Garden

Perennial onions: species, cultivation

Onion (Allium) grows in almost every garden. But many people know this plant only as a tasty and medicinal product. But most types of onions are also decorative. Let's take a closer look at them.

Some types of decorative onions, as a rule, are grown only to decorate a flower bed. We told about them in the Decorative bow material: photos, names, planting and care.

But do not forget that certain species of this useful plant are both decorative and edible at the same time. They will transform your garden! And besides, do not require painstaking care.

1. Multi-tiered onions

This unusual plant has other names: viviparous, walking, Canadian, horned, Egyptian onions.

The peculiarity of a multi-tiered onion is that its aerial bulbs, located on a leaning peduncle in 2-3 tiers, take root.

The bulbs are formed on the plant at the age of two and mature in the middle of summer.

The horned horned bird is not afraid of frost down to –50 ° C and short-term spring frosts. It is noteworthy that this perennial culture can grow in one place without a transplant for ten years.

Tiered onions are mainly grown for the preparation of fresh salads.

Greens with a medium-spicy taste contain carotene, vitamins of group B and PP, and the amount of vitamin C this onion is twice as high as bulb.

Air bulbs have a very sharp taste, therefore, as a rule, they are not eaten.

The most popular varieties of many-tiered onions: Gribovsky 38, Odessa winter, Chelyabinsk superearly.

2. Branched onion

This perennial plant is originally from China and Mongolia. It is also called onion fragrant, fragrant, dzhusay. This onion is resistant to drought, but without regular watering fruits are bad.

In the year of sowing, a rosette of flat, narrow, succulent leaves about 50 cm long is formed on the plant. They taste like garlic leaves.

And from the second year in the second half of summer, the onion produces a high peduncle (up to 80 cm), on which white star-shaped flowers appear, gathered in inflorescences-balls.

In winter, branched onions can be grown on a windowsill.

Edible all parts of the plant. The leaves (they are distinguished by their unique onion-garlic taste) are put into salads in a raw and salty form, added to meat, fish, any garnish, and used in cooking hot dishes and pies. And the arrows of the flowers of branched onions marinate.

The best grades of branching onions: Aromatic, Dzhusay, Astrologer, Spicy.

3. Leek

This popular bow is also called pearl. In Russia, it has been grown since the 20th century. In the first year, large lanceolate leaves with a length of up to 60 cm of a bluish-green color with a waxy coating appear on a thick false stalk. A pseudobulb is formed at the bottom of the stem.

In the second year in the first half of summer, the plant produces a spike of about a meter in height.

In July, it blooms with small flowers of pink, white or purple-violet color, gathered in umbrella inflorescences.

In August and September, black seeds ripen. And in some varieties, instead of flowers, air bulbs are formed.

Edible young flat leaves and a thickened white part of the stem. Old leaves are harsh and lose taste. In the cooking of leeks, mashed potatoes, soups, sauces and salads.

It is eaten with meat, scrambled eggs and cheeses. Leek is suitable for frying, and onions are good in canned form with a sweet-and-sour marinade.

The taste of leeks is thin, sweet and pleasant, and the aroma is delicate.

Popular varieties of leeks: Alligator, Goliath, Pandora, Tango, Karatan.

4. Onions bear

Most often this name combines 2 very similar species: bow and victorious bow (victorious).The first is still known under the names of ramson, kalba, wild onions, wild garlic and is listed in the Red Book. The plant is grown from freshly harvested seeds that need stratification.

In the first year, the onion is attractive with its oblong or lanceolate leaves (about 5 cm wide), which are located on the petioles.

And in the second year of life, a peduncle is formed on the plant (up to 50 cm high) with hemispherical white inflorescences.

The flowers bloom in May-June, and in July, in their place the seeds ripen, the ground part of the plant dies.

Victory bow outwardly differs only in large size and longer growing season - until August.

Eat a stem, leaf, and plant bulb. The taste of wild garlic leaves resemble the greens of garlic and onions, they are rich in vitamin C. They are added fresh to salads, soups, vegetables, and also pickled, salted and pickled.

In the middle lane, onions of two varieties are cultivated: Bear and Bear delicacy.

5. Slizun bow

He is glandular, or drooping onions. This perennial grows well on fertile soil with a neutral reaction.

The plant is cold-resistant - leaves sometimes appear from under the snow. They are flat, fleshy, with rounded edges. Their length is about 40 cm, and the width is from 1 to 3 cm.

On the cut of the leaves stands mucous juice, for this plant and got its name.

Onion skins have false bulbs (about 2 cm in diameter) that attach to the rhizome. Over time, the bush grows in width, and in the center it thins. Then the plant needs to be divided.

In the first year, only leaves are formed on the onion, and from the second year (in late June - early July), flower stalks (about 70 cm high) appear with spherical inflorescences consisting of pink-white or lilac flowers.

The taste of the leaves of onion slizuna - delicate, with a garlic flavor.

They contain vitamins B1, B2, C, PP, phytoncides, carotene, mineral salts of zinc, potassium, molybdenum, magnesium, and a lot of iron.

Slicen onions are often added to fresh salads, soups and main dishes, used as a spice. Also, greens can be dried, frozen and pickled, and the bulbs - marinate.

Popular varieties of onion slizuna: Green, Dwarf, Leader, Charm.

6. Onion batun

Other names for this bow are fistula, tubular, Chinese, Tatar. In early spring, a feather appears in the form of pipes, which can be collected until late autumn.

The leaves are large (about 3 cm wide and 40 cm high), covered with a waxy coating. Starting from the second year, in summer, flower stalks form (up to 1 m high) with light green or yellowish spherical inflorescences.

Later on, black seeds ripen in place of the flowers.

Onion-batun prefers fertile soils, does not tolerate waterlogging and high acidity. At one place grows well no more than 5 years.

The leaves of this onion contain a large amount of essential oil, which gives them a unique aroma and sharpness of taste. Feathers are used to make salads, spicy (oriental) soups and kebabs.

Common varieties of onion-batun: April, Gribovsky 21, May, Wales.

7. Chives

Also, the plant is called chives. This frost-resistant type of onion begins to grow in early spring and safely maintains frosts down to –4 ° С.

The plant prefers fertile, moist soil with a neutral reaction.

So that the onions do not lose their taste and decorative qualities, it should be divided every 3-4 years.

This plant has small false bulbs, turning into a false stem, awl-shaped thin green feathers up to 40 cm long. It has a faint garlic aroma and slightly tangy taste without bitterness - ideal for fresh salads.

From the second year on the plant there appears not only greens, but also thin flower stalks (about 50 cm high) with small inflorescences-balls of pinkish-purple, red-violet or white color. Flowering occurs in May-June, in late summer, onions may bloom again.

The most common varieties of chives: Spring, Moscow, Siberian, Early, Prague.

8. Shallots

This type of onion also has several names: Ashkelonian, multiparty, family, forty-toothed dog. According to one version, the birthplace of shallots is the ancient city of Palestine, and according to another, the Mediterranean.

Externally, the plant is very similar to bulb onion, but not only one bulb is formed in shallot, but 5-6 (in the first year) and from 15 to 30 (in the next). At the same time the bulbs are collected in the nest.

In the first year, thin cylindrical leaves with a waxy bloom appear on the plant, and in the second year, there are also flower stalks (up to 80 cm high) with small white inflorescences. In September, black seeds ripen in place of flowers.

Shallots prefer light, loose, fertile soils with a neutral reaction. The plant tolerates spring frosts well up to –4 ° C, is well preserved, has a delicate and not very spicy taste and a pleasant aroma.

Shallot bulbs almost do not cause tears, so they fall in love with housewives. Chopped onions are added to sauces and salad dressings, sprinkled with baked meat. In addition, chopped onions are fried in olive oil and served as a side dish.

Popular varieties of shallots: Star, Knyazhich, Kuban yellow, Ryzhik, Siberian yellow, Ural 40.

9. Onion

This most popular type of onion is grown, as a rule, as a biennial crop.

The ripe onion is covered with dry scales of golden yellow, brown, white or purple. Leaves - tubular, juicy.

On the peduncle (about 1 m in height) in June-August spherical inflorescences of greenish-white color are formed.

There are many varieties of bulb onion. They differ in terms of cultivation, the taste and size of feathers and bulbs, the color of scales, etc. Bessonovsky, Danilovsky, Red Baron are very popular.

Garlic also belongs to the genus Allium. This plant is known to everyone. In the first year, individual teeth grow, and in the second a complex onion is formed, which consists of cloves covered with a thin film. Garlic also has edible and rather decorative leaves, arrows and flower stalks.

And how many species of onions adorn your beds? Maybe you grow even more original vegetables in the garden, which are not only tasty and healthy, but also very decorative?

Perennial onions: types, cultivation. Review of materials on the site 7 cottages

The nutritional and therapeutic value of onions is well known: it contains substances important for humans that increase the body’s resistance to disease.

There are few main courses in which different types of onions in fresh or processed form would not be used.

In total, there are about 900 species in the onion family, more than 200 of them are cultivated in Russia.
Perennial onion batun

The army of perennial bows is diverse.

They are frost resistant, not damaged by onion flies. Under this plant you can take a distant shaded corner of the garden: it is unpretentious and grows 5-7 years in one place.

The most common representative of perennials in the world of onions is a bat onion (Allium fistulosum). Vegetatively propagated and seeds. Without exaggeration, we can say that there is a batun in every garden.

On our site you can read an interesting publication about what is so good about a bow batun for giving, and also to decide which is better: an autumn planting batun or it is preferable to plant a batun in spring.

Much less common are his other brothers.

A pleasant mild flavor has a drooping bow, better known as a slizun (Allium nutans). It appears in early spring, as soon as the snow melts, when there is no other greenery in sight. The bushes are squat, with wide, succulent leaves, not coarse until autumn. Greens can be completely cut 3-4 times per season. Shrubs in the first four years, give a lot of shoots, then the growth rate decreases. This means it is time to repot the plant.
Perennial onion slizun

Wild slizun grows in Siberia and mountainous regions of Central Asia.In recent years, the slizun is grown as a garden crop. The plant is non-capricious, unpretentious and does not require much attention. During flowering slizun very decorative.

Appreciated for its beneficial properties and high taste. It is used to make salads, make fillings for pies, use as a seasoning in various dishes, as well as salt and dry for the winter. More information about this type of onion can be found in the publication Bow bowed - "meek" slizun.

Interesting, unusual, worthy of being grown in the garden plot - a multi-tiered onion (Allium proliferum). He has many names: Egyptian, viviparous, horned, Canadian, walking. In the first year it resembles a baton, in the second year it produces a flower arrow, on which in 2-3 floors grow small aerial bulbs measuring 2-3 cm in diameter. They serve as planting material.
Instead of inflorescences, air bulbs are formed on a multi-tiered onion.

Underground bulbs are red-lilac in color, with thick juicy scales, collected in a nest of 3-5 pieces, like a shallot onion. Both air and underground bulbs have a sharp taste and a pronounced aroma.

Due to this property, layered onions are used in marinades, canned, as a spice to dishes.

It should be noted that the bulbs can be consumed only in summer and autumn: they do not ripen and therefore do not survive in winter, they quickly germinate.

You can find more interesting and useful information about this wonderful representative of perennial onions in the article Real exotic onion family - multi-tiered onion. And in another publication dedicated to this plant (multi-tiered onion "Odessa winter 12"), our reader shares her experience of growing and breeding.

Ramson (Allium ursinum) or Kalba is found everywhere in the wild. The plant is characterized by garlic taste and aroma. In appearance, ramson is a little like a bow, it can easily be mistaken for lilies of the valley. Kalba is in great demand for its unusual taste and healthy properties. It is used for making salads, as a seasoning for main dishes, marinated, salted. They collect wild ramson in huge quantities, which leads to its disappearance: in many regions of Russia it is listed in the Red Book.
Ramson can easily be mistaken for lily of the valley

Than to translate the red book plant, it is better to plant it in the garden. Onions undemanding to care, to grow it is not a big deal.

On sale you can find the seeds of two subspecies of wild garlic: onions and victorious onions, also multiplies and vegetatively.

Agricultural technology is simple - loosening the soil, watering in dry years, thinning overgrown bushes.

Ramson is a very interesting plant, and on our site there are many publications about it. Here are the most interesting and useful ones:

  • Ramson: landing and care
  • The very first vitamin recipes with wild garlic

Side bow (Allium obliquum) is also called Uskun, mountain garlic. It is widely distributed in natural conditions, but practically does not occur in household plots of Russians. In appearance, it resembles garlic: the same flat, 2-2.5 cm wide leaves, tapering like garlic, to the top, move alternately and to the sides from the stem. Peduncle like onions - a multicolor spherical inflorescence with yellow fragrant flowers, which attracts the scent of bees.
Onion escapes the appearance of garlic resembles Agrotechnika cultivating the uskuna the same as other perennials. Onions are very early, the leaves quickly become rigid and inedible. For the greens to be juicy and fresh, it is necessary to cut it 2-3 times over the summer. Uskun is a great seasoning for meat dishes, and you can also use such onions in canning instead of garlic. Allium ramosum or dzhusay originally from China. While this representative finds a few admirers among gardeners, which is a pity. Its lanceolate leaves almost all summer remain soft and soft.Their taste is pleasant, not sharp at all, with a subtle smell of garlic. Cutting off the greens is not recommended, it is advisable to cut off the extreme leaves, and leave 3-4 medium ones. The leaves grow coarser during the period of bolting, and the fragrant onion blooms late in August.
Dzhusay blooms very beautiful

I must say that Dzhusay blooms very beautifully: white star-shaped flowers are gathered in a hemispherical loose umbrella. Such a bow can be planted on an alpine hill, because in the wild it grows on hills and stony slopes.

One of the most decorative perennial onions - chives (Allium schoenoprasum). It perfectly adapts to any natural conditions: it can grow in the harsh tundra climate, it feels great in the arid steppes of Central Asia. Delicate tubular leaves of chives are a real storehouse of useful substances. Only they must be regularly cut, otherwise they become tough.
Chives are very decorative

They grow chickens for early greenery, and more often for white, purple, pink fluffy inflorescences.

They are in good harmony with many plants, and this bow can be a wonderful living border for flower beds. Schnitt is moisture-loving, agricultural technology comes down to abundant watering.

For more information about this decorative, healthy and tasty plants can be found in the publication Gentle handsome chives and his dignity.

Each of these types of perennial onions is worthy of growing in your garden or vegetable garden.

Growing onions in the country

Afghanistan, as well as Iran and Turkmenistan, is considered the birthplace of onion onions. This vegetable is known to mankind for more than four thousand years.

In the process of its long-term formation in small layers of the earth, the onion plant has a stringed and shallow root system, which was able to develop a property that allows this vegetable to exist in a state of rest with insufficient moisture.

Onions belong to a two-year plant, which gives onions in the first year, and seeds in the second year. The onion propagation occurs both with the use of seeds and vegetatively, that is, with bulbs.

Onion Seeds

Onions have small black seeds with a hard shell. When planting on the beds in the open ground, they germinate only on the 15th-20th day. Onion bulb is considered a monocotyledonous plant.

The leaves of this vegetable are Dudchatye, specially adapted to the arid climate. As for onion roots, they are thick, stringy, and in general the root system is fibrous.

Optimal conditions for the growth of onions

Onion bulb refers to a cold-resistant plant. The optimum temperature for its growth is a temperature of 12-16 degrees. Seed germination occurs at 4-5 degrees. In addition, mature bulbs can tolerate frosts to minus 6-7 degrees.

Sharp varieties are considered more resistant to frost. Onions will respond well to watering in their first two thirds of their lives. Then he will require for better maturation of the drying of the soil. It will be more exacting to the lighting conditions than, for example, the same root vegetables or cabbage.

Fertile soil is necessary for onions.

Onions have high requirements for soil fertility.

So, in particular, it grows best where soil solutions are close to neutral slightly alkaline.

This vegetable does not tolerate weeds, which are disastrous especially for onion shoots. Popular onions include onions:

  • Rostovy
  • Strigunovsky,
  • Pogarsky,
  • Kaba,
  • Mstersky,
  • Krasnodar,
  • Danilovsky,
  • Arzamas.

Selection and preparation of a place for planting onions

As mentioned above: onions are demanding on soil fertility. It should be sown as early as possible.

The best option to choose a place for the bow is the high part of the site, which is early freed from snow and manages to warm up.

It is not necessary to plant onions on dense acidic soils, where it will give poor results.

The selected area before planting should be cleared of weeds and enriched with nutrients.

It would be great if the soil under the bow fill with humus in an amount equal to two to three kilograms per square meter. Mineral fertilizers are also added under the bow, in particular: superphosphate (20 g.

per square meter .. and ammonium nitrate (10 g per square meter), as well as potassium salt (15 g per 1 sq. m.).

The soil should warm enough

Treatment of the site to begin in early autumn.

When processing a plot, the ground should first be shallowed in order to germinate weed seeds, which should then be removed.

Then in two weeks in the middle of September superphosphate is scattered and then the area is dug up on a spade bayonet.

In this form, it should be left until spring. When the spring comes after the snow melts, you need to clear the ditches so that the water can leave as soon as possible. After the area dries out less, it is necessary to evenly scatter the humus, and then dig the area and build ridges.

Ridge under the bow is better to do with a width of one hundred centimeters and grooves - forty centimeters.

Next, on the prepared ridges should be scattered potash and nitrogen fertilizers, grinding them previously.

Everything, now the site is ready for planting onions, which can be grown in three ways, namely:

LK from seeds grown in special trays

  • sowing bulbous seeds,
  • planting bulbous seedlings,
  • planting sevka.

Growing bulb onions by sowing bulbous seeds

Bulb seeds for spring sowing need to be calibrated, highlighting the largest and fullest. This work can be performed using a sieve with small holes.

To accelerate the emergence of seedlings should apply the methods of preparing seeds for sowing.

So, for individual sites, it is possible to soak the onion seeds in a solution of blue methylene or in a solution of potassium permanganate.

Seed soaking is done in glass for seven to ten days before sowing for a duration of 24 hours.

Then soaked seeds should be placed in a warm place to swell them.

After they swell, you need to scatter the seeds in a thin layer on the burlap and cover the top with another burlap, leaving them in this state before naklevyvaniya.

Care must be taken to ensure that the seeds are constantly wet. After the white sprouts appear on the seeds, they should be slightly dried before sowing before sowing.

For seedlings need to constantly care

In order to seed properly sown, on a well-aligned ridge is five longitudinal grooves with a distance between them of 20 centimeters. You can also mark the bed across. As a rule, the grooves are made with an improvised tool, namely, the holder of the rake.

After the grooves have been made, the bottom of the grooves should be slightly compacted with a special bar and sowed. So that the seeds are planted evenly, you can pre-mix them with sand.

The grooves with the seeds planted in them with two fingers of the ground wet from the sides of the grooves are closed up, after which the ridge surface is aligned with the back of the rake. Further, it is desirable to grind the grooves with peat or humus, which will prevent the formation of a soil crust, which is formed after rain.

For onions planted need careful maintenance from the earliest spring. Thus, it is not permissible that a soil crust or weeds appear on a bed with onion seeds planted.

Therefore, we must not forget to carefully loosen the soil with a rake, and with the advent of seedlings - with cats with frequent teeth. You should also get rid of the emerging weeds, as often as possible exploring the ridge with a bow.

Onions cleaned by thinning

A couple of times it is advisable to feed the beds with onions, making nitrogen and potash fertilizers, liquid manure. Also, when the summer is dry, the onions should be watered so that it does not suspend its growth. Harvesting onions can be started in July by thinning.

Starting from the end of July, you should stop watering onions. For better maturing of onions, it is possible to break partially the connection of its root system with the soil. To do this, bow lightly poddernut.

After the onion feather is laid down, it is pulled out of the soil, laying out for drying.

Then, after the final drying of the feather (5-7 days), it is kneaded and separated from the bulbs.

Next, ripe onion is dried at temperatures of 20-35 degrees and with good ventilation. Then it can be woven into braids and hung.

Growing bulb onions by planting onion seedlings

Harvest onion when grown seedlings will be significantly higher compared to sowing seeds in the ground. Onion seedling is grown either in the house on the windows or in the greenhouse. The best time for sowing onion seedlings is the period from 10 to 20 March.

Onions can be grown from seedlings

By the time of planting, seedlings should be 55-60 days old. For sowing seeds for seedlings, a greenhouse is prepared in the usual way, as indicated above.

It is important until the emergence of seedlings to monitor the temperature in the greenhouse, which should be 20 degrees or more.

Therefore, it is recommended to warm the outside of the greenhouse with manure, tightly covering it with frames and mats.

One week or less after seed planting, shoots appear. After their appearance, the mats are removed from the frames so that the light can penetrate into the greenhouse. It also lowers the temperature to ten degrees.

In the future, you should maintain the greenhouse temperature from eleven to thirty-nine degrees. It is also advisable to make 1-2 times feeding seedlings. When fertilizing is finished, it is necessary to wash the solution from the onion leaves (feathers).

Ready onion seedlings planted in open ground in mid-May.

Before planting for 3-4 days or directly on the day of disembarkation, the leaves (feathers) of the seedlings should be cut to reduce the evaporation surface during the period of engraftment.

It is not necessary to bury seedlings planted strongly in the ground. It is taken care of in the same way as when growing onions from seeds.

Growing onions using a set

Onions can be grown from sevka

Growing onions from seedlings refers to the most reliable way to get a ripe onion turnip. Sevk is considered small onions, which are grown from seeds. For him should take the most fertile plantations without weeds.

Sowing seeds in the soil for growing seed is carried out as early as possible, in particular, at the end of April.

Previously seeds for sowing are soaked in water or in methylene blue solution.

Then they are germinated for three days and after they are nested, they are taken out on the glacier and kept for 10-15 days.

Prepared seeds are sown in moist soil. Planting procedure is the same as when planting onion seeds.

The time of maturation sevka is 90-100 days from the time of sowing.

When harvesting onion sets, it should be pulled out and laid out directly on the ridge for field drying, which is 4-5 days in time.

If there is a chance of rain, then sevok dried under a canopy. Sevok during drying should be turned over so that it dries evenly. Then continue drying for two weeks in a ventilated room.

In the second year, there is a direct cultivation of turnip onions from seedlings.

For this purpose, the soil is also well prepared, and humus or peat-oil compost and mineral fertilizers are added to it.

Phosphate and potash fertilizers can be replaced with wood ash in an amount up to 150 g per square meter. m

The first shoots will appear in a week

In terms of planting sevka should be made on May 5-10. When planting it is necessary to ensure that a layer of soil from one to one and a half centimeters is formed above the bulb. On the seventh day of planting, maybe a little earlier, shoots appear.

After the emergence of shoots should not forget to loosen the soil with repetitions every ten to fifteen days.

Also, with regular loosening should be destroyed weeds and feed seedlings. Emerging arrows in the bow must break out.

It is recommended to break out the arrows when a bulge appears on the neck above the neck.

Harvesting the turnip onion starts at the end of August, when the vegetable can ripen by two thirds. It is not recommended to delay the harvesting due to the fact that the turnip on frost will not be stored. It should be stored in dry rooms, where the average temperature will be 0.5 degrees.

How to plant onions on spring greens in the open field and the greenhouse

Breaking a bunch of green onions in early spring is not a delight. For the owner of a country house or cottage to get a feather on the greens is simple. Accelerate the greenhouse polycarbonate process.

Thick greens give multi-varieties. Consider the most productive varieties - a multi-starter variety, which gives a large number of feathers and popular varieties of shallots during the season:

Chipoluccio is an early maturing, fruitful variety of shallot. Greens after planting can be cut in 2-3 weeks. The pen has an original spicy taste. Bulb weight up to 50 g. The growing season is 70 days.

Aristocratic

Aristocratic - Shallot. From one sowing bulb in the nest, from 6 to 12 pieces of new ones weighing from 50 to 100 g are formed. This type of people is called family.

The variety is early ripening, full-fledged bulbs ripen in 70 days. Cut greens ready in 4 weeks.

Variety Aristocratic used to produce greens on an industrial scale.

From one Aristocratic variety bulb, 6-12 new ones are formed

Starorussky (red, yellow) is a type of shallot.

It gives a powerful, bright green feather with a wax coating. Seed material is stored well and for a long time (2 years). The variety is resistant to many diseases of bulbous cultures.

Up to 10 pieces are formed in the nest.

Reproduction is only vegetative, since the arrows do not form. Gardeners consider this view the most cost-effective for forcing greens. Cut shallot ready in 20-30 days after planting.

Stutgarten Riesen

Stutgarten Risen is a multi-seed, high-yield variety with good immunity to most diseases. The productivity of the variety is high.

In the presence of 4-6 buds in the seed with 1 square. m. get up to 15 kg of green.

For home consumption, turnips for greens can be planted in open ground at the end of April, provided that the earth warms up and its temperature at night and morning is not lower than 12 degrees.

For commercial purposes, the turnip for greens is grown in a greenhouse. If there is heating there, distillation can be practiced throughout the year.

On an industrial scale, onions for greens are grown in greenhouses

The main thing you need to get a pen:

  • high-quality seed,
  • fertile substrate
  • watering,
  • top dressing
  • backlight.

The full harvest of the green feather is obtained at a 12 hour light day. For cultivation in the greenhouse pick varieties with a short period of rest.

With a long light day the optimum air temperature 18-22 degrees. Yields at lower temperatures fall. At higher air temperatures, product quality decreases.

There are proven methods for planting turnip greens. Experienced gardeners successfully apply planting methods:

In addition to the method of landing is important choose the right place and prepare a fertile soil (substrate) before sowing any variety.

Choosing a place to grow

Choosing a place for planting a sevka on greens, consider the principles of crop rotation.

Plant after crops:

In the shade, the bow grows poorly, the feather is pale and thin. Ridge better to have in an open, sunny place. During the rains it should not be stagnant.

We prepare the bed for planting in the fall before planting. Determine the acidity of the soil. With increased acidity add dolomite flour. Consumption - 50 g-sq. m. Onion loves loose soil with a pH of 6.5 to 7.5.

With increased acidity of the soil you need to add dolomite flour

In the autumn under digging make:

  • Humus ½ buckets,
  • Superphosphate 2 tbsp. lt
  • Potassium chloride 1 tbsp. l

Consumption is indicated in square meters. m. Dig the soil to 20 cm with a shovel or motoblock. Spring dig again and make urea 10 Mr. square m. 7 days before sowing the ridge pour a solution copper sulphate. Pour 10 liters of water into a watering can and dissolve 20 g of the preparation in it.

Planting onions for forcing the feather

A good growth of greens will provide high-quality seed material.

Before planting the bulbs should be kept in a warm room. Before planting seed sevka in the garden, they need to sort out. Discard damaged copies. Sort by size. The greatest crop of feathers give onions from 2 to 4 cm diameter, weighing from 15 to 40 g.

For growing onions on the feather is best to choose the bulbs 2-4 cm in diameter

Experienced gardeners recommend before planting to hold activities that increase yields, accelerating germination:

  1. The selected material must be moistened and kept for 48 hours in a warm room at an air temperature of 25 degrees.
  2. A quarter length trim the tops in the bulbs.
  3. Dissolve 30 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 liters of warm water (35 degrees) and dip the onions in it for 16 hours.

Approximate consumption of sevka at the bridge mode 13 kg per square meter. Consumption is big because the bulbs stick into the ground tightly to each other. Inter-row do not. The advantages of this method are obvious:

  • landing space is saved,
  • all the forces of the plant go to the formation of feather.

The bridge method is particularly advantageous to use to grow onions in greenhouses.

Tape method involves formation of furrows with an interval of 10 cm. The bulbs fit into the furrows tightly to each other or with a small indent of 1-2 cm. Furrows fall asleep with a thin layer of earth (2 cm).

Belt planting onions

The main care for outdoor culture is in the right watering. In its absence, the feather is bitter and thin. With an excess of bulbs rot, the crop suffers.

To maintain the necessary humidity, take into account the weather and check the soil moisture at a depth of 3 cm. Approximately recommend watering 2 times a week with no rain.

Water only in the evening. This eliminates unnecessary heating of the soil. Onions do not like high temperatures.

If the soil is prepared correctly and filled with organic matter and mineral fertilizers, you can not feed them. When the belt planting method to loosen the land between the rows, remove weeds.

Crop harvested by focusing on the length of the pen. On the whole ridge there will be shoots of the same length, if the seeds before planting were calibrated in size and planted seva of the same variety.

The size of onion feathers is 24-42 cm.

For all grades requirements for the length of the pen alone. Considered to be the size of goods from 24 to 42 cm. When this length is reached, feathers are cut for sale or for personal consumption.

No need to spend a lot of time and effort to get a feather on the greens for home consumption.

Before you engage in the forcing of turnips on the greens on a large scale, it is worth assessing their capabilities on a small scale.

Choose the most productive variety, master the technology of preparation of planting material and soil. With the right approach, success is guaranteed.

We grow multi-tiered onions in the country

Multi-tiered onions - perennial with branching leaves and very cold-resistant. This type of onion can multiply in a vegetative, basal way and aerial bulbs.

The name of the multi-tiered arose because of the air bulbs growing in several tiers. In its natural environment, it does not grow. This bow is also called Egyptian or viviparous. As the air bulbs look like, you can see them in the photo and video.

Egyptian or viviparous stacked bow

And we will try to understand in more detail what are the advantages of a multi-tiered onion, how it is grown, and what kind of care it needs.

Features of multi-tiered onions and its variety

The leaves of the onion are tubular in shape, from 1.5 to 2 cm wide, they can grow 40-50 cm in height in the first year, in the following years - 80 cm.

  1. The roots of a multi-tiered onion are stronger than the roots of the onion, and can reach 1.5 meters in length.
  2. The bulbs are well tolerated even frost at 40 °.
  3. Aerial onion-bulbs are best kept frozen.
  4. Growing such onions is advantageous in that it gives rise to shoots 10 days faster than the onion of a batun, and in the autumn period it can be planted immediately after harvesting.

In spring and summer, onion feathers are good to eat fresh. The process of coarsening the leaves of this type of onion occurs later than that of the batun, and its taste is sharper than that of the onions. The green leaves of a multi-tiered onion are quite resilient and juicy, and when cut, they crunch.

Leaves of a multi-tiered onion have a high phytoncidal activity, therefore they can be used as an anti-inflammatory agent for hypertension and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. For the treatment of multi-tiered onions is used both in fresh and boiled. And pickled onions of this type well helps with scurvy and atherosclerosis.

A multi-tiered onion has a strong and well-developed root system. By planting it, you get a good harvest of green leaves, suitable for human consumption.

Along with the pen, you can get a great harvest of bulbs that are underground and above ground. Both those and others can be used both as seeds, and for food.

Tiered onions very productive

The bulbs above the ground have a rather dense structure, they have a sharp taste, and they tolerate low temperatures well.

And underground bulbs are friable and extremely negatively tolerate storage, therefore, it is better to use them immediately. They are suitable for various pickles, they are well marinated, and you can use them as planting material.

Currently common cultivation of onion varieties such as:

Variety Likova - high-yielding and early. But this variety requires additional care, protection from such diseases as thrips. Fresh greens of this multi-tiered onion have a sharp taste. Landing is preferable to open.

Air seeds - bulbs - should be planted to a depth of 3-4 cm, and the distance between the rows should be 15 cm.

Variety winter Odessa in the photo:

Cultivation of tiered onions

Growing multi-tiered onions is possible on open ground and in greenhouse conditions.

Outdoor cultivation

  1. For the cultivation of onions are suitable loamy soils. Tiered onions can grow on one bed for about 5 years.
  2. Optimal for planting is the second half of August and early September. Thus, the bow before the arrival of cold weather will have time to take roots and well endure the winter, which will give a good growth in the spring.
  3. For the winter period, a portion of the onion, which is above the ground, almost completely dies. But even in this form, onions winter well.
  4. Tiered onions are frost-resistant and can tolerate temperatures down to -45 ° C, even with a small snow cover. But for a successful wintering, as previously stated, it is necessary that the onions have time to develop the root system.
  5. Multi-tiered onions can be hurt by sudden changes in spring temperatures, when, after a rather long thaw, there is again a sharp drop in temperature.
  6. On beds with perennial onion planting, with the onset of spring, all rotted leaves that may contain pathogenic microflora must be removed.
  7. The green leaves of the onion begin to grow almost immediately after the snow melts. Shooting occurs in the second year of onion growth. The rifle period is the end of spring or the beginning of summer. On the arrows in July-August, there are several tiers of aerial bulbs. The higher the tier on which the bulbs grow, the smaller they are.
  8. Especially good multi-tiered onions grow in warm weather, with the right amount of moisture.
  9. It is possible to eat this green onion before the appearance of the first air bulbs.
  10. Plant a multi-tiered onion to produce green leaves at a distance of 20 cm from each other, and the distance between the rows should be 25 cm.

To obtain seeds, the onion is planted in one or two rows at a distance of 10 cm. In the spring, it will have to be thinned out, leaving stronger plants 20 cm apart from each other.

Before planting, the air bulbs should preferably be calibrated to small, large and medium ones. Growing the next crop is better to plan from planting material collected from the first, second and third tiers. Bulb consumption will be 150 g per 10 m2.

Tiered onions are also called horned because of its arrows, and the formation of aerial bulbs gave him another name - viviparous.

In addition to the onion tiers, the layered onion also has root bulbs, which can also be eaten and used as seed.

Growing multi-tiered onions in flat conditions.

To do this, in the fall, plant seeds in the boxes or pots. They will quickly sprout and provide you with fresh greens.

Planting a multi-tiered onion in flat conditions will yield a good harvest from underground bulbs. But it should be noted that underground bulbs can not be stored for a long time.

It is better to plant them immediately after digging.

Care of multi-tiered onions and harvesting

Care for multi-tiered onions is to

  • loosening the soil
  • removal of weeds from beds,
  • fertilizer application and regular watering.

The first fertilization should be done during the period of germination of the leaves, and then - after their cutting. Experts advise to apply 2 buckets of manure per m2 with the addition of superphosphates, potassium salts and ammonium fertilizers.

If the soil is heavy, then you need to add large river sand to it. Such care as fertilizer can be combined with irrigation.

Layered onions are very picky about soil indicators. For the active growth of this type of onions need fertile and light soil and sufficient watering. It is good to plant onions on the beds where legumes were previously grown.

Onions can be grown on greens all year round.

The first time to cut green leaves can be in 28-30 days, the second - in another 30. The cut of the leaves is done twice per season. It is undesirable to cut more, it will reduce the yield of aerial bulbs. If you want to harvest the leaves earlier, then you can cover the bed with polyethylene.

High tiered bow shooters require care. To preserve the air bulbs, you need to tie the arrows to the pegs, otherwise they will break and seed will disappear.

Care for mature air bulbs is a good drying. This can be done on the street or in a ventilated room. Dry onion bulbs in the photo below.

Bulbs need to be removed from the arrows on time, otherwise they will fall off on their own and take root.

Tiered bow is a good planting material for the autumn-winter harvest of green leaves in greenhouse conditions. This type of onion, unlike onions, does not have a resting period for the bulbs, and, accordingly, grows faster in greenhouse soil.

A multi-tiered onion produces a crop earlier than a batun onion. For a multi-layered onion, it will be sufficient to maintain a temperature regime of 15 degrees in the greenhouse, while the bulb must be at least 20 degrees heat.

Air bulbs seeds are planted in a greenhouse in a bridge way.

After cutting off the green leaves of a multi-tiered onion, it is necessary to loosen the soil each time, feed up the planting with ammonia fertilizers and potash salt and water well. You may be afraid of so many chemical dressings per season, but you should not - the only multi-tiered bow does not absorb nitrates.

Leaves of a multi-tiered onion can be cut, when their height reaches 25-30 cm, it is necessary to cut off 5-7 cm above the ground level. Usually the interval between two sections is 20-25 days.

If you have planted a multi-layered onion, as an annual, then you can make three cuts, and then remove the bulbs before the next planting.If you plan to teach the air seeds-onions, then the leaves should be spared and not cut.

It is possible to cultivate a perennial multi-tiered onion, subject to the availability of the necessary conditions, practically all year round. Special care for this onion is not needed, and growing it will not bring you any trouble. But on your table there will always be tender and juicy greens that are good for health.

How to plant onion sets on the greens, you can look at the video.

General characteristics

There are several types of perennial onions. Of course, all of them, like any other garden crops, require watering, loosening and fertilizing. However, by and large, caring for them is practically no different from caring for regular turnip onions. Plants are related, and in fact there are not so many differences between them. Turnip and other annuals are grown mainly for large and juicy bulbs. Perennials plant in the garden for the leaves - on the greens. The latter is usually cut 2-3 times per season.

The only distinguishing feature of perennial onions from the usual ones is increased demands on the quality of the soil. Planted such crops most often on loamy and sandy nutrient soils. The acidity of the soil should be close to neutral. If this figure is 5.5, lime should already be added to the ground.

Sometimes perennial onions are planted on sandy soils. However, on such soils, the plants produce a lot of flower stalks and give not very good yield of leaves.

On the same place perennial onions usually grow 2-4 years. Then it needs to be planted again, because the quality of greenery begins to deteriorate. The feather not only becomes smaller, but also loses its characteristic rich taste.

How to grow onion batun

To accelerate germination, seeds of this culture are usually soaked for 24 hours. During this time, they manage to swell well. Water during soaking change 2-3 times. After swelling, the seeds are removed from the saucer and dried.

Onions are planted in carefully prepared beds of two to six lines. Seeds buried in the soil by 1-2 centimeters. The distance between rows and individual plants should be about 18-20 cm.

Care for the onion batun is periodic watering and feeding. For the first time, the soil in the garden is fertilized in the spring before planting the seeds. At the same time use mineral fertilizer. In the future, feeding is carried out after each cut feather. In this case, a mullein diluted with water would be an excellent option for feeding. The perennial batun onion responds very well to the ash solution. Too often watering the bushes is not necessary. The soil under this plant is usually moistened only with a long drought. The crust that forms after the rain is broken by a rake.

As food, the leaves of this onion can be used after they have reached a height of 10-15 cm. Plants are cut at the very base, leaving two or three arrows on the seeds. After some time, the leaves grow back. You can get 2-3 harvests from a batun during a season.

Tiered perennial onions

This species has one very unusual feature. Tiered onions do not give seeds. Therefore, multiply it exclusively vegetatively. Instead of seeds, 2-3 tiers of small air bulbs grow on the inflorescence. They are planted in the soil immediately after harvesting, as they are characterized by very poor keeping quality. In another multi-tiered bow is also called "viviparous", "horned" and "Egyptian." Its leaves are hollow, hollow, can reach a length of 50 cm.

Unlike batun, the bulbs of this variety do not have a rest period. They begin to form leaflets while still on the mother plant. The peculiarities of this variety include very early ripening. It produces its leaflets from the ground tiered bow, even before the batun.

Features of growing

Caring for this variety is also very simple. You can grow a multi-tiered onion as an annual or as a perennial.To get the greens next year, aerial bulbs need to be planted in the summer until mid-August. In spring, the plants are fed with full mineral fertilizer.

In the third year after cutting the broochs, the multi-tiered onions are definitely thinned, separating the daughter bulbs. The latter can be used as a landing material.

Scented onions

Homeland of this species, like Batun, are Mongolia and China. Differently fragrant onions are also called Siberian, as well as "Chinese garlic." At one place it can grow 4-5 years. In food, like in other perennial onions, fragrant leaves are used. The bulbs of this plant have no commercial value. Leaves can reach a length of 25-40 cm.

How to grow perennial onions in the greens in winter

All the above varieties are excellent for forcing during the cold season. Feathers of perennial onions contain a lot of vitamins. In this regard, as well as in taste, they are superior even to the bulb. Planted their sod. That is, they dig up a bush and divide it into several parts, leaving as much land as possible. In the shred of onion shnitta should be about 30 onions, other perennials - 3-5. Leaves, in the event that they have not yet withered, cut off. Turfs prepared in this way are stored in a cool place until November – December. At this time, they are transferred to cooked containers. Pots for perennial bows should have a height of at least 15 cm. Light, nutritious soil should be laid in a layer of 10-12 cm at their bottom. Then the sods themselves are set and lightly sprinkled on top of them.

As soon as sprouts appear on the surface, a pot of onions is transferred to the window sill. Too often watering plants is optional. A perennial onion is fed, growing it on the windowsill is a simple procedure, several times over the winter with a weak solution of urea (1 g per 1 liter of water). This allows you to get a bountiful harvest.

As you can see, the culture is very unpretentious in the care - perennial onions. Even a completely inexperienced gardener will probably be able to grow it in summer or even in winter. After all, all that is required to obtain a good harvest of this useful plant is to irrigate, feed and loosen in time.

Adding an article to a new collection

Onion (Allium) grows in almost every garden. But many people know this plant only as a tasty and medicinal product. But most types of onions are also decorative. Let's take a closer look at them.

Some types of decorative onions, as a rule, are grown only to decorate a flower bed. We told about them in the Decorative bow material: photos, names, planting and care. But do not forget that certain species of this useful plant are both decorative and edible at the same time. They will transform your garden! And besides, do not require painstaking care.

Soil preparation

In order for a bow to be large, it is necessary to properly prepare the landing site. Onions do not like heavy soil and loam. If there is heavy clay soil in your area, be sure to add sand and high-moor peat to the soil. Such a soil mixture allows moisture to pass well, so there will be no stagnation of water in the garden and the bulbs will not rot. Bulbs in loose soil will be larger.

Onions also do not tolerate acidic soils. If you sow the bulb in a sour soil, it will be bad to absorb nutrients. To normalize the acid-base balance in the soil it is necessary to make dolomite flour or slaked lime.

These components must be made in the fall, under the digging. Do not make them immediately before planting the bulbs.

Onions are planted in grooves with a width of 10-15 cm at a distance of 20 cm from each other. With this planting pattern, every other onion is used for greens, and the other half is left in the soil before harvesting onions. In order for the onions not to hit the onion fly, plant carrots next to the bed. Onions will scare away the carrot fly, and carrots will scare the onion.To combat the onion fly, you can add a little salt to the furrows when planting the seedlings.

Onion disinfection

In order for the bulbs not to infect fungal diseases, sevok disinfect. You can dip the onions for 20 minutes in hydrogen peroxide or treat the planting material with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. In a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate, the onion is dipped for 30 minutes.

The first dressing of onions is made 5-6 days after planting in the ground. Onions are watered with a solution of cow dung. 1 liter of slurry must be diluted in 10 liters of water. You can use chicken droppings. In 10 liters of water dissolve a glass of liquid.

The second feeding is done two weeks after the first. It is better to feed onions with herbal infusion, but you can use mineral fertilizers. In 10 liters of water dissolve:

  • 30 g of superphosphate,
  • 10 g of ammonium nitrate,
  • 5 g of potash fertilizer.

The third dressing is produced at the end of June. If you feed onions with herbal infusion, add potassium sulphide to the soil during the third feeding. It has a good effect on the safety of the bulbs.

In no case do not allow an oversupply of nitrogen fertilizers during fertilizing, since with an excess of nitrogen a good green feather will grow, but the bulb will be shallow.

Onion

Of all the variety of onion species, the most common in the garden is onion. He has been known to man for a long time, in the valley of the Nile, he was cultivated 4,000 years ago before the new era. In Russia began to grow onions 1000 years ago. Since then, he enters the recipe of so many dishes and is present daily in one form or another on the table.

Commodity onions are produced by sowing seeds of chernushki (annual varieties) or by planting onion sets (two-year varieties). As a seed, you can use sliced ​​onions. The plant is moisture-loving and demanding on the fertility of the earth - the root system develops slowly, weakly branching, therefore it is necessary to grow onions on clean from weeds, fertilized and well-moistened soils. It is advisable to do beds in an open sunny area.

Shallot is known under the names "Forty-toothed" and "Family", or "Family". This multi-starter variety of onions, in a nest forms 4-12 bulbs. Vegetatively propagated, grown it, as a rule, because of the lush greenery. In terms of sugar content in perevalot surpasses all other bows.

Old-Russian varieties of shallots are forgotten, and in fact they are distinguished by good adaptability to growing conditions, they are little affected by pests. Old Russian onion has a relatively large heads, up to 7 cm in diameter, with a mild flavor.

For planting family onions prepare grooves with a depth of 5 cm, at a distance of 15 cm from each other, poured in them ash and humus, at the rate of glass per 1 square. meter, plenty of water. The distance between the bulbs is maintained at 20 cm, they are put without pressing, sprinkled with earth and tamped. Ridges 15 cm high are formed above the onions. They are watered between the crests. Clean it with onions. Perfectly stored in normal room conditions.

Leek in Russia is not as popular as in European countries, but in recent years, gardeners have become interested in it. Presumably, the homeland of the leek is Interfluve - the territory of modern Iraq.

Cultivation of leeks does not require much labor, but has some features. In the middle latitudes, it is grown by seedlings. Seedlings are sown for seedlings in the third decade of February and the first decade of March. Before the emergence of shoots put boxes in a warm place. When loops emerge, boxes are transferred to a room with a temperature of 16-17˚C. Dive shoots do not need enough overgrown greens cut by 1/3.

In the open ground it is planted in early May - small frosts leera are not terrible. The care is simple - regular watering, weeding. Be sure to pile up to get the long underground part of the false stem. It will be convenient if you plant onions in rows.The row spacing is 15–20 cm, the distance from one root to another is 8–10 cm. The lee is harvested in the late autumn, but before the onset of severe frosts.

In the presence of a cellar, leeks are well preserved in wet sand. At home, the leek can be stored in plastic bags in the refrigerator or on the balcony. When frozen, the leek does not lose its taste, so it can be stored in the freezer.

Tiered bow

Interesting, unusual, worthy of being grown on the garden plot - multi-tiered onions (Allium proliferum). It has many names: Egyptian, viviparous, horned, Canadian, walking. In the first year it resembles a baton, in the second year it produces a flower arrow, on which in 2-3 floors grow small aerial bulbs measuring 2-3 cm in diameter. They serve as planting material.


Instead of inflorescences, air bulbs are formed on a multi-tiered onion.

Underground bulbs are red-lilac in color, with thick juicy scales, collected in a nest of 3-5 pieces, like a shallot onion. Both air and underground bulbs have a sharp taste and a pronounced aroma. Due to this property, layered onions are used in marinades, canned, as a spice to dishes. It should be noted that the bulbs can be consumed only in summer and autumn: they do not ripen and therefore do not survive in winter, they quickly germinate.

You can find more interesting and useful information about this wonderful representative of perennial onions in the article Real exotic onion family - multi-tiered onion. And in another publication dedicated to this plant (multi-tiered onion "Odessa winter 12"), our reader shares her experience of growing and breeding.

Ramson onion

Ramson (Allium ursinum)or Kalba in the wild form is found everywhere. The plant is characterized by garlic taste and aroma. In appearance, ramson is a little like a bow, it can easily be mistaken for lilies of the valley. Kalba is in great demand for its unusual taste and healthy properties. It is used for making salads, as a seasoning for main dishes, marinated, salted. Gather wild ramson in large quantities, which leads to its disappearance: in many regions of Russia it is listed in Red book.


Ramson can easily be mistaken for lily of the valley

Than to translate the red book plant, it is better to plant it in the garden. Onions undemanding to care, to grow it is not a big deal. On sale you can find the seeds of two subspecies of wild garlic: onions and victorious onions, also multiplies and vegetatively. Agricultural technology is simple - loosening the soil, watering in dry years, thinning overgrown bushes.

Ramson is a very interesting plant, and on our site there are many publications about it. Here are the most interesting and useful ones:

  • Ramson: landing and care
  • The very first vitamin recipes with wild garlic

Side bow (Allium obliquum) also called skunker, mountain garlic. It is widely distributed in natural conditions, but practically does not occur in household plots of Russians. In appearance, it resembles garlic: the same flat, 2-2.5 cm wide leaves, tapering like garlic, to the top, move alternately and to the sides from the stem. Peduncle like onions - a multicolor spherical inflorescence with yellow fragrant flowers, which attracts the scent of bees.


Onion swooper looks like garlic

Agrotechnica growing skuskina same as other perennials. Onions are very early, the leaves quickly become rigid and inedible. For the greens to be juicy and fresh, it is necessary to cut it 2-3 times over the summer. Uskun is a great seasoning for meat dishes, and you can also use such onions in canning instead of garlic.

Onion Multiple (Allium proliferum)

It is also known as viviparous onion, walking bow, horned Egyptian bow, Canadian bow. This is an unpretentious perennial culture that can grow in one place for more than 10 years. Frost-resistant plant: under the snow carries up to —50С.Young greens are not afraid of short-term spring and early autumn frosts. The inert feather grows about a week earlier than that of the onion batun. Suitable for winter forcing greens.

It is propagated by dividing the bush (daughter bulbs) or air bulbs. In the first year after planting, it forms a rosette of wide hollow tubular leaves about 2 cm in diameter and up to 50 cm in height. Beginning in the second year, on the high (up to 1 m) peduncle in 2-4 tiers air bulbs matured by mid-summer.

This onion has an interesting property: aerial onions form roots and even give rise, being on a peduncle. Goth, in turn, leans to the ground. When the nest of the bulb comes up to the soil, it takes root very quickly, forming a new plant. For this bow and nicknamed walking.

Medium sized underground bulbs (weighing no more than 40 g), elongated. Grow nests up to 20 pcs. in one nest.

All edible types of onions are not only food, but also medicinal raw materials, used since ancient times in traditional medicine. Unfortunately, many of them today are unfairly forgotten.

Allium ramus (Allium ramosum)

Other names: dzhusay onion, allium fragrant, onion odorous. The plant is originally from China and Mongolia. Grows wild in Asian countries, the Far East and southern Siberia. In the culture is not too common.

The plant is perennial, unpretentious, frost-resistant.

Drought-resistant, but gives a good harvest only with sufficient watering. Propagated by seeds. In the first genus after sowing forms a rosette of flat, narrow linear, succulent leaves about 50 cm long. To taste they resemble garlic ones. The bulb in this species is formed; it forms a small (up to 1 cm in diameter) elongated false bulb.

Starting from the second year, in July-August, the plant gives a color up to 80 cm in height with large stellate flowers, gathered in a spherical inflorescence. The flowers are white, with a thin purple streak, have a light garlic aroma.

Green onion branching grows in the spring, immediately after the snow melts, and retains excellent taste throughout the season until the autumn frosts. In winter, it can be grown in heated greenhouses or on the windowsill.

BOW BEAR (Allium ursinum)

In fact, under this name combine two species, very close in appearance and properties: bear's bow (Allium ursinum) and onionsvictorious or victorious (Allium victorialis). Bear onions can be found in the shady forests of Western and Eastern Europe, as well as in the European part of Russia. But remember: the plant is listed in the Red Book. The winning bow grows not only in Europe, but also in Siberia, the Caucasus, the Altai, Mongolia, China. Japan

Bear Onions also known as wild garlic, wild onion, wild garlic, kalba. In culture, it is grown from seed or propagated by bulbs. Seeds require mandatory stratification. The germination of purchased seeds is very low, however, it is saved by the fact that growing on the site of garlic is able to multiply by self-sowing. When choosing a place in the garden, it is important to consider that few vegetable crops like the neighborhood with this onion.

The onion of a bearish bulb is elongated, small (up to 1 cm in diameter). Leaves oblong or lanceolate, wide (up to 5 cm wide), located on the petioles.

Peduncle up to 50 cm in height is formed in the second year of the plant’s life. Small white flowers, collected in a hemispherical inflorescence, bloom in late May - June. In early July, the seeds ripen, and the ground part of the plant dies off.

Victory bow looks very similar to a bear bow, but the plant itself is larger, and the growing season - longer (until August).

BOW CREAM (Allium porrum)

It is also called pearl bow. A perennial plant that is more often cultivated as a biennial or annual. This is one of the oldest vegetable crops. It is considered the birthplace of the Mediterranean, where leek was grown more 4 thousand years ago.In the wild form is found in many Asian countries, in North Africa and several European countries (France, Spain, Italy).

It has been cultivated in Russia since the 20th century. At first, leek was cultivated mainly in the southern regions, but gradually it spread everywhere, although to this day it is inferior in popularity to other species.

In the first year, a thickened false stalk (it is called a “leg”) grows 12 to 15 large, flat lanceolate leaves up to 60 cm long. The leaves are bluish-green, with sock patina. In shape and location, they resemble garlic. The bulb does not form a leek. At the bottom of the stem there is a thickening - a false bulb.

In the second year in June-July, the peduncle is formed up to a height of 120 cm. In July, small flowers (pinkish, whitish, purple or purple) bloom on it, gathered in a large umbrella inflorescence. Some varieties of leek instead of flowers form onion bulbs - bulb. In August-September, black wrinkled seeds ripen in flowering varieties.

Propagated leek seeds. Grown mainly rassadnom way. In the food mainly eat a false stem, less often - young leaves (old leaves are rough, tasteless). To increase the lower - white - part of the false stem, leek high spud.

This bow is suitable for long-term storage, if you create suitable conditions for it. The excavated plants are cut, laid obliquely into the boxes, pouring the root part of the wet sand, and then removed in the basement. At a low positive temperature, the leek prepared in this way can be stored until spring. At the same time, which is especially valuable, the content of vitamin C in it does not decrease.

LUK-SLIZUN (Allium nutans)

Other names - ferrous onions or drooping onions. Perennial culture possessing. besides nutritional value, excellent decorative properties.

Prefers a loose fertile soil with a neutral reaction. Unlike its relatives, it does not need a period of rest - at positive temperatures it can be grown year-round. The plant is cold-resistant: young leaves appear literally from under the snow.

The leaves of the slizun are flat, fleshy, with rounded edges and reach a length of 40 cm, a width of -1–3 cm. A characteristic feature is the slimy juice protruding on the cut of the leaf. It is thanks to him that the plant got its name.

The onion slizun does not form true bulbs. But he has elongated bulges (false A bulbs) about 2 cm in diameter. They are attached to the horizontal rhizome. Leaves grow bunches. With age, the bush grows wide, and in the middle it thins out - this is a signal: it's time to divide the plant.

This onion is propagated by seeds and division of the bush. When grown from seeds in the first year, only a feather is formed, and starting from the 2nd year at the end of June - July, peduncles up to 70 cm in height are formed, on which spherical inflorescences consisting of small light purple or pinkish-white flowers bloom.

Peduncles usually lean toward the ground, straightening only at the time of seed ripening. Hence the second name of the bow - bow bow.

The leaves can be cut off the entire summer season: they do not lose their juiciness and do not grow coarse. This type of onion is distinguished by a pleasant low-sharp taste and light garlic aroma.

LUK-BATUN (Allium fistulosum)

Other names - Dudchaty bow (or tubular), Tatar, Chinese bow. Perennial frost-resistant culture is very popular among gardeners. Can be grown as an annual. In the spring the feather appears very early, the crop can be harvested before the autumn frosts, with regular pruning the leaves grow throughout the season and do not lose taste.

The plant is well propagated by seeds and division of the bush. Onions batun exacting to fertility, badly grows on overmoistened and sour soils. It has a strong root system, growing to 70 cm in width and up to 40 cm in depth.The bulb does not form - at the end of the stem oblong-ovate false bulbs with a diameter of 3 cm are formed.

In the first year, a bulb forms a socket of large (up to 3 cm in diameter and up to 40 cm in height) felted leaves covered with a waxy bloom. In the second year, the peduncle is formed (hollow, fistulous, thickened, up to 1 m high). Small greenish or yellowish flowers are collected in a spherical inflorescence. Seeds are black, angular.

LUK-SHALOT (Allium ascalonicum)

It is also called Ashkelon onions, forty-shrub onions, family onions or multilingual onions. The history of the species is from Palestine: the ancient city of Ashkelon, in the vicinity of which they grew this culture, and gave it a name. Another version, the birthplace of shallots - the Mediterranean. In the wild form, it does not occur.

This biennial plant can be cultivated as a perennial, up to 5-6 or even 10 years in the same place without a transplant. It is very similar to l. bulb (actually, it is one of its versions). However, the shallot forms not one onion, but a whole nest, in which in the first year there may be 5-6 bulbs, and on the second their number reaches 15-30. The total mass of the bulbs and one nest reaches 500 g.

Propagate l. shallot with seeds and bulbs: one onion, planted in spring, forms a new nest by autumn. It grows well on light, loose, fertile soils with a neutral reaction. In the first year, it forms only leaves - thin, cylindrical, with a noticeable wax coating. In the second year flower stalks appear up to 80 cm tall. Flowers in shallot are small, white, gathered in loose inflorescences. Small black seeds usually ripen by September.

Like onions, shallots are covered with dry scales of brown, yellow, red, purple or white. Their shape varies depending on the variety: flat-rounded, elongated, round. All varieties share pa early ripening, mid ripening and late ripening.

It is appreciated for good keeping quality, resistance to cold (tolerates frosts up to -4 ° C), delicate taste, less spicy than that of onions, and a pleasant aroma.

SHNITT-LUK (Allium schoenoprasum)

It is also called chives and l. speedy Very unpretentious perennial plant. At one place it can grow up to 10 years, but its quality deteriorates noticeably. therefore, transplanting and dividing overgrown curtains is recommended at least once every 3-4 years. Prefers fertile, well-hydrated, neutral soil.

The plant is very cold-resistant. In early spring, a feather in chives grows earlier than in other species, and pulls out frosts to –4 ° C.

Can be used for forcing greens at home.

Propagated by seed and division of turf. May give self-seeding. The bulb does not form, forms small (up to 4 cm long) false bulb, turning into a false stem. The feather is green, awl-shaped, thin (up to 0.4 cm in diameter), up to 40 cm long. It is valued for its gentle, mildly acute taste without bitterness. It has a weak garlic aroma.

When grown from seed in the first year only greens are formed. Beginning from the second year in May, thin rigid peduncles up to 60 cm high appear, which are crowned with medium-sized spherical inflorescences consisting of small pink-lilac, light violet, red-violet or (more rarely) white flowers. It blooms in May - early June. After pruning may re-bloom in the second half of summer. Seeds are black, small.

It is used not only for culinary purposes, but also for decorative purposes: chives are an excellent border plant. It is very effective during flowering, grows quickly after cutting. Good honey plant.

DISTRIBUTED SHNITT-LUK VARIETIES:

Siberian, Early, Spring Moscow, Prague.

ONION COCKTAIL (Allium sulfur)

Perhaps the most popular type.

It has been known for so long that now nobody can say exactly where this culture comes from. It is assumed that they began to grow it in Central Asia more than 5 (and according to some sources - even more than 6) thousand years ago.

Bulb onion is a perennial plant that is cultivated here as a biennial (less often as an annual). What this bow looks like, everyone knows. The scaly onion of a round, flat-rounded, egg-shaped form can reach 15 cm in diameter and weigh up to 3 kg. The ripe onion is covered with dry scales of golden yellow, brown, purple or white (depending on the variety). The inner scales are fleshy, white, greenish or purple.

The leaves (in onions they are usually called feathers) are tubular, juicy. Their sizes vary considerably depending on the variety. A hollow leafless peduncle in height reaches 1 - 1.5 m. It is crowned with a spherical inflorescence consisting of small greenish-white flowers. Blooms in June and August. Small, black trihedral seeds ripen by autumn.

Onions propagated by seeds. Most often, in the first year, small onions are obtained - sets, from which next year commodity bulbs grow. But there are also varieties in which a large onion is formed from seeds during one season.

Often onions are used to obtain vitamin greens, including after for the winter forcing of the feather. But the main product is still the bulbs. There are a lot of varieties of bulb onion. They differ in terms of cultivation (early ripening, mid-ripening and late ripening), taste (sharp, semi-sharp, sweet), in the shape and size of the bulbs, color scales, yields and other characteristics. In the wild form onion bulb is not found.

GARLIC (Allium sativum)

As the Latin name suggests, garlic is also an onion. Like onion, this culture does not need a special presentation: it grows, without exaggeration, in every garden.

The history of garlic has more than one millennium - it began to cultivate long before our era. In the wild, it does not occur.

Propagated teeth and air bulbs. Bulbs from garlic are grown in a biennial crop: in the first year, bulbs are produced - single-teeth, from which next season a full-fledged complex bulb is formed, consisting of individual cloves covered with dry films. All varieties of garlic are divided into rifle and non-arrow. The latter propagate only teeth.

My collection of onions

If you want to expand your garden collection and experience, go on a tour of the beds of your friends - be sure to find something useful for yourself.

"Let them say that women's friendship does not happen ..." - sung in a famous song. But I know what it is, because we are friends with my girlfriend for almost half a century! And we met back in 1971, becoming students of the Rostov Pedagogical Institute.

After graduation, they left for distribution, but they did not lose touch. And over the years, our friendship has only grown stronger. When my husband and I bought a car, then there was a tradition - we still go to “May” and “November” to Donetsk, where my friend settled (and she became our godfather by that time - baptized our daughter). But the main thing is that during each such trip we have a great relocation of plants: seedlings of annuals and vegetables are sent there, and back - new items that you cannot find in our region.

During the next “excursion” in the garden of my friend, I noticed a strange green bush with long flat leaves. A friend answered my question that a neighbor shared this miracle with her, she doesn’t know the name, but this is some kind of perennial onion with garlic flavor. Understandably, I immediately begged "sapling". The newbie got accustomed to me, overwintering, and already in April he gave out tender leaves with a savory taste.

By the summer it was already a decent bush with a lush hat, quickly recovering from pruning for food. I used this onion in salads, and in sandwiches, and with the first, and with the second dishes.

In the summer, the elder sister came, went to my garden garden to check what was new. Suddenly I hear screams.I jumped out of the house, my sister ran to meet me: “Your dzhusay is growing! Where did you get it ?! ”She lived for many years in Kyrgyzstan, where this dzhusay is an obligatory component of many dishes. In general, mutual joy was above the roof: I was glad that the onion had acquired a name, a sister - that can now resurrect favorite recipes. Part of the bush left with her.

From experience I will say that of all the bows this is the most unpretentious. It has been growing in one place for six years already, it does not require any shelter for the winter, nor planting transplants, nor regular watering (and the leaves do not shrink). And at the end of the season, the garden becomes a flowerbed - the infusions of the Dzhusai are very decorative and attract a lot of “romantic” insects: butterflies, bees, and ladybirds. And it blooms for a month or two and a half, and then I cut the inflorescences so that the seeds are not sown throughout the garden, although from time to time new bushes still appear in the most unexpected places, and then I dig them up and give to friends - no one has yet refused .

A couple of years ago, from my beloved friend, I brought three onions of another rare onion in our area - a multi-tiered one. At the beginning of the growing season, it resembles a bat onion, but later on, not even inflorescences appear on the arrows, but rather aerial bulbs. Usually the first tier is formed at a height of 50-60 cm, and the first onions are the largest. Then, the following “floors” are formed on the same peduncle with slightly smaller onion bulbs, and if the arrows do not pinch, then they lie on the ground, and then the onion goes on a free journey around the garden.

Greens appear very early and are distinguished by their special juiciness and tenderness. The leaves retain these qualities for 3-4 months, until the formation of arrows. By the way, aerial onions are not as tangy in taste as a regular onion, and therefore they can be used in salads and for pickling.

The onion root system is very powerful, so it does not require special care and does not die out even in cold, snowless winters. And if in February to establish high arcs with a film, then the greens will grow in March.

And I brought from a friend chives. But MA wrote so well about him. Bondarenko, that I will not repeat. I subscribe to her every word! Only now my Schnitt is already 10 years old, and he began to shrink. Therefore, this year I plan to plant it following the example of the author around different beds.

Actually, I am a big fan of all types of onions, and not only edible. My garden looks like a flower garden, where decorative onions (Sicilian, Christophe, Moli) bloom all summer, and a self-sown calendula between them.

And I don’t even remove dandelions, because I collect their inflorescences and make wonderful aromatic honey out of them. And how wonderful it is to go out to the garden in the morning and see that it is “golden”! They will not agree with me, but I believe that dandelions do more good than harm, and in an aesthetic sense too. After all, man does not live by bread alone! In addition, in early spring, a wonderful vitamin salad is obtained from their leaves.

Watch the video: How To Grow Flowering Alliums - Ornamental Flowering Onions (March 2020).