time of the first mating is 5-6 months.
During the molting period, rabbits do not mate, since the animal's body at this time is not in optimal shape.
How to distinguish a crawl from a rabbit
Proper determination of the sex of the rabbit is important not only for mating, but also for the safe breeding of animals. If you do not spread out raznopoly rabbits in separate cells, growing males can arrange fights for females, causing each other dangerous injuries. The male differs from the female by the external genital organs, which will not be examined before the little rabbit is 4-5 weeks old. In addition, testicles are not always visible in young males. Their anatomy is such that the testicles descend into the scrotum by 3 months, and when frightened, the males pull them into the abdominal cavity.
On examination of the animal, it is turned over and the skin in the genital area is gently moved with the fingers in the direction of the anus. In females, this opens a loop in the form of a ring of mucous flesh of a pale pinkish hue. The males come to the surface with a pale pink or almost white (in the young) penis of a sharp conical shape. The distance from the genitals to the anus in males is greater than in females. In healthy adult males, the testicles are clearly visible.
Features of the choice of partners
They do not recommend pairing close relatives, for obtaining healthy offspring it is necessary to take producers from different lines.
When breeding rabbits at home for beginners be sure to record the following data:
- date of birth and animal name,
- parent breeds
- dates of huntings and rounds, the number of live and not surviving rabbits.
How to choose rabbits
In order for the mating of rabbits to produce the expected result, manufacturers must meet certain conditions:
- breed standard, this is especially important when breeding,
- fatness - for mating admit animals with a weight of not less than 3 kg, but not fat, because obesity reduces productivity,
- health status - only healthy animals are allowed to mate,
- fertility: in rabbits is determined by the number of fertilized females, in rabbits - the number of healthy pups in the litter,
- high sexual activity,
- parental instinct, the female should not show aggression or indifference to the cubs,
- milkiness - the rabbit must have enough milk to feed the offspring,
- age, the female in the regime of regular bonding can be 3-4 years old, fertility decreases with age in males.
How to prepare animals
You need to start training for 7-8 days before mating. At this time, animals are transferred to an improved diet; fresh and fortified foods rich in minerals should prevail. In the winter, they also extend the daylight hours with lamps up to 15-16 hours.
On the day of mating, before admitting the rabbit to the crawl, everything unnecessary is removed from the cage, as the animals will be very active.
What to do if the rabbit does not allow the crawl
If the female does not allow the crawl to come closer and shows aggression, it should be immediately deposited. A second attempt is made some time later in the morning or in the evening.
Perhaps these animals will not show reciprocity, then they pick up other partners. One of the reasons why rabbits do not mate may be noise.
How to check the result
The sukolnost females can be determined at 10-12 day after the "date". The animal has its head to itself, hold it with one hand on its withers, and with the other, gently probe the lower part of the abdomen. The fertilized uterus during this period is palpated as a seal of the oval shape in the pelvic region. Behavior changes: the female in the cage behaves more calmly, the appetite improves, and at the same time it can be wary of the owner and not be given in the hands. In the control replanting, the female do not admit to her partner.
How long a pregnancy lasts in rabbits depends on the number of embryos. It usually lasts about 30 days, the more numerous the litter, the shorter the pregnancy. During this period, the rabbit needs peace, comfort, lack of high humidity and drafts, good food, mostly juicy food, and a sufficient amount of water.
For a successful mating of rabbits, it is necessary to take care of animals, create comfortable conditions for them, watch their behavior in order to choose the optimal moment. If you follow these principles, you will definitely achieve your goal.
The best offspring, both in terms of production qualities, as well as in terms of health and survival, are obtained when the interval between matings is one month.
This allows you to keep the rabbit on the suction for 45 days, which greatly strengthens their immune systems and allows you to gain weight faster. After weaning, the female still has two weeks to rest and prepare for the next okrol.
The use of this technique allows you to get from one female to forty healthy and strong rabbits per year.
This method is typical for small rabbit farms and personal farmsteads, because it allows the female to fully use for reproduction of livestock up to two and a half years.
Thus, when the rabbit is reapplied after a round about - the owner himself decides. It largely depends on the size of the farm and the purpose of its work.
Commercial use of rabbits involves rapid reproduction to obtain the maximum amount of production, breeding is more focused on the quality of the offspring than on its quantity.
Well, and the content of rabbits in personal plots of household is a very individual matter, and here the breeder can apply any of the technologies described by us.
How to properly and when to inspect the rabbit's nest? -lesson
When it is possible to cover a rabbit after a moment: time, technology
The profitability of livestock farming depends on the intensity of the reproduction of the herd. In order for the female to bring in more rabbits, and at the same time her health did not deteriorate, you need to know how many rabbits can happen after the hunt and how to do it correctly.
Healthy and well-groomed female - the key to good offspring
Sexual and physiological maturity of rabbits
Like all living creatures on earth, rabbits begin to age with the formation of secondary sexual characteristics - this is the age of puberty, this time is followed by the time of real maturation. Earlier on the stages of maturity of rabbits already told (read here).
A photo. Rabbits start mating early
We remind you that the first signs of growing up in rabbits appear at 3.0-4.5 months, which corresponds to the age of 12-16 years in humans. The age of the final maturity, a little later - 4.5-8 months, which corresponds to the age of 18 years and older in humans.
Therefore, at what age rabbits can be happened, the answer is unequivocal - after 5-8 months, although there are breed differences, see below
An important indicator of mating readiness is the weight of the rabbit. It should not be lower than 3.5-4 kg. Other indicators of readiness for mating is a good physique, the development of the genitals.
Crossing rabbits immediately after the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics is certainly possible. After all, there are cases of early pregnancy in humans and in wild animals. However, the early mating of any mammals is unacceptable: from an ethical point of view in humans, in terms of productivity in animals.
We will clearly demonstrate why the breeders indicate these criteria as reference points in answering the question: when and why should we begin to mate rabbits?
By what indicators of young stock can determine the productivity of the rabbit
The main criteria for determining how many months it is better to rabbits, include four main indicators.
- Animal age (minimum physiologically valid criteria proven)
- Rabbit weight (animals of low weight do not bring quality offspring)
- Body type.
- Condition, development of genital organs in rabbits.
Only for adult rabbits! Already having the experience of mating males and females, they are additionally evaluated by the quality of the offspring. Females for milkiness, multiple births, number of rabbits when weaning from the nest. Males on the stability of the transfer of breed traits to descendants. The assessment is carried out in November-December.
Methods and sequence of breeding young
On farms, young rabbits are examined for the first time at three months for the readiness of the rabbit to be ready to mate with the rabbit, and females for the readiness to bear pregnancy, both are evaluated for mating ability, and they abstain from mating.
A photo. Evaluation of rabbits on the willingness to start mating is checked in several stages. First time still at a young age
At home, rabbits first inspection done later. You can, at the age of five months, identify the first signs of a rabbit's readiness to make females
The willingness of the young rabbit, when it can be allowed to mate, is determined by:
- external examination,
- instrumental measurements (weighing).
When inspecting adult rabbits and young animals (improvised bonding) at home, pay attention to the following signs:
- compliance with the characteristics of the breed bred in the compound,
- the live weight of the rabbit is taken into account with an accuracy of up to 0.1 kg,
- physique, lack of malformations,
- the condition of the rabbit's hairline on its paws,
- down quality (for downy breeds),
- coat color (meets or / does not meet breed requirements).
The color of the fur is the breed's genetic trait genetically fixed by the male, the correct color is one of the signs of the breed's purity, therefore one should pay attention to it when evaluating the producers, especially at purebred breeding.
Bonding of young stock in order to determine at what age one can begin to mate a young rabbit begins with weighing. Below are indicators of weight, common in rabbit breeds. The data are taken from the rabbit rating tables.
The age of mating rabbits California and New Zealand white
California and New Zealand white breed of rabbits (NZB). Young breeds of these breeds weighing no less than 2.3 kg at the weighing of five months, with a maximum of 3.7. At six months the weight is not lower than 2.5 kg, the maximum 4.0 kg and more.
At the age of seven months, the main livestock of young rabbit of these breeds weighs from 3 to 5 kg. Above eight months, they weigh more than 5 kg.
The most ripening Californian rabbits are ready to pair females between the ages of five months.
Californians and New Zealand rabbits (NZB) are representatives of one of the most popular meat breeds, recognized as the best in meat quality, as well as the most precocious, suitable for breeding from five to seven months.
Age of mating rabbit White Giant
White giant. At five months, the rabbit should weigh from 2.6 to 3.9 kg, at six months from 3.0 to 4.5 kg, at seven months from 3.3 kg to 5.8 kg. In eight months from 3.6 to 5.3 kg. At nine months and over 3.9 to 5.5 kg.
At the age of six months, almost all rabbits of the white giant breed, corresponding to the weight standards of the breed, can be allowed to mate.
Age of mating Gray giant, Owls. Chinchilla, Black-brown, Silver
At five months, the rabbit should weigh from 2.5 to 3.8 kg, at six months from 2.8 to 4.3 kg, at seven months from 3.1 to 4.8 kg. In eight months from 3.4 to 5.1 kg. In nine months and older from 3.7 to 5.5 kg. About the same amount of rabbits weigh the corresponding age of the breeds: Soviet chinchilla, Black-brown, Silver.
At the age of seven months, rabbits that meet the standards of the breeds (gray giant, Soviet chinchilla, black-brown, silver) are ready to start breeding, able to breed.
Age of mating rabbits Vienna blue
Rabbits of the Vienna Blue in five months reach a weight of 2.3 to 3.5 kg, in six months from 2.5 to 4.7 kg, in seven months from 2.9 to 4.4 kg. In the eight months of 3.2-4.7 kg. In nine months and older from 3.4 to 4.9 kg.
Rabbits, corresponding to the weight characteristics of the breeds, Viennese blue begin to happen with eight months and older.
Age of mating rabbit White feather
Rabbits of this breed in five months should weigh from 1.9 to 3.2 kg, in six months from 2.1 to 3.7 kg, in seven months from 2.3 to 4.1 kg. In eight months from 2.4 to 4.4 kg. In nine months and older from 2.5 to 4.6 kg.
Rabbits that meet the standards of the White Down breed, at different age intervals, reach weight when they begin to allow rabbits to mate with females. Their mating with females is possible from six months and older. However, the age for mating may not be sufficient at nine months.
Methods for assessing puberty by rabbit physique
The second thing that people pay attention to when assessing young rabbits is their physique. For example, as a physique, assess the presence of probable metabolic disturbances in the organism of animals. According to these characteristics, it is possible to accurately determine the readiness of male and female rabbits for the first mating.
A photo. Visual assessment of the physique of a rabbit of California breed
With a high degree of certainty, preliminary grading reveals defects that rabbits acquired during the stages of fetal development and after birth. Defects in the build usually impede the readiness of the rabbit to start mating, sometimes pointing out the reasons for the impossibility of determining the time when rabbits can happen.
Checks are carried out by an external examination, if necessary, make measurements or determine the width and girth of the chest by eye. They give an estimate of the size of the head (shape, size, ratio to the body). Pay attention to the lines of the body, including the back, croup.
According to the correctness of the statement of the extremities, they give an opinion on the absence or presence of rachitic features.
A photo. Landmarks on the body of the rabbit. 1- head, 2-neck, 3- ears, 4-nape, 5-shoulder, 6-side, 7- back, 8-croup, 9- tail, 10-ankle joint, 11-hip, 12-hind limb, 13-belly, 14-forelimb, 15-chest, 16-claws, 17-dewlap
The sequence of inspection and measurements is as follows:
- The head is proportional to the body, without deformation, massive in males, tender in females.
- Ears, in the main agricultural breeds, standing.
- The neck is proportional, it is held correctly in relation to the body, there are no curvatures.
- The chest is well developed, rhythmic respiratory movements, deformations, thickening on the ribs are not detectable.
- A back without curvatures in the vertical and horizontal direction.
- The croup is round, the sensitivity is normal.
- The limbs are set correctly in relation to the body.
- Muscle tissue is dense, relief, fat layer is not felt.
- The coat is smooth, shiny, meets the standards of the breed.
The estimated physique of decorative (dwarf) breed rabbits for determining readiness for mating is about the same as for productive rabbits.
Examination and evaluation of female and male rabbit genitals
In rabbit breeding, examination of the genital organs of females and males is carried out in order to determine when the age of the rabbits is ready and can begin to breed.
- Male genitals. The peculiarity of the rabbit is wide inguinal rings. This means that the testicles of the rabbit are freely drawn into the abdominal cavity and pulled back. To exclude cryptorchidism in the rabbit, it is necessary to move the testes by hand, running the hands along the abdomen towards the hind limbs, from the abdominal cavity. When external examination and palpation of the penis of the rabbit defects, curvature, signs of hermaphroditism (female and male genitals) are not detected.
- Female genitals. Examination and palpation of the study available external genitals of the female rabbit. The mucous membranes of the vulva (loop) pink, smooth, shiny. Deviations are not allowed. During the period of sexual hunting (heat) possible hyperemia of the mucous membranes, combined with the anxiety of the female. Feeling (palpation) of the rabbit's sides does not reveal pain, the uterus is not sensitive. Allowed the sensitivity of individual zones on the body of the rabbit during the hunt.
Simple, accessible methods, such as external examination, weighing, can easily determine individual signs of a rabbit's readiness for mating. It is easy to determine at what age and when rabbits should be covered for the first time, how much time is left before that time when the rabbit can mate with the male for successful breeding.
When ornamental rabbits are ready for mating and giving birth
Rabbits of ornamental, dwarf breeds grow up about as much as their rural counterparts. Recommendations on breeds do not exist, but I think that the age over 7 months is the minimum age of readiness for reproduction. But if you do not hurry, then the males and females of the rabbit will be good parents for the year.
The phenomenon of cryptorchidism in rabbits is extremely rare.
However, there are many reports on the Internet that rabbit cryptorch, what to do? A rabbit is not for nothing called a coward, his physiological peculiarity of drawing testes into the abdominal cavity in case of any threat.
If a person takes a rabbit in his arms in order to inspect the groin area, and there is not what men have, then panic begins. Try to squeeze the testes out by moving the palm along the lower abdomen from the head to the tail.
Cryptorchidism in rabbits is extremely rare due to the peculiarities of the structure of the inguinal rings in males. Cryptorchus animals are unequivocally rejected from among the tribal animals.
Mating rabbits - all the most valuable and interesting
Mating rabbits is not only a reason to show off wit and funny videos in social networks. It is also one of the main tasks for the rabbit breeders, the basis of animal breeding on farms and at home. How to prepare correctly, when it is better to do the mating, how many days the pregnancy lasts - this and much more you will learn by reading the article.
Different breeds of rabbits become capable of reproduction at different ages. The larger the breed, the later maturation occurs. On average, rabbit breeding is possible as early as 4 months. But to get well-groomed healthy offspring is better to wait a bit.
How long to wait - the breeder decides. The first mating of the rabbit is better to carry out from the seventh month of life. For rabbits, the optimal age is 7 months or more. Some breeders generally do not consider the possibility of mating females under the age of 1 year.
Mating rabbits can be carried out at any time of the year. And on the farm, and at home, the owners do not make sense to do a seasonal break. Not the most successful months except October and November.Animals in this period are not very active, sluggish, autumn depression, even they are not alien.
It is more important to choose the right time of day when to conduct the mating. If you decide to knit pets in the summer, it is recommended to do this in the morning or in the evening. In winter, rabbits better mate in the daytime.
Knitting is not carried out when animals have a seasonal molt. During this period, the body is forced to expend energy on the renewal of the fur, and very little will remain on their reproduction. Females knit correctly after the first molt, males after the second.
Getting to the process itself
Manufacturers are usually selected in advance. The largest and strongest animals are selected from each litter. At the time of mating, they must gain weight of at least 3-3.5 kg, be healthy and active. If rabbits already with the experience of “family life” are not allowed to the process:
- rabbits trying to eat cubs
- females who didn’t feed offspring after caulking
- not getting pregnant after a few bondings,
- who gave birth to less than 4 rabbits in several litters,
- crap, if a third and more of the cases were not effective,
- animals over 2 years old.
The holiday of life will not take place for sick pets, with rashes or irritation on the skin.
The basic principles and rules for mating at home are the same as on the farm. At what time of year the action would not occur, it is necessary to create favorable conditions for the animals. Rabbit case should be held in a quiet warm place. It is desirable that there is good ventilation and a minimum of distractions.
Domestic breeding conditions for rabbits also involve mating several females simultaneously. This will allow at low milkiness of one of them to transplant her baby rabbits after a moment to the other.
On the farm, the number of animals and producers, respectively, more, so the chances of effective mating higher. At home, the rabbit for best results can be left in the male's cage for several days.
Whether a pregnancy has come, how many babies a female will bring can be determined after 2 weeks by examining and palpating it. How to do this, the owner can understand from the video.
After how much wait rabbits
How many days does a rabbit's pregnancy last is an important question for a rabbit breeder. He uses his time to get around to prepare for the appearance of a new generation of pets.
The gestation period of the rabbit on average is 30-31 days, the minimum 28 days. Maximum offspring is born after 35 days.
The term depends on how many rabbits the female wears: the more of them, the faster the ocrol will occur.
Rabbits rabbit usually 6-10. When one calf is born, either the female has problems with reproduction, or the animal was incorrectly kept before mating. Perhaps the feed did not have enough vitamins, or not enough lighting in the cell.
A pregnant, so-called sucker rabbit must be carefully monitored. Matters appetite, appearance, behavior. The diet can be enriched with vitamins, and for 10 days before the diet, to increase the caloric intake. Peace and lack of noise is very important.
Expectant mother does the right thing if she collects wool for the nest. Otherwise, the owner will have to take care of the cubs. To do this, put straw and paper in the prepared box. There the rabbit will fold his wool, or the owner himself will have to carefully pull the wool from her abdomen.
When keeping rabbits not at an equipped farm, but at home, the temperature is especially important. When winter comes, it is advisable to take animals to the house for a time around the site.
What if the rabbit does not want to mate?
Breeding is as natural a process for rabbits as there are jokes about their fertility! It seems that there can be no obstacles for mating. But there are cases when the female does not admit to her a crawl.In this case, you need to otsadit it for some time, and later try again.
If the attempt fails again, the next mating is carried out in a day. A bunny rabbit can be specially prepared before mating. How this is done can be found in the video.
At home, sometimes this method is used. A rope is tied to the tail of the animal.
At a certain point, when a rabbit attaches itself to a rabbit, it is quickly pulled up, raising its tail.
Strong heat can cause the rabbit’s categorical refusal to mate. Therefore, in the summer it is recommended to knit animals in the morning before the onset of heat or in the evening when it subsides.
Sometimes visually mating of rabbits takes place correctly, but fertilization does not occur. To check the result, after 4-5 days, the female is again brought to the male.
A pregnant rabbit tries in every way to avoid contact, no matter how many attempts a male would make. Sometimes even aggressively behaves, attacking him.
Well, at a later date, the rabbit is carefully inspected and checked by palpation of the abdomen.
Growing rabbits on the farm and at home is not only profitable, but also fascinating. Breeding pets - one of its most important components. The main points related to this process are captured on the photo in the photo gallery.
How to distinguish male from female
Buy manufacturers should only breeders with a good reputation. Otherwise, you risk acquiring sick, unborn or old animals. Of course, even a beginner breeder should be able to distinguish a male from a female. Find out the floor of the rabbit is not difficult. To do this, put the animal on his lap with his hind legs towards the knees. Next, he raised the tail and, stretching the skin, examine the sexual organ. If you push it around, the male will have a pink penis, and the female will see a pink triangular “petal”. In rabbits older than five months, the oval testicles are clearly visible.
Selection of manufacturers
Rabbits, reproduction and care of which must be carried out in compliance with certain rules, are selected for reproduction in an existing herd as follows:
- Only rabbits from the first, second, or, in extreme cases, third females are left to brood.
- Be sure to pay attention to the exterior of potential manufacturers. Of course, it should be strong, healthy, neat rabbits, quickly gaining weight, active and cheerful.
- Manufacturers should be chosen when newborns are in the nest. In any litter there must be a couple of very young rabbits and at least one plump giant. Here is the last and fits the tribe the most.
After the pairing of rabbits will be carried out several times, it is necessary to reject the producers. At the same time get rid of those rats whose efforts to continue the race were not crowned with success in more than 30% of cases. Females are also rejected:
- Eaten their rabbits or aborted more than two times in a row.
- Not getting pregnant even after checking the mating.
- Bringing and feeding less than four rabbits in two litters in a row.
Of course, as manufacturers, it is best to leave only high-milk rabbits.
Two weeks before mating, the female begins to give more concentrated feed. The number of coarse - hay and twigs - should remain the same. In no case can not overfeed animals. Fat females become pregnant less often individuals with a normal weight. Males during this period are fed with boiled potatoes and steamed grains (oats rather than yachts).
The first method of mating
Ornamental rabbits are often simply put in one cage and kept there for a week. This is a fairly effective way. However, it has some drawbacks.First, the female and male may not get along with each other. Fights between representatives of different sexes in rabbits are not uncommon. Especially if the male for some reason did not like the female. In addition, during the games the animals will most likely turn over the trough with the feeder.
I sit the female to the crawl for only a few hours. And only when she is in the stage of active sexual hunting. This method is much more effective than the first, since it is possible to control the pairing of rabbits and save yourself from the need to constantly clean the cage. In this way, farmers who breed rabbits for meat or skins spend mating.
In order to determine whether the hunt has come from the female, it is necessary to examine her sexual organ. It should be red and slightly enlarged. At this time, the behavior of the rabbit changes. She becomes restless, runs around the cage, carries hay in her teeth, and sometimes tears down fluff from her chest. Sexual hunting of rabbits lasts about five days with an interval of about two weeks. In November and December, animals have a slight decrease in sexual activity. The rest of the time, the ability of rabbits to reproduce the genus remains unchanged. Thus, the breeding season of rabbits - almost all year round.
Farmers containing large numbers of rabbits are often used and the most effective method is artificial insemination of the female. In order to take the sperm, a female is brought to the crawl and they wait until it jumps on it. After that simply substitute the tube. In the heat of passion, the rabbit does not notice the substitution.
Sometimes pregnancy in females after the coating does not occur. Therefore, experienced breeders advise about a week after the first mating conduct control. The female is brought to the male again, and then, by her behavior, it is determined whether the pregnancy has occurred or not. If she does not let him in, growls and fights, then everything is in order - she will soon have kids.
What rules must be followed when mating
In order for the mating of rabbits to succeed, the following recommendations should be followed:
- These animals are most active in the evening and morning hours. It is at this time that the pairing should be carried out.
- The female is placed in a cage to the male, and not vice versa. In this case, he will feel more confident, and the chances of success will increase.
- There should be no sharp objects in the cage, for example, wire sticking out of the mesh, nails in boards, etc.
- From the cage should remove the trough and watering.
In addition, you should be aware that no more than 8-10 heads of females should fall on one male. This way the breeding of Californian rabbits, giants, Soviet chinchillas, etc. is carried out. If we are talking about a decorative breed, there are only two rabbits (samochka and male), of course, it is impossible to keep them in one cage. For young rabbits, they choose experienced “partners” and vice versa. The process of mating is considered successful if, after covering, the male falls on its side and gives a characteristic squeak.
Has a pregnancy occurred?
How successful was the mating of ornamental rabbits or their meat counterparts, can be determined not only by the behavior of the female during the control mating. It is possible to find out whether a pregnancy has occurred or not in a slightly different way. The female is placed on its knees with its head facing itself and probes its tummy in the area closer to the tail. If the pregnancy has come, in this part a “chain” of small “balls” - the embryo - will be clearly visible.
Perform a palpation procedure about two weeks after mating. Of course, probing should be done as carefully as possible. Otherwise there is a risk of miscarriage. Many females in the period of gestation of rabbits become very picky with regard to food.Some very early begin to build a nest. However, you should be aware of the fact that in these animals there are frequent cases of the onset of the so-called “false pregnancy”. At the same time, an unfertilized female also becomes restless, drags straw for the nest and plucks down the fluff. After about 18 days, all these signs of "pregnancy" disappear.
A bit of theory
The release of oocytes ready for dividing in females occurs directly at the moment of mating. All of them can be from six to eighteen. They enter the oviduct after about 10-12 hours. Sperm cells “reach” here in about 2-2.5 hours. Fertilization takes place in the upper part of the oviduct. The fact that sperm cells enter it much earlier is not decisive. They retain their activity and vitality during the day.
It is interesting that not one, but several sperm cells penetrate into the egg cell. Crushing begins after 10-12 hours. The reproductive system of rabbits has another very unusual feature. The fact is that the rabbit's uterus is double. This means that fertilization can occur twice - after a certain period of time. In this case, the rabbit gives birth twice - with the same interval. The second fertilization can occur including during the control of mating. Therefore, if the female snaps at the male, it must be removed from the cage immediately. The fact is that “duplicating” pregnancy, depleting the female's body, usually leads only to akrol of stillborn young.
The germinal petals are formed in the rabbit's womb on the 5-7th day. On the 8th they are attached to the wall. On the 13th day, their length is already about 7 mm.
Breeding rabbits in the winter
Mating can also be carried out during the cold season. Quite successfully, these animals breed even in unheated premises. However, in extreme cold the electric heaters should still be turned on in the shed. The rabbits endure cold rather well, which cannot be said about drafts. You do not need to blow the cages, otherwise the animals will get cold Also in the barn and the cells themselves should be dry.
Breeding rabbits in winter occurs in the usual manner. However, sometimes the owners of these animals are faced with the so-called "one cub" syndrome. Nothing wrong with that. Apparently, these are the characteristics of the body of rabbits. It is possible to avoid all sorts of problems and difficulties, “prolonging” a light day for the animals. Lamps in the room for rabbits should burn 12-16 hours a day. The ability to multiply in these animals is directly dependent on the length of the daylight hours.
Breeding rabbits in the winter is a bit troublesome, because you need to ensure that the rabbits do not freeze. Especially if the cells are right on the street. Experienced farmers advise in severe frosts - in the absence of a barn with a heater - yet bring them into the house for a while around.
Care for a pregnant rabbit
If the mating of rabbits is successful, and the female becomes pregnant, she will need to ensure special conditions of detention. Rules for the care of the suckled fish are as follows:
- A rabbit cannot be transplanted into another cage. Conditions for it should be familiar. The mother liquor is installed directly into the cell. Pre-disinfect.
- You can not dramatically change the types of food. This can lead to intestinal upset and even miscarriage.
- The cage should be located in a quiet place. Pregnant females become very shy. An abrupt noise can cause a leap with a strong blow to the cage floor, which can lead to a spontaneous abortion.
Have sukrolnykh rabbits sharply increases appetite. They need to feed well, but not allowing obesity. It is very difficult to give birth to fat females.
What to do while around
Decorative rabbits, the reproduction of which occurs very quickly, give birth easily and practically painlessly.Pregnancy in females lasts about a month (sometimes a little longer). The term depends on the number of babies being carried. The more of them, the longer the pregnancy continues. A couple of days before they begin, females begin to make a nest. Therefore, a week before the intended delivery should be put in a cage more hay. As soon as you notice that the female began to actively (before the bald spots) pull out the fluff on her chest, this means that she is on the eve of the nest.
Cubs are usually born at night or in the morning. Lasts about 5-10 minutes. Sometimes the process of expelling the fetus and placenta from the uterus lasts a little longer, but not more than an hour. In most breeds, females bring about 6-9 cubs. In this regard, the age of mating rabbits plays a fairly important role. First-breed females usually bring smaller cubs - 4-6. Individuals that have crawled many times sometimes give birth to 16 or even 18 rabbits.
Rabbit care after the baby
Young rabbits are born naked and almost helpless. Immediately after the rabbit is wrapped, it wraps them in its own fluff with its head. Some weak she can and throw out of the nest.
After a roundabout, you need to check the nest for the presence of stillborn young. Unfortunately, this phenomenon is far from uncommon in rabbits. It is better to wear rubber gloves on your hands so as not to leave a smell.
Why does the female nibble on her cubs
Decorative rabbits, the breeding of which is a rather quick process, sometimes, however, eat their droppings immediately after a round. There may be several reasons for this. The main is the painful condition of the rabbit's nipples - mastitis. To reduce the risk of this phenomenon can be, carefully monitoring the purity of the cell. Another reason for eating the litter may be the lack of milk. It is believed that this can happen if the female did not receive sufficient food during suturing, or there was no water in her cage at the time of the birth.
Also a possible cause of rabbit ragout, some farmers say the presence of extraneous odors. And not only strangers, but also others - especially recently acquired - females.
Out of the nest
Leave the mother liquor and eat the rabbits together with the mother approximately on the 18th day after birth. Two days after the release of the nest from the cage can be removed. After this disinfection is carried out. During this period, you need as carefully as possible to monitor the quality and freshness of food for animals. The digestive system of baby rabbits does not work too well. You should not give kids and some products - for example, beets. Carrots, grass, and a little shreds - the main diet of rabbits after leaving the nest. It is also impossible to dramatically change the type of feed. Young animals are deposited from female 2-2.5 months after caul.
Rabbit mating is a meaningful and responsible procedure. Rules for its implementation should be complied with without fail. Choose the best producers, discard not too good - and soon you will become the happy owner of a large population of healthy, rapidly growing animals.
Proper preparation of the rabbit for breeding
The key stage of preparation for mating is the determination of the rabbit's readiness for motherhood, otherwise called the hunting period. Its duration depending on the season is 3-5 days.
Between hunting periods pairing is unlikely. The intervals between the next hunting females also range from 5 to 10 days. In winter, they can last longer, as the sexual activity of animals decreases.
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To determine the period of hunting is quite simple. This is evidenced by:
- The increased activity of the rabbit,
- Plucking down on the belly,
- Preparation of materials for the nest.
For credibility check the state of the penis rabbit, called loop. Its redness and swelling clearly indicate the onset of a hunting period in the female.
There is no such limitation for males.
Immediately before mating, it is important to properly prepare the cage.
From the cage of the crawl remove all unnecessary, including watering and feeding trough. The animal will not eat. The cage must be washed and sanitized. Only after that can the rabbit sit down to the partner.
The diet of rabbits before mating should always be more nutritious. For what proportion of feed, oats, grains, legumes, it is desirable to increase.
Steamed potatoes and oats are very useful for males. Feed these foods begin for 1.5-2 weeks. Sprouted wheat is very useful for females. Good nutrition increases the number of baby rabbits in the litter and makes them healthier.
Mate male to female
And now let's learn how to rabbits for the first and subsequent times. In small farms, where it is not possible to carry out artificial insemination, two methods of mating are practiced:
- Replanting the rabbit to the male for a long time - 5-7 days. In this situation, the animals themselves are determined with the best mating option. At first it is advisable to watch the animals. Cases of fights, if the partner did not like - not uncommon. If partners are aggressive and it ends in a fight, then animals should be seated in order to avoid serious injuries.
- The second option is a short-term replanting of the female for 2-3 hours.. The disadvantage of this method is the need for constant monitoring and, possibly, intervention of a rabbit breeder. Determine the moment of coating visually is not difficult. It lasts for half a minute. After coating, the crawl falls to the side and makes a characteristic squeak - a signal to the rabbit breeder that partners can be seated. If the partners are too flattering and do not intercourse, then the experienced rabbitks simply hold the rabbit with their hands, allowing the male to quickly complete their work.
A successful rabbit cover does not guarantee pregnancy. Therefore, for fidelity, control mating is carried out 5-6 days after the first pairing. There are no features for the control connection.
Often, control pairing is also a test of the results of the first mating. If the rabbit shows aggression and does not allow a proven partner in itself, you can be sure that there is no need for test pairing.
If the mating passes as usual, its date is noted, and, accordingly, after another 5-6 days, another control pairing is performed.
Replanting for control mating
Checking the results of mating
Accurately verify the effectiveness of mating can be done within 15 days after its implementation. To do this, the rabbit's stomach very gently probe. There are videos on the Internet showing this procedure, therefore, in order to avoid causing the rabbit harm, it would be useful to view them.
The presence of one or two chains of oblong lumps is a clear indication of pregnancy.
Rabbit's failure to mate
If the rabbit does not allow the crawl, then the breeders choose one of the following options:
- Animals sit down to each other after some time, for example, after 2-3 hours. If the situation repeats, the procedure is repeated after a day,
- If the first method did not work, then you can change the male. Often, this is the most successful option.
Forced or occasional inbreeding
Inbreeding or, to put it simply, related crossbreeding also occurs in experienced breeders. When keeping the herd together (in the pit, aviary, etc.), occasional crossing occurs periodically.
Another problem is the impossibility of finding a pair of your own animals, suitable for health, external data or breed. Then inbreeding becomes forced.
Dozens of scientific papers have been written about the pros and cons of inbreeding; therefore, without going into unnecessary details, let us give an example from practice.Even the ancient pastoralists sought to eliminate the crossing of relatives of similar animals. Experimentally verified that regular inbreeding in a herd leads to degeneration. Although in the laboratory, inbreeding and practiced for the withdrawal of new breeds.
Possibility of related mating when kept in a pit
If in your household, for some reason, a kindred interbreeding did occur, then experienced rabbitks are guided by the following recommendations:
- They try in every way to prevent cross-breeding of the born rabbits with other relatives on the paternal or maternal line. Proceeding from this, in a small herd, all the rabbits born from such a crossing are likely to go for meat, and in the future will not participate in reproduction,
- When forced inbreeding, they try to select a pair with the weakest possible kinship, that is, distant relatives. Given the fertility of rabbits, this is quite realistic
- All rabbits born with birth defects, and more and more of them will be removed from the herd with each subsequent mating.
How can it happen in the cold season?
A rabbit breeder should not fear winter intercourse. However, to prevent frostbite and death of animals adhere to the following recommendations:
- Winter bonding held warm, in the closed and heated rooms. A suitable temperature for rabbits is the range of 19-27 degrees of heat. If it is impossible to achieve the desired temperature, then a drop of 3-5 degrees is not critical. With proper cell warming, it is permissible to produce healthy offspring and at 10 degrees of heat. However, the rabbit’s worst enemy is not low temperature, but drafts and dampness, which must be eliminated.
- Rabbits must be fed, and the diet is as varied as possible. Suitable for winter feeding to future parents of potatoes, legumes, oats, sprouted grains of wheat, maize and other cereals,
- Animals within 1-2 weeks before and during mating long daylight hours required, at least 12 hours a day. Artificial light is allowed. Insufficient illumination leads to extremely few okrols (1-2 rabbits) or it is the main obstacle for successful mating.
Now you know how and at what age rabbits happen. However, we note that the experience comes to the breeders with years and mistakes. However, a careful study of the issue, the use of advice and the help of experienced rabbitks will save you from many, often fatal mistakes and will allow you to get healthy rabbits with the right signs.
And finally, we offer to watch a small video from which you will learn when rabbits are covered: