Having become the owner of a summer cottage with mature trees, gardeners see one problem: how to achieve high yields? Make a lot of dressings, irrigation is carried out according to the schedule, and due fruiting is not observed.
The reason for this may be a lot of negative factors, one of which - trunk health problems.
Having made a thorough inspection, we classify the visible signs of disease and figure out how to treat the trunk of an apple tree.
Damage to the apple trunk can be the result mechanical impact or painful infection. Each case will consider more.
Frostbite or burns
Dead bark areas are formed as a result of frostbite or from sunburn. In places sunburn (April - May) bark looks like slightly lighter with wide layers of detachment.
Sunburn warned timely whitewash.
Sunburn of the trunk.
The bark of the apple tree with deep cracks in the trunk, without changing color - the main feature frostbite. Frost wounds tree heals itself, during the start of sap flow, the cracks are tightened with the secreted juice, so you should not handle such damages with garden pitch, it is better to perform decontamination after filling the cracks with wood “glue” - clean the uneven surfaces and lubricate with “Ranet”. Prevention methods: for the winter we wrap the main trunk and skeletal branches of apple trees with ribbons of natural webs (sackcloth, denim, thick cotton), carefully fastening. From severe frosts, such a tool will not save, but will be effective with sudden daily temperature drops. Important! Gardeners mistake - applying whitewash in May. It is important for a tree to get protection before the appearance of leaves, with increasing sun activity, which is characteristic of the end of March - the beginning of April. Damage by rodents, faults as a result of natural disasters (wind, hail) or break-off of apple tree branches due to improper crown formation. To prevent attack rodents prepare mats of branches or shrubs, which tightly we wind the central trunk and lower branches. Possible application corn "shields", fir branches, reeds. The main thing - time to remove protection after the end of frost. Attention! Under the covering material, the mass of pests can overwinter, so when the onset of heat immediately remove and burn drives unfriendly neighbors. Elimination of the consequences: minor damage to the trunk covered with garden pitch. Usually minor traces of teeth are delayed by the end of the summer. Broken branches are pruned under the base, they are applied to a garden pitch or a mixture of ordinary yellow clay with mullein (1/1). Brownish red ulcerswhich at first appear only with a slight darkening, and subsequently seize large areas of the bark, deforming the surface and leading to breaking off of the dying branches. Fungal disease leading to a fast, 1-2 season, the death of an apple. The reasons: weakening of the plant due to landing on depleted soils, non-compliance with dressing and watering, the presence of mechanical damage. Cytosporosis on the apple tree. The sooner treatment is started, the greater the chances of saving the plant.
Physical damage to the cortex
Frost wounds tree heals itself, during the start of sap flow, the cracks are tightened with the secreted juice, so you should not handle such damages with garden pitch, it is better to perform decontamination after filling the cracks with wood “glue” - clean the uneven surfaces and lubricate with “Ranet”.
Prevention methods: for the winter we wrap the main trunk and skeletal branches of apple trees with ribbons of natural webs (sackcloth, denim, thick cotton), carefully fastening. From severe frosts, such a tool will not save, but will be effective with sudden daily temperature drops.
Important! Gardeners mistake - applying whitewash in May. It is important for a tree to get protection before the appearance of leaves, with increasing sun activity, which is characteristic of the end of March - the beginning of April.
Damage by rodents, faults as a result of natural disasters (wind, hail) or break-off of apple tree branches due to improper crown formation.
To prevent attack rodents prepare mats of branches or shrubs, which tightly we wind the central trunk and lower branches.
Possible application corn "shields", fir branches, reeds. The main thing - time to remove protection after the end of frost.
Attention! Under the covering material, the mass of pests can overwinter, so when the onset of heat immediately remove and burn drives unfriendly neighbors.
Elimination of the consequences: minor damage to the trunk covered with garden pitch. Usually minor traces of teeth are delayed by the end of the summer. Broken branches are pruned under the base, they are applied to a garden pitch or a mixture of ordinary yellow clay with mullein (1/1).
Brownish red ulcerswhich at first appear only with a slight darkening, and subsequently seize large areas of the bark, deforming the surface and leading to breaking off of the dying branches. Fungal disease leading to a fast, 1-2 season, the death of an apple.
The reasons: weakening of the plant due to landing on depleted soils, non-compliance with dressing and watering, the presence of mechanical damage.
Cytosporosis on the apple tree.
The sooner treatment is started, the greater the chances of saving the plant.
For prophylaxis the spread of the disease we use means:
- a drug "Hom". Dissolve 40 g in 10 liters of water, spray in the period before the swelling of the kidneys,
- copper sulphate. Before flowering, spray the apple with a solution of 50 g of the chemical in 10 liters of water,
- tank mixture containing trichodermina. We process before flowering, with a uniform solution of the solution on the leaves and bark.
Black crayfish, "Antonov fire"
Fungal disease. Faster trees are weakened by strong fructification or trees growing on poor soils. On strong and healthy apple trees, the fungus can quietly develop for about two years.
It is characterized by the appearance of brownish spots, which are reborn into recesses with black bloom. At the same time, the border between the healthy bark and the damaged disease is clearly visible.
As if the charred bark disappears with a light peeling, exposing the trunk. Cancer-damaged wood, crumbling and friable. For 3-4 years, this disease can completely destroy the garden. Black crab apple. The best remedy is to completely get rid of the diseased tree. The uprooting is carried out in calm weather and we burn the whole tree in order to avoid the spread of infection. If the disease struck non-vital for a tree nodes or small areas, we produce removal of the infected place followed by treatment of the opening wound:
Black crab apple.
The best remedy is to completely get rid of the diseased tree. The uprooting is carried out in calm weather and we burn the whole tree in order to avoid the spread of infection.
If the disease struck non-vital for a tree nodes or small areas, we produce removal of the infected place followed by treatment of the opening wound:
Tip! Since black cancer can infect, besides the bark, both the leaves and the fruits, it is advisable to fully treat the apple tree after flowering with Bordeaux mixture.
From black differs growths and surges, surrounded by dark - red expressive tubercles. The rate of damage to ordinary cancer is lower chances to save the tree are much greater.
Common cancer of the apple tree.
It affects both young and old trees. The methods of struggle are the same as with black cancer. Deleted during processing areas of bark, wood, leaves must be burned. Instrumentsthat came into contact with diseased trees - disinfect with alcohol. Preventive treatment for both types of cancer is best done several times per season. At the same time we monitor the size of the affected areas. If the treatment of the apple tree trunk turned out to be ineffective, it is better to part with one tree than to lose the garden. Gardeners often confuse lichens on apple tree trunks with diseases. In color, they can be from silver-green to gray-black. On their own lichens do not bring any harm to apple trees, but due to the fact that pests like to spend the winter under their cover, it is better to protect the trees from risky neighbors. Remove lichens mechanicallyBetter scraper, as a metal brush can damage the bark. Basically they are easy to clean. If you cannot delete immediately, produce spraying overgrown with lichen soap solution and after 20 minutes, clean off without the use of force. Lichen on the trunk of an apple tree. If the bark on the apple tree is damaged ring-shaped, it is necessary to apply to restore sap flow and save the tree. grafting "bridge". This method can only be used in early springuntil the tree is fully awake, and the inoculum is harvested before budding begins. Sample scenario: Important! Our garden is our brainchild, which requires constant attention. The more seriously we treat his problems, noticing the slightest changes in the development of apple trees, the more abundantly our work will be rewarded. On the apple bloom on the trunk of a greenish color form lichens and unicellular algae. Their appearance is due to crown thickening, lack of free air circulation. It does not bring harm to the tree, but when clustered in the axils of the branches it helps to reproduce under the cover of various insects. Cleaned with a spatula or hard washcloth. With insignificant damage:
Raid on the trunk
How to treat the trunk of an apple tree when the bark is damaged?
Deleted during processing areas of bark, wood, leaves must be burned.
Instrumentsthat came into contact with diseased trees - disinfect with alcohol.
Preventive treatment for both types of cancer is best done several times per season.
At the same time we monitor the size of the affected areas. If the treatment of the apple tree trunk turned out to be ineffective, it is better to part with one tree than to lose the garden.
Gardeners often confuse lichens on apple tree trunks with diseases. In color, they can be from silver-green to gray-black.
On their own lichens do not bring any harm to apple trees, but due to the fact that pests like to spend the winter under their cover, it is better to protect the trees from risky neighbors.
Remove lichens mechanicallyBetter scraper, as a metal brush can damage the bark.
Basically they are easy to clean. If you cannot delete immediately, produce spraying overgrown with lichen soap solution and after 20 minutes, clean off without the use of force.
Lichen on the trunk of an apple tree.
If the bark on the apple tree is damaged ring-shaped, it is necessary to apply to restore sap flow and save the tree. grafting "bridge". This method can only be used in early springuntil the tree is fully awake, and the inoculum is harvested before budding begins. Sample scenario:
This method can only be used in early springuntil the tree is fully awake, and the inoculum is harvested before budding begins.
Important! Our garden is our brainchild, which requires constant attention. The more seriously we treat his problems, noticing the slightest changes in the development of apple trees, the more abundantly our work will be rewarded.
On the apple bloom on the trunk of a greenish color form lichens and unicellular algae. Their appearance is due to crown thickening, lack of free air circulation.
It does not bring harm to the tree, but when clustered in the axils of the branches it helps to reproduce under the cover of various insects. Cleaned with a spatula or hard washcloth.
With insignificant damage:
It is desirable to keep the coating wet for a month (spray it with water).
Few bark left
It is important to know how to save an apple tree, if there are few bark left on the trunk.
Help with ring damage to the trunk may only vaccination "bridge"which is carried out exclusively in early spring.
All other injuries can be treated at any time of the year at positive temperatures.
Important: remove all parts of the trunk with the slightest signs of damage, cover the damaged area with the treatment mixture for the season. In the spring, re-treat the problem area.
Causes: apple aphid, fungal diseases. Knotty thickenings are formed in the breeding sites of aphids.
In the formed microcracks, except for aphids, a fungus penetrates, and then the tree is under serious threat. Galls are removed, cut points are treated in a standard way.
Sure to sprayed all wood chemicals (Biotlin, Spark).
Causes of blackening
- black mushroom
- common cancer
- black cancer.
Particularly prone to diseases of apple trees growing on poor soils.
- timely balanced feeding,
- prevent thickening of the crown,
- trimming with handling cut points,
- periodic inspection of all parts of the tree, including foliage.
- Classify disease
- Remove all damaged parts of the apple tree: leaves, fruits, damaged branches and burn,
- It is also advisable to remove the soil near the stem, to hide it under digging in another place not less than 10 cm.
- Scrape the damaged area with a sharp knife with a touch of living tissue 1.5-2 cm,
- The tool after work is sterilized, better - burned. It is important not to allow spores to get into healthy branches; stripping is best done in calm weather,
- The pruning sites are treated with copper, and in the case of black cancer, iron sulphate is covered with garden pitch or clay solution.
How to save an apple tree with a damaged trunk?
Minor damages are cleaned, then covered with oil paint or pure clay. In no case Do not use tar, various mineral solutions: this can lead to burns and plant death.
More serious wounds Heal with garden war.
Large hollows filled with cement-sand mortar to prevent water and air from entering the trunk.
Longitudinal cracks in apple trees are caused by sudden changes in temperature, are found in the spring. The bark peels off and falls off. It is impossible to leave cracks on the trunk of an apple tree, even small ones, as they can get spores of fungi or settle pests.
- The edges of the crust adjacent to the crack are carefully cut.
- The solution of copper sulfate is wiped (not sprayed) the upper part of the damaged stem,
- The clay solution of a mullein or garden var is applied.
Such damage for the fastest healing is covered with cellophane film from above, but after a month, when replacing the therapeutic application with a fresh one, it is better to wrap it with a standard mat to avoid overheating.
You can also watch a video with tips on how to cure apple tree diseases:
Apple Diseases - a description and effective treatment
A healthy fruit tree during the period of active fruiting annually brings to the owner a bountiful harvest of apples up to 500 kg. Proper care and respect for the plants help to achieve maximum benefit from the apple orchard.
When growing conditions differ from the requirements of the thermophilic fruit tree, immunity to diseases and pests gradually decreases, and the apple trees become more vulnerable to infection by various fungal and bacterial diseases. The main task of the gardener is to diagnose and respond to the occurrence of a disease in a timely manner.
In the natural environment, only wild apple varieties grow, which grow from grains mainly in the highlands.
Cultivated species with large fruits were bred by breeders in specialized nurseries, so all varieties, even the most resistant to infections, require appropriate care.
So how do you grow a healthy fruit tree?
Choosing a place for planting apple seedlings
The photo fruit-loving fruit tree will gladly settle on potassium-rich soil in a well-lit place away from the groundwater.
For the intensive development of seedlings will need a lot of organic fertilizer.
The soil before planting is necessary to fill the puff nutrient soil: peat, river sand, rotted manure in equal quantities.
Care of the growing seedling
In the first years after planting a young apple tree, it is important to thoroughly weed the tree trunk, since weeds often become an indirect cause of attack by pests, such as aphids, wintering on plant debris.
To reduce the time required to get rid of weeds and retain moisture, the base of the seedling can be mulched with a thick layer of peat or other mulch of organic origin.
Mandatory measures for the care of a young tree is the correct formation of the crown. The center conductor must remain above the lateral branches throughout the life of the tree.
Annual spring work in the apple orchard
Rooting of a sapling during the first five years occurs at the expense of fertilizers introduced into the pit during planting.
Regular feeding of the plant will accelerate the onset of fruiting and increase the rate of growth of the vegetative and root mass.
By the age of thirty, the apple tree will occupy the required area, forming a root system of optimal size.
In the spring it is important to sanitary pruning of the crown, removing diseased and dry branches. Places cut necessarily smeared with garden pitch.
Fruit trees always react sharply to careless attitude towards them. With inadequate care, the disease of the apple trees progresses especially rapidly, and in the latter stages of the development of the disease, sometimes it can not be treated at all.
In order for your garden to always be healthy, and the harvest to please with its abundance from season to season, it is important to monitor the health of fruit trees and conduct regular gardening activities, starting with planting seedlings.
Diseases of apple: methods of struggle and prevention
Every second fruit tree without proper care and spring preventive treatment suffers from fungal diseases.
Infection at an early stage does not particularly attract the attention of the gardener and can only be seen with a targeted examination of the plants.
If you miss the moment and do not cure the apple tree in the initial period of the disease, you can lose the entire crop.Some diseases lead to the death of the fruit tree.
Information about how this or that disease manifests itself, as well as ways of dealing with them, will facilitate the work of gardeners and help in the shortest possible time to get rid of the misfortune that has befallen fruit trees.
Ash (powdery mildew)
Fungal disease covers not only the bark of the apple tree, but also the branches, leaves and buds of the plant. Spores fall from other plants during windy weather and rain.
Symptoms: a whitish bloom appears on all parts of the tree, which eventually acquires a brown tint, and subsequently the affected areas become covered with small black dots. A tree that is sick with ashes ceases to grow, leaves are deformed and dry. Fungal infections also adversely affect yields.
- Colloidal sulfur: dilute 80g in a bucket of water,
- Preparative fungicides: "Topaz", "Skor".
For the treatment of pepelitsa on apple spraying sulfur produced in three stages throughout the season:
- During the period of swelling of the kidneys,
- With the beginning of the formation of the ovaries,
- After 14 days.
For prophylactic purposes, use an identical set of drugs against pepelitsa.
Bacterial burn (bacteriosis)
Buying seedlings from third parties and intermediaries often leads to dismal consequences. Bacteriosis the plant most often becomes infected at the age of the seedling.
Signs: dark watery stains affect the fruit, foliage and bark, apples with traces of bacteriosis do not fall off, but become unsuitable for food.
How to fight:
- Having found signs of bacteriosis, remove the shoots immediately (make a cut lower by 25 cm), after the complete elimination of the infected parts, smear all the wounds inflicted on the tree with garden pitch.
- Copiously spray the diseased tree with preparations containing sulfur (5% solution of Bordeaux mixture will be an excellent alternative against bacteriosis). Popular chemicals: “VDG”, “Cumulus DF”, “Tiovit Jet”.
- After work it is strictly necessary to sanitize the instruments.
The soil around the diseased apple tree and the tree trunks of neighboring trees should be shed with a solution of copper sulfate for prevention (60g per bucket of water).
The scab becomes a frequent guest in the apple orchard, and since the fungal disease spreads through the water, there is a 90% chance of developing this phytopathology in an abnormally rainy and hot spring.
Symptoms: the appearance of yellow-brown spots on the leaves, their subsequent yellowing and abscission, the apples stop growing, become covered with small rough brown spots, and then crack.
How to cure:
Fungal spores germinate on the leaves and bark due to the increased humidity and thickening of the crown, therefore, to prevent scab, the crown is thinned annually before the start of sap flow.
In some cases, when the fungal disease affects the skeletal branches, the milky luster leads to the death of the tree.
Symptoms: Milky luster with pearlescent effect is formed on the branches, which quickly moves to the neighboring healthy branches, the tree ceases to bear fruit, the affected areas dry, the apples fall.
How to fight:
- Cut all branches with external signs of the disease (5 cm below).
- Slices spray with 1% of blue vitriol, thickly smeared with garden pitch.
If not one apple tree grows in the garden, it is necessary to process all plantings with lime: 2 kg per 10 l of water.
An effective and universal method for the prevention of most fungal diseases, including the milky luster, is the treatment of the trunk with 5% copper sulfate and subsequent whitewashing.
Fungal mold rot often accompanies the scab and makes the fruit unfit for human consumption.
Signs: fruits are covered with brown rotten spots with white specks.
How to fight:
- After harvesting, fallen diseased apples must be harvested, selectively cut branches and burned.
- To prevent the disease from manifesting next year, the trees are sprayed in the fall and spring with “EDC” or “Horus” preparations.
Preventing fungal diseases is much easier than fighting them. Therefore, the owners of apple orchards or other fruit trees should not neglect preventive measures.
We recommend reading:
Effective scheme of feeding the apple,
The best preparations for treating apple trees and preventing tree diseases,
We fertilize the soil with boron correctly.
Preventive measures against pests and diseases of the apple tree
There are many different chemical preparations for the prophylactic treatment of fruit trees, the most famous among them are the fungicidal mixtures Horus and Scor.
To prevent the emergence and spread of fungal diseases, it is important to spray apples not less than twice a season:
- The first treatment of the bark and leaves is done during the growing season. Spraying is aimed at eliminating pests and inhibiting spores,
- The second spraying should be organized in the phase of ovary formation.
Bringing birds to an apple orchard is a very effective alternative method of preventing pests. Set birdhouses and bird feeders in the trees and feed the birds, later they will significantly reduce the population of pests.
To reduce the risk of apple disease, do not allow:
- Crown thickening - a medium comfortable for germination of fungal spores is created in the unaltered crown,
- Untreated wounds, cuts, kinks, freezers or sunburn of the cortex,
- Depletion of soil in the wheel circle (especially potassium and phosphorus deficiency),
- Wood processing with dirty tools.
From year to year with the onset of autumn it is necessary to protect the bark of an apple tree from frost and sun with sacking or spruce branches. And in the spring, carefully inspect and, if necessary, treat the wounds and cracks on the bark that have appeared.
- 1Top dressing Tomato
- 2Fertilizer onions
- 3Iodine seedlings
- 4Weeds Fight
How to deal with diseases of the apple: the recommendations of gardeners
Recently, professional gardeners and nursery owners have noted that the occurrence and spread of fungal diseases among fruit and berry crops has become more frequent.
This fact is confirmed by numerous complaints of amateur gardeners throughout the country and abroad.
In such unfavorable conditions one should be especially attentive to one's plantings and start treating illnesses in time. Experienced gardeners will share proven methods of dealing with certain diseases of the apple:
“In my garden plot grows several adult apples. Over a long period of cultivation, I faced various diseases of the bark, leaves, and fruits. But since most of the diseases belong to the fungi, each time I was rescued by a universal solution of HOM.
For the treatment of a bacterial burn, I used a concentrated solution - 80g for 10l, a solution with the calculation of 40g for 10l helps against cytosporosis, and a complex composition from powdery mildew - first HOM (40g per 10l), after 2 weeks Bordeaux mixture, and after two weeks - copper sulphate (50g per 10l) ".
“There is a unique recipe for whitewashing apple trees, which will save you almost all the problems with trees. To keep the apple trees from sore, try treating a tree trunk in spring, grabbing the first branches with the following composition:
All ingredients are mixed alternately in 10 liters of water. The finished composition should be reminiscent of the consistency of sour cream.
Blanch all the fruit trees on the site twice with an interval of two hours, preferably to gain clear weather.
This simple procedure will be an excellent prevention against pests and diseases, and will heal the bark of the trees. ”
plant diseases, apple tree
Diseases of apple trees and their treatment: timely and qualified assistance
Fruit trees are prone to disease and an apple tree is no exception.
And if you are a responsible gardener, watch your garden and want to get a decent harvest, you should know about the diseases of apple trees and methods of their treatment.
The article will help you successfully diagnose the most dangerous of them and tell you what to do in each case.
The causative agent of powdery mildew is a dangerous parasite powdery mildew.
The pest develops in spring and affects the buds, leaves, shoots and bark of both young and adult apple trees.
The main reason that contributes to the development and spread of the disease is excessive moisture of the soil and air.
On the leaves, shoots and sometimes on the fruit is a mealy patina of gray or off-white color. Over time, this raid becomes brown and there are multiple black patches. In the initial stage, the plaque can be easily removed, but over time it becomes more dense.
Under its action, the foliage begins to curl, turn yellow, gradually dry, and the young leaves stop their development. If the ovaries have formed, they can crumble. The disease leads to a decrease in yield, in severe cases - up to 50%.
Even low ambient temperatures during the winter period do not affect the causative agent. He quietly overwinter infected shoots in the kidneys. Even in the most severe and cold winters, the mycelium is only slightly reduced, but it still remains viable.
The fungus can reduce the winter resistance of an apple tree.
In the fall and spring, remove and be sure to burn the shoots affected by powdery mildew. Use agrotechnical measures that can prevent excessive soil moisture.
In the prevention of this disease successfully used fungicide "Topaz".
It is advisable to treat the entire garden, especially if there are varieties of Semerenko, Boyken, Rosemary white.
To suppress the primary infection, treatment with this drug begins at the beginning of the growing season. Usually carried out during the season 4 spraying.
After the crop is harvested, treatment continues by spraying 1% Bordeaux liquid. A perfect solution for this procedure is copper sulfate solution. To prepare in a bucket of water add 2 tbsp. spoons of copper sulphate and 1 tbsp. spoon of liquid soap.
To combat the pathogen for spraying, also use a solution of colloidal sulfur. It is recommended to apply it at least 3 times. The first is when the buds begin to emerge. The second - after the flowering phase and the third - 2 weeks after the second spraying.
Know that the fight against powdery mildew is quite protracted - the fungus is very cunning and often gives relapses.
Apple fungus - scab
This fungus mainly affects apples and pears. The disease is spread by spores with the help of water droplets. Ideal conditions for distribution - rainy long spring.
The main signs of the disease are olive brown on the leaves. Later, dark gray spots and many cracks appear on the fruit.
It is through them that all kinds of infections can penetrate, which will cause rotting of the fetus.
Since the fungus affects the leaf stalks, after a while they fall off, but the parasite does not destroy the development mechanism - photosynthesis and the infected tree continues to grow, which the fungus uses.
The fight against apple diseases, including scab, first of all begins with preventive measures in the fall - harvesting foliage, dried fruit and twigs. In the spring, before flowering, it is advisable to use the biofungicide "Fitosporin M" or Bordeaux liquid.
To combat scab, use the fungicides Gamar, Chorus, Fitolavin. Spraying is carried out both before flowering and after.
Mineral fertilizers have proven themselves against the fungus, and this method can be foliar feeding at the same time.
For treatment, solutions of 15% potassium salt, 10% ammonium nitrate, 15% potassium nitrate, 10% ammonium sulfate of high concentration are used.
They can also be used for maintenance work, but in this case, the concentration should be reduced.
Fruit Rot or Moniliasis
This disease is traditionally manifested during fruit ripening, at the end of August. Especially if the weather is wet.
If an apple tree is affected by a scab or codling moth, then this will be enough for monilioz to develop: rot develops on a fungus-infected fruit and spreads to healthy fruits through contact (an example of infection in the photograph).
First, a small speck appears on the apple, which progresses very quickly and occupies the entire surface of the fruit. The apple takes on a brown color and becomes very soft. Such an apple can not be eaten.
Monilioz is much more insidious than powdery mildew or scab, since the symptoms do not appear immediately, but gradually. It is also dangerous after harvest - the infection can easily spread to healthy fruits through contact.
The onset of cold weather calmly transfers rot to sick, mummified fruits.
First of all, as soon as you notice the diseased fruit, immediately remove it from the tree. Do not forget about the windfall, it should be collected and bury.
Do not leave mummified fruits for the winter, you must also get rid of them.
After harvesting, the places on the crown where the main foci of rot were located should be sprayed with 5% urea solution.
Do not allow moths, sawflies, geese to spread in the garden. These pests contribute to the development of moniliasis.
Carry out preventive spring spraying with a 0.3% solution of copper oxychloride or 1% Bordeaux liquid.
The first spraying - in the period of ripening buds, the second - immediately after flowering and the third - 2 weeks after the growing season.
To combat rot use the drug "Hom". The drug is diluted in cold water according to the instructions and carry out two spraying: during the emergence of new foliage and after flowering.
Remember that the key to effective struggle with this disease is not periodic, but regular spraying and constant care of the garden.
Apple trees - their diseases and treatment: photos of pests and ways to fight
Every gardener knows that diseases and various pests are the main threat in growing any plant. Because of them, often not only the harvest is lost, but the plants themselves die, and the apple trees are no exception.
To get a good harvest and enjoy the taste of personally grown apples for as long as possible, you need to protect the tree from harm.
And if trouble is no longer avoided, then you need to know what types of diseases exist and how to get rid of them effectively.
This article describes in detail the diseases and pests that can affect your apple trees, presents vivid photos that will help you understand how your trees are damaged. We describe the methods of treatment of diseases and protection from pests.
A very common disease that occurs due to the high humidity of the air or soil.
The causative agent is a powdery mildew, which begins to parasitize in the spring, completely affecting the tree from the kidneys to the bark.
Such a disease is dangerous for both young and adult plants.
Another unpleasant feature is that this fungus does not die at low temperatures, that is, if you do not get rid of the disease in time, then during the winter it can hide in the affected areas and calmly wait out the cold period.
Infection is very easy to determine, at the initial stage, a powdery gray or off-white color appears on the leaves, shoots or fruits, which can be easily removed if desired.
But in later periods the spots become brown with black dots, the leaves begin to curl and turn yellow, and the young shoots die at all.
The danger of the fungus is that it kills up to 50 percent of the crop or the entire tree.
It is very difficult to cure powdery mildew, because the fungus skillfully hides in the foliage and can appear again and again every year, so you need to pay attention to preventive measures.
- Fungicide "Topaz" copes with a preventive taskTo prevent the occurrence of the disease, it is recommended to carry out 4 sprays per season, the first treatment should be carried out in the spring before flowering, the second after flowering, then after the formation of the ovary, and the last after harvesting.
- To avoid the disease you need to monitor the soil moisture leveland prevent redundancy.
- If the fungus is still formed, then you need to make treatment with a solution of colloidal sulfur before flowering of the tree. The first application should be when the buds begin to move forward, the second immediately after flowering, and the third two weeks after the second application.
- After harvesting, you need to spray the tree with 1% Bordeaux mixture or a solution of blue vitriol.
- All damaged areas without fail need to remove from the tree and burn.
Cortical Disease - Cytosporosis
It occurs most often due to irregular watering or poor soil. This disease affects the bark of the tree, in most cases, the lesion focus is those areas that have mechanical damage.
It is very important to immediately start taking measures to save the tree, because the disease is expressed in the appearance of ulcers, which progress very quickly, becoming deeper and larger in size. If the branches are affected, then they simply fall off, but if cytosporosis reached the trunk of a tree, then it may die.
For the prevention of the disease you need:
- Feed trees before wintering potash and phosphorus-containing fertilizers.
- Places where bark damage was found or the places of cuts it is necessary to process antifungal agent or a drying oil.
- If infection does occur, it must be cured in its early stages. Before swelling of the buds and after flowering, the tree must be treated with the preparation “Khom”, but before flowering it is appropriate to use copper sulfate.
Bacterial Burn or Bacteriosis
The cause of this disease is too high an ambient temperature and frequent warm rain. The causative agent is gram-negative bacillus bacteria.
Defeat begins at the top of the tree and gradually moves to the bottom.
Most often, the disease is exposed to young trees that are in the flowering phase, and because of the burn, the apple tree can lose its fruitful flowers.
The branches and shoots are covered with dark, watery spots, but the foliage looks burnt and starts to curl involuntarily, which is why the disease got its name. If flowers are defeated, they change their color and fall away. It is extremely rare for a disease to spread to ripening fruits, which immediately acquire a dark color that is not peculiar to oneself, but continue to stick to the tree. To combat the disease you need:
If flowers are defeated, they change their color and fall away.
It is extremely rare for a disease to spread to ripening fruits, which immediately acquire a dark color that is not peculiar to oneself, but continue to stick to the tree.
To combat the disease you need:
Apple Green Aphid
They attack trees with whole colonies and can leave oval, black eggs on the branches. They hit the leaves of the tree, sucking the juice out of it. Methods of struggle can serve:
- Processing decoction of tobacco and soap.
- Well will also help karbofosa.
- The most effective way is to release the larvae of flies, hoverflies or ladybirds on aphids.
- Measures of prevention include removal of old bark from a tree and whitewashing of trunks with lime.
Red Apple Tick
This pest sucks the sap from the foliage of the tree, easily adapts to various conditions and is much more difficult to get rid of, it is able to survive the cold season in the folds of the bark.
To get rid of it you need:
- Perform timely cleaning and whitewashing of the bark.
- In the spring, sprinkle apples with solutions of karbofos and dicofol.
Leaf flea or cedar
The insect has a yellow-green color and affects primarily the buds and foliage of the tree. It multiplies very quickly and is able to hibernate in the folds of young buds.
To combat the leaf sheath you need:
- If larvae are found, they can be removed using decoction of chamomile, dandelion or tansy.
- You can fumigate wood with tobacco smoke, it will have a destructive effect on the insect.
- Well suited and treatment with karbofos solution.
- It is best to perform all the actions at the time of the swelling of the kidneys, because then it will be extremely difficult to get rid of the apple tree plant.
The caterpillars of this pest feed on budding buds, foliage or buds at the beginning of flowering. The apple moth lays the larvae in the bark of the tree, where they can safely spend the winter waiting for spring.
To get rid of the apple moth you need:
- For the period of wintering it is necessary to put glue belts on the tree trunk.
- After flowering, treat with a solution of chlorophos or zolone.
They damage the buds and buds of the trees, and then they pull the leaves with cobwebs, thereby forming a cozy place to lay eggs.
The fight against this pest begins in the spring as early as possible, when the leafworms are just beginning to wade into the foliage:
- Immediately after the winter, you can use a solution of nitrophene.
- After blooming the kidney solution of chlorophos.
This pest survives the cold either in the bark of the trees, or under fallen leaves. He eats the buds of the plant, and the females lay their eggs directly in the buds.
The hatched larvae start to eat the flower from the inside, therefore, the amount of the harvest is significantly reduced:
- It is necessary to timely remove the dead bark and clean the garden from fallen leaves.
- The use of hunting belts will be effective.
- You can process the apple tree with a solution of chlorophos or karbofos.
It feeds directly on the fruits of the plant, devouring the flesh and grains, after which they quickly ripen and fall to the ground.
To combat the moth growth you need:
- Collection and destruction of fallen apples.
- Timely cleansing of the bark and the use of trapping belts.
- Spraying with a solution of chlorophos or karbofos.
- Use of pheromone traps.
How to cure apple trees from diseases, effective methods
Growing apple trees in the country is much more difficult than it might seem at first glance. In order to regularly take a good harvest, it is necessary to care for fruit trees, to know the main diseases of apple trees and their treatment. It is about the diseases of apple trees, their leaves and methods of treatment will be discussed in this material.
Means and methods of dealing with scab
One of those diseases of the apple tree that affects the leaves of the tree. Saplings may also be completely affected. Unless urgent action is taken, the stalks and flowers are affected. It is possible to diagnose this disease by a light green, and then olive-brown oily bloom on the leaves. Because of it, the leaves dry and fall. When the disease affects the fruit, they cannot be poured: cracks and spots on their skin deform the apple and slow its growth. The fungus is activated in wet weather, when it often rains, there are abundant dew and fog. Moreover, the mycelium easily tolerates frosts, remaining in the fallen leaves of the tree.
Effectively and permanently eliminate the scab on an apple tree by treating the tree three times per season with Bordeaux paints (4%). The first time the procedure is carried out in the spring, as soon as the buds begin to bloom. If this moment was missed, spraying during the budding period is acceptable, but already 1% liquid. To prepare the solution, you need a bucket of water and 400 g of the drug. The second time treatment with a fungicide should be carried out immediately after the apple tree has blossomed. The third is carried out in two to three weeks. If the state of the tree is very deplorable, you can double the number of treatments per season.
Such drugs as “Zircon”, “Skor”, “Vectra”, and “Topaz” have proven to be excellent. They will help in the fight not only with scab, but also with other diseases. As a preventive measure, do not forget to clean and burn fallen leaves in the fall, as well as dig up the earth around the trunk of a tree.
How to cure an apple tree from fruit rot (moniliosis)
The disease is activated in late summer, when the fruits begin to ripen. At first small specks of brown color appear on them, which grow relatively quickly and cover the whole apple. It becomes soft and inedible.
Among all the diseases of apple trees and methods of dealing with them, fruit rot is considered the most problematic. It is almost impossible to identify at the initial stage, it appears already in the period of fruiting and rapidly covers the entire crop. It is impossible to fight the disease at an active stage of development, but preventive measures turn out to be effective - spraying the tree with “Khom” or the like. It is diluted in proportions of 40 g per bucket of water and sprayed in the spring during the emergence of young leaves. The second time to carry out this procedure is necessary after the apple tree blooms. It is necessary to spray at the rate of 5-6 liters per adult tree and 2 liters per young.
Adding an article to a new collection
Apple trees are subject to disease in the same way as other plants in the garden. How to recognize the disease, which can cause the death of the fruit tree, and what measures to take to help him resist the disease.
The reasons for which the apple tree is sick, a great many: they can be mechanical, thermal, associated with a shortage or excess of moisture, infection by parasites or pests, with a deficiency or too many nutrients.
Let us consider in more detail the signs of the most common diseases of the apple tree and ways to help sick plants. For more visual acquaintance, we presented this information in the form of a table.
Work on the prevention of scab should be carried out at least 3 times:
- 1st treatment is carried out in early spring at the very beginning of bud break (during this period use 3% bordeaux liquid),
- 2nd treatment is needed immediately after flowering (this time they use 1% Bordeaux liquid, Kuprozan or copper oxychloride,
- 3rd treatment is needed in 2-3 weeks after flowering (Approach Skor, Horus, Ditan).
Powdery mildew should be combated by removing and burning the affected shoots. The plant at an early stage of the disease can be treated with colloidal sulfur (80 g of sulfur per 10 liters of water).
So that the powdery mildew does not harm the whole plant, at the time of flowering the apple tree is treated with the drugs Skor or Topaz. You can also use the following drugs: Bayleton, Gamair, But, Kvadris, Rayok, Tilt, Topsin M, Tiovit Jet (fungicide and acaricide), Fundazol.
When the tree fades, it is treated with copper oxychloride. And after harvesting, the tree should be treated again with copper sulphate or a solution of liquid soap.
Among the effective ways of dealing with powdery mildew, zoning and planting apple varieties resistant to the disease are worth mentioning. In early spring and autumn, the affected shoots are cut out. In the autumn, when the leaves completely fall off, it is possible to carry out chemical treatment.
Perinospora, or downy mildew
Peronosporosis (or downy mildew) begins with small white specks. You can easily erase them with your fingers, but after a while they appear again, increasing in size. Then they acquire a rich purple or gray color, gradually condense and eventually become almost brown. The raid may appear on one or both sides of the leaf, which gradually dries, fades and falls.
Downy mildew on an apple tree leads to shedding of flowers and to the termination of growth of a plant.
Most of all, the disease develops at a humidity of 60-80% and air temperature in the range of 18-29 ° C.
If downy mildew appeared on just a few buds or leaves, simply remove them. Every 5-7 days, you need to spray the apple with special biological preparations to combat this disease (Baksis, Ordan, Kurzat, Bordeaux mixture, copper chlorine). Additionally, the apple tree is sprayed with potassium permanganate (2.5 g of the substance per 10 l of water), 1% colloidal sulfur, 0.5% chlorine dioxide, soap and soda solution (40 g of soap and 50 g of soda per 10 l of water).
With downy mildew, apple trees are well helped by iodine milk (10-12 drops of 5% iodine per 1 liter of skim milk) and tea leaves (0.5 liters of ash pour 3 liters of boiling water, let it brew until it cools and pour water) up to 10 l).
Monilioz (monilial burn, fruit rot)
It is necessary to collect all the affected fruits and take them out of the site. Trees with moniliosis should be treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid.
After harvesting, the affected apple trees should be treated with a solution of copper sulfate (100 liters of copper sulfate per 10 liters of water), consuming 2 liters of solution per tree.
It is necessary to fight black cancer radically: cut infected parts of the plant, clean the affected areas of the bark to healthy tissues, disinfect wounds with a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate, and then lubricate them with a garden pitch.
To prevent the appearance of black crayfish on the leaves, it is necessary to spray the apple with a 1% Bordeaux liquid twice (immediately after flowering and a month later).
This fungus infects the bark of the apple trees, causing the drying of its individual sections.
When cytosporosis on the bark of the trunk or branches can be seen ulcers. They grow rather quickly and darken. With cytosporosis, the apple bark will die off along with individual branches. Both the young and the old tree can die from this fungus.
Treatment of apple cytosporosis should begin in spring, during the period of swelling of leaf buds, with spraying with a solution of Homa (40 g of substance per 10 liters of water).
The following spraying is carried out with a solution of copper sulphate (50 g of substance per 10 l of water) before flowering.
The third spraying is carried out immediately after flowering with a solution of Homa (40 g of the substance per 10 liters of water), while 5 liters are spent on the adult tree and 2 liters of the solution on the young tree.
In order to prevent disease in the fall, apple trees are fed with potassium and phosphorus - this increases the hardiness of the tree.
In addition, in November, you need to whitewash the stumps and large skeletal branches. You can repeat this procedure in early spring. Whitewashing impose in two layers with a break of 2 hours.
If after winter you notice sore branches, they should be cut off in the spring, small spots can be cleaned with sandpaper. The cut parts of the branches must be destroyed.
If an apple tree is infected with a milky luster, its branches die off, and sometimes the whole tree may die. Most often, the milky luster occurs on apples after severe winter frosts. Cavities form under the skin of the leaf.
Soon, these air clusters turn white, and the whole leaf becomes a silvery shade. Then the fabric in some places of the leaf dies. If the milky luster of an apple is not treated, most leaves will wither and dry over time, and the color of the stem and wood will become darker.
The frost resistance of the tree will help to increase the autumn whitewashing of the bark of skeletal branches and the trunk.
When the frosts end, the apple tree must be properly fed.
If it is impossible to get rid of the milky luster, the diseased plant should be completely removed from the site and destroyed, otherwise the disease will spread to other plants.
We hope this information will help identify the cause of the disease of your apple and quickly take steps to cure it. Do not forget also that timely actions to protect plants from diseases and pests will help to save the tree and gather a healthy crop from it.
Growing apple orchard: rules of care
In the natural environment, only wild apple varieties grow, which grow from grains mainly in the highlands. Cultivated species with large fruits were bred by breeders in specialized nurseries, so all varieties, even the most resistant to infections, require appropriate care.
So how do you grow a healthy fruit tree?
In the middle of summer, if you suddenly find brown leaves on an apple tree, which eventually turn black, dry out, change shape, most likely your apple tree has bacterial burns. The disease is brought into the garden most often through saplings and cuttings, purchased from untested stores or received as a gift from friends and neighbors. Subsequently, they can lead to the death of planting material, as well as damage to the crop on adult trees - apples rot in the trees, but do not fall.
The only effective way to fight a disease is prevention. To prevent it, it is necessary to buy seedlings and cuttings only in verified places, carefully studying them for the absence of diseases. Time to engage in pest control in the garden. They are carriers of diseases. When working with the tool, always wash and process it after manipulating suspicious trees. To prevent diseases of apple trees on the bark, leaves, fruits and not worry about their treatment, spend time disinfecting the soil in the garden. To do this, prepare a solution of copper sulphate, which is poured over the soil (in a bucket of water 60 g). The trees themselves should be treated with the drug "Hom" in the above proportions.
How to protect the apple tree from cytosporosis
Cytosporosis is a fungal disease that affects the bark of trees. On it, ulcers of dark color first appear, which in time increase in size and penetrate into the trunk, changing their color. For extensive cytosporosis, large brown-red ulcers are characteristic, around which the bark of the tree gradually dies, falling off along with the branches. If the apple tree is not treated, it will soon die. The situation is aggravated by poor soil, improper care and watering the tree.
For the treatment of the disease, spraying with Hom is used in the spring when the buds on the apple tree begin to swell. For the procedure it is necessary to choose a warm and lovely day. The second time the tree is treated with a solution of copper sulphate before flowering. The third treatment is carried out immediately after the end of flowering with the same “Home”. On the eve of winter, the stumps of large trees should be whitened, and the apple trees themselves should be fed with phosphorus or potassium.
For the treatment used such methods. Cut the affected branches, wounds cleaned with a sterile instrument, removing up to 2 cm of healthy tissue. Sections are treated with 3% copper sulfate and covered with garden solution. If there are hollows in the tree, they must also be repaired. Remote affected parts of the tree are collected and burned. Every two to three weeks, treated areas should be checked to ensure there is no relapse. Lime stem must be treated not only in autumn, but also in spring.
Description of milky luster, how to cure an apple tree from this disease
Many people think that the milky luster affects the trunk of an apple tree. But in fact, the disease begins with the leaves and gradually affects the cortex. If you notice that the leaves turn yellow in an apple tree, then they blister with white and silver stripes and crumble, for sure this is a consequence of the destruction of the tree with a milky luster. In the running version, dark spots appear on the bark and trunk. The tree loses its strength very quickly and dies.
The treatment consists in removing the affected bark of the tree and processing the cuts with a special glue. As a preventive method, treatment of the whole tree with special solutions is recommended, whitewashing the trunk with lime in the fall and spring. Proper care, timely feeding and regular watering are also important.
Methods of dealing with black cancer
Perhaps the most serious disease is black apple cancer, the control measures against which are very labor-intensive. The disease affects the bark of the tree, the fruits and the leaves. On the latter there are spots that are spread in size and quantity. The bark of the tree cracks and turns out, can first rise, and then crack. Black rot appears on the fruit. If time does not begin treatment, the tree soon dies.
As soon as the disease is detected, all affected branches and leaves should be cut and burned. Sections and cracks are treated with a 1% solution of copper sulphate and a garden pavement is applied. After flowering apple trees need to process the solution Bordeaux fluid.
But these emergency measures are not as effective as preventing disease. Watch carefully for the soil around the tree, which must be disinfected in time. Trees need timely and proper care, since diseases appear primarily on weak plants.
Time to deal with pests that spread disease, as well as with other diseases that weaken the tree.
As you can see, to get a rich and juicy harvest of apple trees, you need to work hard near the trees. They are subject to a number of different diseases that lead to the death of not only the harvest, but also the tree itself. But if you adhere to agricultural technology, in time to carry out preventive measures, most diseases can be prevented.
Scab apple trees
The apple fungus that causes the scab usually infects pears and apples. The fungal parasite scab spreads through airborne droplets, especially in conditions of a long rainy spring. The visual signs of this disease manifest themselves as an olive-brown leaf color, and later - with a multitude of dark gray spots and cracks on fruits, through which putrefactive infections penetrate them, and the storage of the affected fruits is impossible. Leaves fall due to scab of their petioles. The scab of a scab does not harm the main mechanism of the existence of a tree - photosynthesis, and the tree continues to develop even with the oppressed scab fungus, but one cannot count on the harvest of full fruits.
It is better to start the fight against such fungal diseases of the apple tree as powdery mildew and scab, with classical prophylaxis during the spring and autumn processing of fruit trees: harvesting and eliminating the burning of fallen leaves, mummified fruits and dried branches. In the spring treatment include spraying the trees before the start of flowering with biofungicide "Fitosporin M" or Bordeaux mixture.
The following fungicides have recommended themselves well in the fight against scab: “Gamair”, “Fitalavin” and “Horus”. It is advisable to spray before and after flowering.
Not everyone probably knows that such mineral fertilizers in aqueous solution work well as fungicides: 15% potassium salt, 10% ammonium nitrate, 10% ammonium sulfate. Use these concentrated aqueous solutions of the listed fertilizers through spraying the tree as foliar feeding and fungicide against scab. For its prevention, the percentage of aqueous solutions must be reduced.
Fruit rot - moniliosis on an apple tree
Manifested this disease of the apple in late August, during the ripening of the fruit.Protracted wet weather contributes to the activation of monilioz, especially on apple trees affected by coddle and infected with scab. Moreover, the rotted fruits can share fruit rot mycelium with healthy fruits. It begins with a small putrid speck that can grow to defeat the rot of the whole fruit, which becomes loose and not suitable for use.
Moniliasis is more cunning than other fungal infections, since its symptoms are postponed until the crop fully ripens, with which the putrid fungus is able to deal with great damage to it through the contact of an affected and healthy fetus. Even hard frost does not kill monilioz, its spores overwinter on infected mummified apples.
Therefore, a mandatory measure for the prevention of all fungal diseases of the apple is a thorough cleaning and elimination through burning of the remnants of dried fruit, rotted carrion and dead shoots in the autumn-spring seasons. After collecting the fruit, the areas where the foci of moniliosis were concentrated should be sprayed with a 5% aqueous solution of urea. It is not necessary to fight monilioz autonomously. It requires a frontal fight against all infections and pests that can either create conditions for a parallel infection or spread it across all plants.
It is necessary to strictly monitor the appearance in the garden of one or another type of pests: geese, sawmill and moths, moniliosis peddlers. It is more expedient to prevent their invasion altogether. It will help preventive spring spraying of all fruit trees on swollen buds, and then a second time immediately after flowering and the last time - at a two-week interval along the growing season - on fallen leaves. For this purpose, an aqueous 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or a 0.3% solution of copper oxychloride suspension is suitable.
An effective means to combat rotten fruit is the Khom fungicide, which, according to the instructions, is diluted in cold water and carried out with at least two treatments: the first is on new foliage, the second is after flowering.
This is important: it is necessary to fight monilioz by regularly spraying fungicides according to the scheme, combining them with the execution of proper agrotechnical measures for the care of fruit trees.
Apple Disease Classification
Apple trees can hurt for many reasons. These can be adverse weather conditions, neglect of the rules of agricultural engineering, nutritional deficiencies and many others. Any disease affects the yield and can cause the death of the tree.
Signs of damage depend on the pathogen.
Pathologies are divided into 3 groups:
1. Fungal (mycoses):
- fruit rot (moniliosis),
- powdery mildew,
- brown spot (fillostiktoz),
- black cancer,
- milky luster.
- bacterial burn,
- bacterial root cancer,
- bacterial necrosis.
- star cracking fruits
- panicking (proliferation),
- rosette (small leaf).
The earlier the treatment of the apple tree begins, the greater the chances of saving the crop and the plant itself.
Fruit Rot (Moniliasis)
Description of symptoms: small brown specks appear on the ripening fruit (pictured above). In the future, they grow, apples are inedible. The disease spreads very quickly, covering the entire crop. It is almost impossible to identify in the initial stages.
Treatment of fruit rot in the active stage is not possible. It is necessary to carry out prevention, which gives excellent results. In early spring, treat the trees with 3% Bordeaux liquid; fungicides (for example, Horus) can be used. The second treatment should be carried out before flowering, using Bordeaux liquid (1%).
After harvesting, repeat spraying the trees with copper sulfate solution (0.1 kg per 10 liters of water). Each plant will require from 3 liters of solution. Collect mummified apples, you need to get rid of them.
Bacterial Burn Apple Tree
The cause of this disease is an infection of Gram-negative bacterium bacteria that can affect apple trees of any age. This infection spreads from top to bottom, and it most often gets into the garden with the purchase of new uncertified saplings or cuttings. Favorable conditions for the spread of this disease are warm rains at high temperatures. As a result of this infection, the flowers fall off and the harvest types also fall significantly.
You can find out the disease by the black spots that appear all over the tree: the branches and shoots are covered with watery black spots, and the foliage becomes charred and charred. With the development of the disease, the leaves are bent and, even completely withering away, remain on the branches.
Affected flowers become dark brown in color and fall off, and the fruits look unhealthy and dark, stop growing, but remain on the branches until late autumn.
For the purpose of prophylaxis, any planting material purchased without certificates should be especially carefully examined. To carry out preventive sprays common for all fruit trees against diseases and insects that can spread an infection in the garden. It is useful to carry out soil disinfection with copper sulphate solution at the rate of: 60 grams of the drug per 10 liters of cold water.
The next method of preventing bacteriosis can be considered the timely pruning of dead branches best in late autumn, on the eve of winter. Cut off the affected branches need to be below the boundary of necrosis by 20 centimeters. Cutting tools must be sanitized before and after cutting. Be sure to handle the place cut / saw cut, covered with a layer of natural linseed oil or garden war.
All cut material is immediately burned. And all the trees during the growing season must pass the required number of treatments with fungicides so that they go into the winter healthy and winter-hardy, with sufficient immunity against fungal and bacterial infections.
Brown spotting (phyllostiktosis)
Symptoms: appearance on the leaves of small brown spots with dark brown rim. In the center there are black spots (fungal spores). Spots may cover the entire leaf surface.
Begin treatment in the autumn period. Procedure:
- Destroy the fallen leaves.
- Dig pristolovye circles.
- Cut a thickened crown, it should be done annually.
- In the fall, spray the trees with a solution of urea (5%), process the soil with the same preparation, but at a concentration of 7%.
What to do in the spring:
- Spray the trees Bordeaux liquid (3-4%) before flowering. After registration of the buds of treatment spend only 1% solution.
- Perform a second spraying after flowering.
In the future, one more treatment is required (no later than 20 days before harvesting).
Signs of defeat: the appearance of black spots on the leaves, the formation of black rot on the fruit. In addition, the bark begins to darken, multiple cracks appear on its surface, it begins to turn in the opposite direction.
Begin treatment in the spring, before the ambient temperature rises to 15 ° C and higher. Using a sharp knife, remove the affected areas (up to the wood), capturing healthy bark (1.5-2 cm). They need to burn.
Disinfect wounds with copper sulphate solution (1-2%) and cover with garden pitch. After the trees bloom, spray the Bordeaux mixture (1%). Black cancer may reappear in a year or two. In this case, the sick trunk or the whole tree is better to cut and burn.
Bacterial root cancer
The main symptoms: the appearance of growths on the roots (main, side), root neck. At first, the formations are small and soft, then they increase in size and harden. In the autumn, growths rot, collapse. At the same time a large number of bacteria is released into the soil.
Bacterial root cancer is brought into the garden only with seedlings, the disease is not treatable.
Prevention measures include:
- Careful selection of seedlings (without growths on the central root, root neck).
- Pruning side roots with growths.
- Disinfection of the root system after pruning in a solution of copper sulfate (1%) for 5 minutes, followed by rinsing in clean water.
It is necessary to apply phosphorus-potassium mineral fertilizers to the soil. Use only nitrogen can not. From organic fertilizer is better to take manure.
All parts of the trees are affected (from bark to fruit). Flowers turn brown, then black, fall off. Spots appear on fruits, leaves. On the leaves, the edges necrotize, the leaf plate is wrapped along the main vein and dries out. On the shoots appear spots, which then cover the entire young shoots.
On the branches, the tree trunk forms a necrotic spot, which further increases in size. Oily spots appear, from which oozing fluid. Cambium, the inner layer of the bark swell, become yellow-orange, exfoliate from the wood.
The treatment consists of the following measures:
- Cut the affected branches with a seizure of 2-3 cm of healthy tissue, burn them.
- Disinfect the sections with carbolic acid (5%) or copper sulphate (1%).
- Cover the cuts with oil paint or garden putty.
- Treat the stains on the trunks with a 5% zinc chloride solution. There is no need to clean the wounds. This procedure should be carried out every 3-4 years.
Effective biological preparations are bactericides of directional action: Gaupsin, Pentophagus-S, Fitosporin, Alirin-B. As a prevention of the spread of bacterial necrosis, Bordeaux liquid treatments are necessary (1%).
Apple viral diseases
Symptoms: the appearance on young leaves spots of pale green or yellowish tint. The veins are painted normally. With the development of the disease leaves become fragile, fall off. Apple tree grows and develops badly.
Control measures: the disease is not treatable, the tree with signs of damage should be uprooted and burned.
As a preventive measure, use the following:
- Buying healthy planting material.
- Compliance with quarantine measures.
- Spraying against sucking insects, it will prevent the spread of the virus.
Star cracking fruit
The disease affects young fruits. Shapeless spots appear on them, in the center of which star-shaped cracks form. Surrounding fabrics are made dark brown, almost black. The leaves on the branches of the upper tier brighten, the tree does not grow well.
Apple tree will remain sick for life, infected with viruses. Fighting them is impossible. In identifying the disease tree must be rooted out and burned.
- use of virusless planting material
- spraying against sucking insects (aphids, mites),
- weed control.
Signs of defeat: on the trees appear side shoots in large quantities. They are distinguished by short internodes, the bark acquires reddish tones. Sick tree stops growing.
At the edges of the leaves appear sharp, large teeth. The flowers are made green, ugly. Fruiting slows down, the fruits become very pale, tasteless.
Sick apple trees are not subject to treatment, trees need to be uprooted and burned as soon as possible. Also use spraying against sucking insect vectors as a preventative measure. You can buy varieties that are resistant to the defeat of viral diseases, for example, Antonovka ordinary.
Rosette (small leaf)
Signs of damage: leaves are made small, hard, ugly, yellow-green. The edges are twisted, the leaf blades become cup-shaped. The fruits of a diseased apple are small, tasteless.The internodes of the shoots are greatly shortened, the rosettes of leaves (normal and deformed) appear on the tops.
Treatment consists in timely removal and destruction of a part of a tree with signs of a disease. Treat the cuts with oil paint, adding zinc sulfate to it.
Before blooming buds, spray the plant with a solution of zinc sulphate. If the disease is not very advanced, use a 5% solution, with moderate lesions - 8%, with strong lesions - 12%. If necessary, re-process with 0.5% solution. The preventive measures include: spring application of top dressing for trees and timely removal of weeds.
What causes apple diseases: general characteristics and ways to fight
Before you begin treatment, you need to understand what caused the disease. All types of diseases on apples can be divided into three groups:
The treatment of these diseases is significantly different. But whatever disease hurts the tree, it is necessary to remove all the diseased parts of the plant in time: leaves, bark, branches and burn all the garbage. This will stop the spread of the disease to healthy parts of the tree.
Treatment of fungal diseases begins with spraying the crown and tree trunks with organic and chemical preparations. Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate and colloidal sulfur are considered the most effective. To prepare the solution for processing can be the following recipes:
• Bordeaux liquid 3%. For 10 liters of water you will need 300 grams of copper sulfate and 300 grams of lime.
• A solution of copper sulfate. At 12 liters of water take 2 tbsp. l copper sulphate and 1 tbsp. l liquid soap without fragrance. You can rub the soap.
• Sulfur solution. 80 g of colloidal sulfur (70% concentration) diluted in 10 liters of water.
Spraying is carried out at the first signs of the disease. However, Bordeaux liquid 3% is used only in spring and autumn. In the summer, the trees are sprayed with a 1% solution. For its preparation, the number of drugs is reduced.
Bacterial and cancerous diseases are very difficult to cure.. Even if the disease retreats, the sprouts are no longer used for cutting. In some cases, the treatment does not give results and you have to uproot the seedling. To protect the garden from insidious diseases, use only healthy planting material from proven nurseries. Always disinfect the tools before and after work, otherwise the rice infecting a healthy tree increases.
Fungal diseases of apple trees: description, photo and ways to fight
Most often, trees in the garden are affected by fungal diseases that can be prevented by prophylactic treatments.
Further we will talk in detail about each of these ailments.
Scab on the apple tree: symptoms and fight
It is important to understand that scab affects trees in conditions of high humidity, especially in the spring. If there is too much rain, then you should not wait for the occurrence of the disease, immediately proceed to preventive treatments.
Another cause of infection is the thickened crown of the tree. In time thin out the crown, cut the branches growing inside.
To recognize the disease is simple. Scab begins on the leaves, and then goes to the fruit. The pathogen is carried by the wind.
Symptoms of the disease:
1. The leaves are covered with brown spots, which eventually acquire an olive color.
2. Spots go to the fruit, at first they are small. With the growth of the fruit spots increase in size, merge. Apples crack and rot.
Disease prevention is carried out in the autumn and early spring. The tree is well sprayed with a solution of urea. After the harvest began, they make treatment with chlorine dioxide. The solution is prepared from 40 g of the drug and 10 liters of water.
If the disease has already begun, then the crown is treated with Bordeaux liquid. In advanced cases, a solution of phytosporin or the drug "Horus" is used.
Tip! As a preventative, foliar dressing with mineral fertilizers proved to be well proven.
Mealy dew: description and photo
Mealy dew infects young leaves and inflorescences, and then spreads throughout the tree. The cause of the disease is high humidity and low temperature, especially at night.
1. Young leaves and inflorescences are covered with a white felt bloom, which changes color over time and becomes brown or brown.
2. The leaves on the apple tree gradually turn yellow and dry, fall off.
3. The barrel is covered with black dots.
Treatment must begin immediately, as in the final stages it is difficult to notice the disease. Without treatment, most of the crop suffers, and the winter hardiness of the plant decreases.
Prophylactic treatment begins in early spring, as soon as the buds swell, which is very important. Bordeaux liquid, colloidal sulfur or copper sulfate solution is used. Then spend spraying 2-3 more times, the interval between treatments for 3 weeks.
At the first signs of the disease, fungicides are sprayed: “Skor” or “Topaz”. Treatments are carried out 4 times per season.
Mealy dew is very insidious, so after an illness the tree should be regularly inspected and, if necessary, repeated the course of preventive procedures.
Cytosporosis: Symptoms and Treatment
The disease affects the bark of the tree and progresses rapidly. It occurs mainly on poor and too heavy soils as a result of poor maintenance and improper watering.
1. In some areas of the cortex, ulcers of a dark color appear, after which they increase in size and become red-brown.
2. The affected area of the bark dies off along with the closely located branch.
To stop the disease, all the affected areas need to be cut, the bark is well cleaned. If we neglect this measure, then cytosporosis will destroy the tree from the inside.
As a preventive measure, whitewashing of trunks in the spring and autumn is carried out, and the crown is sprayed with copper sulphate.
Tip! Do not forget to feed the apple mineral fertilizers, improve the composition of the soil, and the disease does not appear on your site.
Moniliasis: description and methods of treatment
The disease appears during the ripening of the crop and affects the fruit.
1. Apples are covered with spots of brown color.
2. Fruits are completely affected by rot, the disease captures healthy apples.
At the first signs of disease, all affected fruits are removed, and the tree trunk is dug up. Be sure to remove the drop is the source of the infection.
As a preventive measure for the disease, in the spring they sprinkle with a Borodian 3% liquid as soon as the buds are dismissed. During the growing season, the treatment is done with a 1% solution with an interval of 15 days.
Bacterial diseases of apple trees: photos, symptoms and prevention
Bacterial diseases are very dangerous, without treatment the tree can die in a short time.
Infection affects all organs of the plant, especially young shoots and leaves. Without treatment after 30 days the seedling dies. The disease begins in early spring. The spread of infection contributes to warm and wet weather. The first signs of the disease are clearly visible after flowering.
1. Sick flowers are watery, fade and fall off.
2. Fruits are covered with oily black-brown spots, cease to develop.
3. The tree looks burned.
Treatment of a bacterial burn does not give results, it is necessary to get rid of a sapling. Carefully monitor the condition of the tree during the growing season, carry out all necessary measures for care.
Rust: Symptoms and Treatment Methods
The infection infects the leaves of an apple tree and rarely fruits. It develops mainly in July, the tree stops growing, it dries, and early leaf fall occurs. Productivity is sharply reduced.
1. On the upper side of the leaves are black dots.
2. The underside is covered with nipples.
All affected leaves and fruits must be removed.If a tree branch is struck, it is removed along with a piece of healthy tissue. A diseased tree is treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid every 10 days.
As a preventive measure, in the spring, before the buds start blooming, clean up all old wounds, treat with copper sulfate and cover it with garden pitch.
Tip! Do not grow juniper in the garden. This plant contributes to the spread of infection. If it grew, then dig it up and dig a lot deep.
Apple cancer diseases: description, photo and treatment methods
Cancer diseases are very dangerous, they affect all the organs of the tree, they are rapidly progressing, are difficult to treat.
The disease affects trees older than 20 years, young seedlings are not susceptible to illness. Contributes to the spread of the disease in wet spring weather. Even after the tree recovers, there is no certainty that the ailment will not return again. Black cancer returns even after several years.
1. The leaves are covered with black spots.
2. Fruits turn black and disappear.
3. The bark cracks and swells.
As a prophylaxis, whitewashing of the tables is carried out twice a year. If the disease is caught off guard, then all the affected fruits, shoots and bark sections are removed. Cleaned the wounds, treated with blue vitriol and cover up.
Apple root cancer
The disease is formed on the roots of the plant. Falls through the wounds and cracks.
1. On the roots form solid growths.
2. The root system ceases to develop normally, the central root is affected by cancer.
The treatment is very difficult. All growths on the roots must be cut off, and then the seedling is disinfected in a solution of copper sulfate.
The disease is very insidious, because getting into the soil, cancer cells live there for many years and wait in the wings. Carefully select seedlings, prepare the soil well for planting.
This is not all apple diseases that gardeners face. Carefully watch the trees in the garden, do not neglect the prevention and properly care for the seedlings.