Having even a small plot of land, it is difficult to do without a greenhouse.
Seedlings grow, get an early harvest, cover them from possible freezing, from heat, make the plants in the flower bed to bloom earlier - all this can be done with the help of this device.
And to make a greenhouse with your own hands is easy. There are very simple designs, there are more complex ones, but the manufacture of any of them does not require special education.
The frame for a greenhouse can be made of wood (planks), metal (angle, shaped pipe or fittings) or PVC pipes (round or square).
Cover the greenhouse with the same materials as the greenhouse: film, spanbonod (also called agrofibre or nonwoven covering material), polycarbonate and glass.
Since the size of greenhouses is smaller (plants in greenhouses are serviced outside), then the requirements for them are not so strict: even a strong wind is not afraid of them.
Sizes of greenhouses
Since plants are serviced outside in a greenhouse, its width is chosen on the basis of the fact that you can comfortably handle plants planted closer to the middle.
You determine this by experience: you sit down and try to reach out to a certain area with your hand. Measure the distance. Get the width of the greenhouse with a one-way approach.
This is if the greenhouse is located so that the second side does not get close to it (near the wall, for example). If you can come up from two sides, this result is doubled.
It’s important to be comfortable
The distance for each person is different: it affects growth and physical condition. Do not chase savings, making it wider than necessary.
You will have to spend a lot of time on weeding, loosening, fertilizing, and other works. A couple of hours in an uncomfortable position, and no forces remain.
Therefore, it is better to make a greenhouse a little bit already, but in order to work it was convenient: getting pleasure from work, you spend less energy.
And the length of the greenhouse is chosen based on the layout of the site. It is arbitrary.
Simple greenhouse of arcs under film or spunbond
This greenhouse is made of several planks, knocked down to the required dimensions, arcs of PVC pipes, which are attached to a wooden base. The tops of these arcs are connected at the top by a bar or the same pipe. If it is a timber, it must be well processed, it is rounded to prevent the film from tearing.
Simple greenhouse made of boards and PVC arcs
How to fix the arc
On how to fix the arc of PVC pipes on the frame of the greenhouse. Fasten most often with the use of metal perforated tape. Take a small piece of her 5-6 centimeters, screws and screwdriver. And secured on both sides. For reliability, you can twice.
This mount can be repeated twice.
In exactly the same way, you can fasten them from the inside, to hold tight, add bars.
Greenhouse arcs are fixed inside the frame
Another option: near the frame to drive segments of reinforcement, and on them to put the pipe and then fix them with clamps to the frame boards. This option is more reliable.
How to make high beds (for increased yield), read here.
How to fix the film
Fix the film to PVC pipes can be double-sided tape. But only if an inexpensive polyethylene film was used: to tear it away without harming it is impossible, and the polyethylene does not serve more than a year.
So for a seasonal greenhouse, this option is from the category of "cheap and cheerful."
The second method is special clips for fixing films and all that they can replace is a piece of an old hose cut along, a clamp for pipes used for pipe installation, stationary binders, etc.
What else can fix the film on the meadows of the greenhouse or greenhouse
It also makes sense to fasten a bar on both sides of the edges of the film. For this, the film is cut off more than necessary along the length, the bar is wrapped in excess and the film is fixed on it.
Now you have a piece of film, on the short sides of which the bars are attached. One is left on one side, the other is thrown on the other. Now you do not need to press the film to the ground with stones: it keeps the bar well.
It is also convenient to open a greenhouse for airing with it, screwed up the film, put it up.
The bar wrapped around the edges of the film facilitates the work
It is possible to use small studs for fixing the film, but put washers under the caps. Faster work with a construction stapler with staples. So that the film does not break in the places of attachment, it is laid with something. You can - a thick braid or just a strip of cloth, and you already have fasteners in it.
Ways of fixing the film to the bar and to the arcs
More powerful option
If there is a need to make a greenhouse with PVC arcs more reliable, wooden stands are nailed to the base of the boards in the center of the short side. A board is fastened to them on the edge, in which holes are pre-drilled with a diameter larger than the outer diameter of the pipes.
This greenhouse can be used not only for growing peppers or eggplant. If you need to grow side racks you can tie cucumbers or tomatoes
At installation the pipe is passed through the hole. You can fix it on the sides as suggested above, or do it another way: pre-install the studs in the bars, and put the pipe on them.
How to secure the longitudinal beam in the racks
The easiest greenhouse
What makes PVC pipes so good is that they are easy to bend. Still the fact that they weigh a little. Ideal for a lightweight portable greenhouse, especially if combined with a spunbond. This material can be sewn.
Take a piece with a density of 30 kg / m2, with a step of 50 -60 cm to make a drawstring in it. For the drawstring, scribble across a strip of the same material about 10 cm wide (it is stitched from two sides).
Inside insert cut into the desired pipe segments.
This is what should happen: covering material with arcs threaded into the drawstring.
Now all this can be installed on the bed: stick the pegs in two rows on one and the other side of the bed, you put a pipe on them. Immediately get ready greenhouse. And what else is convenient: open and close the plants simply by assembling or straightening the spunbond on an arc. This is a very convenient temporary greenhouse: once it is not needed, it can be removed and folded in a couple of minutes.
Greenhouse - easier does not happen
Read more about drip irrigation systems for vegetable gardens, greenhouses and greenhouses here.
Triangular greenhouse planks
This greenhouse is good for seedlings, but you can make it for pepper, eggplant. A stand is nailed in the middle of the base. To her - two sloping boards. In the cross section is obtained a triangle. If a greenhouse is needed long, approximately every meter installs the same design. All tops connect a long bar or pipe. Simple and convenient design of this greenhouse.
Cucumbers are grown with it only until they start to curl. Covering material for cucumbers is removed, racks are nailed (fastened) to the sidewalls, between which they stretch the string.
Triangular greenhouse planks
Here's how to make such a greenhouse for cucumbers
Greenhouse "Breadbox" and "Butterfly" - photo
This design is called "breadbox" due to the fact that one to one looks like a plastic container for bread. Its lid rises in the same way, hiding behind the second half. If you look at the photo, you will understand everything.
Such a greenhouse-bread box can be cooked with your own hands from a profile tube.
There are two types of such products: opening from one or from two parties. If it is shallow, it is possible to work with a lid opening on one side. If the width is more than a meter, it will be easier to work if access is available from two sides. This design with two opening sides has its own name: "Snail".
On the fabricated frame tension film, spunbond, but polycarbonate is more popular for this design.
The second design differs in the type of door opening. Its arch is also made on arcs, but opens on loops up (see picture).
Greenhouse-butterfly: in the open position of the lid resemble wings
They can be installed directly on the ground or on a prepared base of bricks or timber. In some cases, the lids do not open immediately from the ground, but there is a small side of 15-20 cm.
How to make a beautiful garden (decorative and functional), read here.
From scrap materials
To turn unnecessary things into useful products - in this our people have no equal. They make greenhouses from such things, of which you will never think.
For example, you can easily make a greenhouse with your own hands from the old window frames. When replacing windows do not rush to throw them away. Of these, you can make a great greenhouse. And the designs may be different. The simplest is the case, shot down from planks, to which a window frame (with glass, of course) is attached to the top as a cover.
A simple frame greenhouse: a wooden case to which the old window frame is hinged
To get the plants maximum light, one of the sides of the frame is made higher (which faces south or east). There are different frames, any of them can be used for these purposes. As proof - a photo gallery of greenhouses from frames that were made with their own hands by zealous owners.
Two frames made by the house: the plants are covered from drafts, and the sides can be closed with a film
Is there a frame assembly? Why disassemble it? Just make the case under its dimensions
And you can install two nearby. Get a long bed
And you can also make an accordion so that the frames do not stick out too much
Make greenhouses out of barrels. Cover with an old umbrella of a transparent film or cut plastic canisters for water.
Greenhouse from the old barrel
A way to grow cucumbers
Homemade greenhouse can be made of plastic or foam box. Although "do" - it says loudly. All you need is to stretch the film.
All ingenious is simple
Is there a plastic box? Can be adapted for seedlings
Mini-greenhouses for seedlings
For those who grow seedlings for their own garden or flower garden, large volumes are useless. Looking for small greenhouses. And many grow seedlings on the balconies.
All the above designs can be used for a balcony in a reduced size. For very small landings, you can generally take plastic trays for eggs.
On the one hand, there will be a tank for the soil and, and the lid will be instead of shelter. Consider the rest of the ideas in the photo.
From wooden slats to make such a cabinet-greenhouse and sew it with polycarbonate
Tray for eggs made of plastic can also be used as a mini-pot for seedlings
A box is assembled from slats, glass is inserted, a film or spunbond is stretched, and polycarbonate is attached. Mini greenhouse for seedlings ready
Arcs of thick wire attached to the box, on top of the film. Greenhouse on the balcony is ready
The use of plastic bottles is already familiar, only form is non-standard. The bottle is only incised and a glass of seedlings is inserted inside, or you can plant it right in the lower part ...
Another way to make a small greenhouse
A tray of their plastic can be an individual greenhouse for seedlings planted in the ground.
Another design of a small greenhouse on the balcony of the arcs
And this is a portable mini-greenhouse for plants.
You can assemble a greenhouse with your own hands in a few hours. No complex structures will not have to build.Everything is very simple, economical and practical.
How to build a homemade greenhouse on all the rules - from the frame to the garden
Not every summer resident can afford a full-fledged greenhouse, and often the reason lies not in high cost, but in lack of space.
Another thing is a small homemade greenhouse, which is easy to build from scrap materials in a few hours.
Despite its small size and simplicity, such an organization of greenhouse has many advantages that will allow you to get several harvests in one season.
Greenhouse and greenhouse differences
The visual difference of a greenhouse lies in small dimensions. Its height rarely exceeds 1.3 m, and the length can be 4 or 6 m. In the construction there are no doors, and heating is performed naturally.
Most often, homemade greenhouse is used for growing seedlings and fast-growing greens: dill, parsley, spinach and various salads.
Airing and access to plants is done through the side wall, which is just opened up.
Shed roof polycarbonate greenhouse
Greenhouse can be portable or stationary.
Portable design is used for temporary shelter of transplanted seedlings from adverse weather conditions and night cold. Most often, the frame is covered with a film, which allows the air inside to warm up very quickly. This cannot be achieved in a greenhouse, where due to the large volume the temperature rises much more slowly.
Principle and design requirements
The design of the greenhouse is extremely simple. It consists of a frame and cover. Before construction it is necessary to choose a form that is largely determined by the material of the frame. Most often mini-greenhouse is made in the form of an arch, but rectangular and triangular structures are no less effective.
The design of the old barrel and umbrella
What to make a reliable frame
For the frame there are three suitable options:
- plastic pipe for plumbing.
Plastic Pipe Frame
The best option for the stationary frame - welded construction of metal pipes. This material is durable and has good technical characteristics. Making such a frame, you will have to make an effort, but do not forget that it will regularly serve for many years.
The main danger for metal is rust. To protect against the negative effects of moisture it is treated with a primer. Self-made greenhouses with a metal frame perfectly resist the wind, so the plants inside will be under reliable protection.
Individual shelters for garden beds
Wooden frames are most often made of window frames, which are customized to the required dimensions. It is clear that in this case we are not talking about an arched structure, but a rectangular or triangular greenhouse can be assembled in just an hour. The main problem is the fragility of the tree, which will quickly become unusable due to high humidity.
Dvukhskatny homemade greenhouse made of wood and film
The modern option is a frame made of plastic pipes. It is often used for a portable greenhouse. Minus plastic is a small weight, because of what the design can not always withstand the wind.
What to use as a covering material
To cover a homemade greenhouse, you can use the following materials:
Each of these options has its advantages, but the first two are more versatile. Polycarbonate coating will last for several seasons. He is not afraid of rain and wind, and with a thickness of 8 mm - even hail. If the stationary structure is disassembled for the winter, this will increase the service life.
This can not be said about the film, which with proper care will last no more than two years. Its advantage is relatively low price and ease of installation. Film greenhouse heats up quickly enough, but the heat inside does not stay for long.
Simple greenhouse film
Glass is used exclusively on wooden frames. It is already present in the window frames, of which often make homemade greenhouses. But if the assembly is made from scratch, then the glass is fixed with the help of slats and small nails. Its advantages are good light transmittance, and cons in brittleness. Because of this lack, greenhouses are less and less often made of glass.
Homemade greenhouse from the window - scheme
How to organize ventilation
A big problem for gardeners is ventilation. Windows and doors in greenhouses are not provided, so ventilation must be forced. Otherwise, the plants will not be able to grow normally and will soon die.
For admission to the inside of fresh air open up the side of the greenhouse. They do it in the early hours, preferably before noon. At outside temperatures above + 30 ° C, one side of the greenhouse is kept open until evening.
The easiest way to create greenhouse conditions
Frame construction and film cover
If everything is ready, you can proceed directly to the construction. Consider the steps on the example of a greenhouse of arched shape with a frame of plastic pipes and a coating of film.
- For a small homemade greenhouse, you will need three standard pipes with a length of 2 m and a diameter of 0.5 inches. Bend an arc out of the pipe and stick it to the ground, noting where it touches. Do this three times at 0.5 m intervals.
- In the marked places, drive in metal stakes, the diameter of which is less than the internal diameter of the pipe.
- Slip the ends of the pipes onto the stakes in such a way as to form an arch.
- Cover the arc with a film, leaving a small stock on each side. Press the film to the ground with boards or bricks.
Such a homemade greenhouse is perfect for growing seedlings or early greenery. At the same time, you will not incur serious financial costs and will not lose a lot of time for assembly.
Frame under the film of plastic pipes on a wooden base
Soil preparation for beds
Regardless of what you decide to grow in a greenhouse, it is important to take care of quality soil. It must be fertile, otherwise your efforts will not bring the expected result.
In order for the root system to grow rapidly, rather than penetrate through a “concrete” barrier, the substrate must be loose and light.
Sand impurity is also obligatory, due to which moisture will be easily absorbed.
Growing early vegetables in the greenhouse occurs in an intensive pattern, so before each new batch it is necessary to update the soil. This will not only help maintain fertility, but also be able to protect against the occurrence of various unpleasant diseases.
Multilayer beds - scheme
The substrate is prepared according to the following recipe: 2.5 buckets of sod land, 1 bucket of leaf compost, 1 bucket of humus, 0.5 buckets of sand, 1/3 buckets of wood ash. All this is thoroughly mixed and sent to the greenhouse in place of the excavated soil.
Attachment options to the frame
The film is not the most durable and wear-resistant material. Regular plastic film is only enough for one season of use, as it is easily torn, stretched under the action of high temperature and destroyed by ultraviolet rays.
But its low price allows you to put up with this drawback.
For reference. There are on sale and more durable modern film materials that can last 5-6 years, but it is desirable to remove them for the winter.
The most problematic areas of the greenhouse from the film - the attachment to the frame. It is here that the film most often breaks due to friction about its elements and stretches from heat.
Therefore, the wooden parts of the frame should be well polished and painted with light paint that repels the sun's rays.
The mounting of the film on the greenhouse of wooden frames is carried out in different ways:
- The most common is with wooden beadings or slats, which are placed on the frame posts on top of the cover and nailed.All this is clearly seen in the video presented in the article.
But experienced gardeners know that this is also the most unreliable method, since thin slats eventually crack under the sun or crack during the installation phase. As a result, the film is actually held by nails alone and quickly breaks from friction on the slats during wind gusts.
Council If other methods are not available to you, you can slightly increase the service life of the coating, if the slats are well dried before use, painted and fixed, not with nails, but with self-tapping screws, pre-drilled holes for them.
The distance between the attachment points should be at least 20-25 cm.
- A more reliable option - fastening wooden lining. Instructions for their manufacture is simple: cut from a plate equal to the width of the thickness of the frame, length of 10 cm.
Round their edges, smear rubber glue on all sides and wrap in several layers of plastic film. You can use old packages.
With the same glue, glue the lining to the film stretched on the greenhouse in the places of its contact with the frame. Then drill a hole in them with a thin drill and fix them with screws.
- Instead of unreliable wooden shtapik it is also possible to use the strong, not giving in to rotting and deformation packing plastic tape. It can be easily attached to a wooden greenhouse with a construction stapler.
This method is more economical and allows you to equip a greenhouse much easier and faster with your own hands.
Fixing the film in the greenhouse with plastic tape
- A great alternative to packing tape is old linoleum, cut into strips. These strips, like wooden linings, can be glued to the film before fastening with straps for greater reliability.
As for how to fix the film to the greenhouse around the perimeter, around the doors and window leaves (see the window for the greenhouse - we do it right), in these places it is cut out with a reserve and several times wrapped around the rail or bar, after which they are attached to the frame .
When covering the arched structures, the timber is first fixed on one long side. Then the coating is thrown to the other side and is well stretched by winding on the second horizontal bar. After that, at the bottom of the greenhouse, you can cover the ground to a height of 10-15 cm, so that there is no draft under the film.
The metal heats up much more strongly than wood, therefore one color of the frame in white color will not be enough. Need more serious isolation, the choice of which depends on the type of frame.
- If it is a reinforcement or a round metal pipe, you can put on them pieces of old hose or plastic pipes cut along,
- If it is a profile pipe or galvanized profile for plasterboard structures, they are wrapped in white cloth.
The mounting of the film to the greenhouse on a metal frame can be carried out by the methods described above, but in the metal it will first be necessary to drill holes for the self-tapping screws. This is a long and rather laborious work, so it is better to use other methods.
- Using a coarse mesh or durable cord. Fixing the film on the greenhouse with a cord is carried out after its tension on the frame on both sides.
A cord or a thick fishing line is fastened in one of the lower corners of the greenhouse, and then it is tightened, zigzagging from one side to the other. The same operation is done from the inside, so that the film is fixed between the two layers of the mesh formed by the cord.
Mesh stretched over the film
- You can not cut and deploy the purchased film, and use it in two layers. As a rule, it is a sleeve of one and a half meters wide, which is cut on one side and get a canvas 3 meters wide.
If you do not do this, you can use a wooden peg to put a strong cord through the edges of the sleeve and fasten its ends on opposite sides of the frame, pulling it well.The following is tightly fastened with an overlap of 15 cm to the previous one.
Note. This method of attaching the film to a greenhouse doubles the consumption of the coating, but then improves its service life.
- The easiest way to fasten the film on the framework of reinforcement is with the help of special clothespins for paper.
Such a removable mount allows you to quickly and easily stretch the cover if it is stretched.
Plastic Pipe Frame
Plastic is not heated as metal, and has a smooth surface, so the frame of it does not need additional protection from heat. If you build a shelter from ready-made plastic arcs that are sold in stores, then complete with them are usually special clips for attaching a greenhouse film that presses it to the frame.
The photo shows how the clip fixes the film.
If you use ordinary plastic pipes, the clamps can be made on your own from scraps of the same pipe or slightly larger diameter. To do this, a tube with a length of 8-10 cm is sawed along the wall along and pulled apart.
In order not to damage the web during attachment, the edges of the cut are treated with sandpaper or fused on fire.
Council Exactly the same clamp for fixing a greenhouse film can be made for a framework of thin metal pipes.
Experts advise: how to stretch the film on the greenhouse
At first glance, it seems that covering a greenhouse frame with a film is a simple matter. But this work requires some effort and compliance with certain rules. If the width of the film coincides with the width of the greenhouse - great, because for laying you do not need to glue the material. In order to correctly measure the required length for the coating, it is necessary to throw a film roll across the entire frame - from one end side to the other, close these parts of the structure and add a 30 cm gap on each side. This is needed for fixing the film to the ground.
If the width of the material is not enough, it can be glued together with adhesive tape or with the help of hot gluing (with a soldering iron or iron).
It is advised to stretch the film in case of quiet warm weather, the material may stretch from heat, which will lead to sagging, and at low temperatures the film tends to taper, which leads to cracking.
At the bottom of the film, which remained on the allowance, is fastened with wooden slats to the foundation or metal fittings are wrapped in film and buried in the ground. After all the preparatory work, you can begin to mount the material to the arcs of the greenhouse.
There are many ways of fixing the film. The main task is to fit the material well to the frame. If it is very windy, the film will either break, or the greenhouse will remain completely uncoated.
To plant crops in the greenhouse grow without problems, it should be treated for diseases and pests. About this is our material: https://homeli.ru/dvor-i-sad/teplitsy/obrabotka-teplitsy-vesnoj-ot-boleznej-i-vreditelej.
Soldering polyethylene: how to cover the greenhouse film
When the film is stretched onto the frame of the greenhouse, sometimes the width of the material is not enough to cover the entire area of the structure. In this case, the film can be glued together with tape, but it is better to solder it and get a fairly large piece of coating.
For bonding using a few simple techniques:
- Cut the material, spread out the canvas on a flat surface "stack" - on top of each other. At the edges lay a sheet of parchment or newspaper. Go through the paper with an iron with a sufficiently high temperature. At the joints should form a seam. It is important to ensure that the polyethylene does not completely float.
- The edges of the cut material must be clamped between special metal plates. Along the edges, which peep 1 cm out of the clip, walk with a hot soldering iron to obtain a seam.
- Special glue - it must have frost-resistant, water-repellent properties and be as eco-friendly as possible, because vegetables will be grown in greenhouses.
When choosing any method of adhesion, it is best to first practice on small cuts, choose the optimal temperature and pressure to create a seam.
By choosing any of these methods, you can get a large piece of material, which you can easily cover the greenhouse.
Thus, you can sew another film cover that can be replaced with the old one in case of damage. After covering the greenhouse with a film, you need to decide how to attach it to the frame.
By maintaining the optimum temperature in the greenhouse, you can significantly improve the quality of the crop. We will tell about it in the material: https://homeli.ru/dvor-i-sad/teplitsy/kakaya-temperatura-dolzhna-byt-v-teplitse.
Fixing the film on the greenhouse: methods of laying material
A summer resident or a farmer who wishes to grow vegetables in the cold season or to germinate seedlings can independently build a film greenhouse. Manufacturing and installation can take some time, and you need to take into account a number of nuances.
It is important to know from what material the framework of the future greenhouse will be made. Wooden planks and metal-plastic arcs do not need special preparation, iron ones need to be wrapped with a cloth or covered with several layers of paint.
First of all, you need to decide which film will cover the frame of the greenhouse. The cover of temporary greenhouses is no different from the cover of long-term greenhouses. The choice is large enough - plastic film, PVC, multilayer and reinforced film. Each of them has its own distinctive characteristics and a different service life.
Iron tends to heat up and, in contact with the film, can melt it.
Depending on the shape of the greenhouse - arched or double-slope, you can choose the most appropriate option for mounting the film on the frame.
Methods for laying material on a film greenhouse:
- Fastener rail - the easiest, but the least harmless way. With this attachment, the rail is fastened on nails to a wooden frame, thereby piercing the material. To prevent large gaps, a strip of linoleum can be laid between the film and the wooden batten.
- If the frame of the greenhouse is made of metal-plastic pipes, the film can be attached to them using special clips.
- Cover with mesh - first, the frame is covered with a film, then the mesh is tensioned from above, pressing the film cover. With this method of fixing the film can not be damaged, but it can move aside in a strong wind. Then the stretching procedure should be repeated anew.
- Similarly, you can wrap the film with a rope or a tight rope. To fix it on the one hand, to throw on the other and back - forming a zigzag.
- Attachment through eyelets. Eyelets are a hole in a thick film, reinforced with metal rings. Through this hole tensioning of the elastic cord occurs and the film coating is strengthened.
When laying the film on the frame, it is not worthwhile to pull it hard - as the temperature changes, the film may become deformed. If the stretch is bad, it may sag during precipitation in the form of rain or snow.
Choose the size and place for the beds should be depending on the area and shape of the greenhouse. How to do it correctly, read on our website: https://homeli.ru/dvor-i-sad/teplitsy/gryadki-v-teplitse-skhema.
How to fix the film on the arches of the greenhouse with clips and clips
Clips are used to mount the film on greenhouses, the frame of which is made of metal-plastic pipes or fittings. The diameter of the pipe can be 25, 32 or 60 mm. Stretching the film on the frame is not very convenient, but they are very easy to attach with special clips. They are put on the pipe, seize the polyethylene film and press it to the arcs.
Similar clips can be found at any hardware store. But if they are not available or there is no opportunity to get them, such clips can be made with your own hands.To do this, take a plastic pipe and cut into pieces of 4-5 cm in length. Then on each tube you need to cut the side part - the cut must be of such a size that it can be attached to the greenhouse arc.
It is important to sharpen the edges of the tubes, so that the sharp corners do not tear the film when fastening.
Similarly, you can make clips from a rubber hose, but rubber tends to crack, so this method is short-lived.
Also for mounting the film on the frame, you can use large size stationery binders. They can be attached to the frame, if the diameter of the pipes allows.
How to glue the film for the greenhouse (video)
When laying the film on the arc greenhouse, it is important to remember that the quality of the stretch depends on the density of the material. It is best to avoid using nails and other fasteners that may damage the coating. In case of this, a crack or hole can be sealed with a special glue or hot soldering iron.
There are greenhouses in most household farms, many install them at summer cottages. Practically for every gardener, such a construction is one of the most important attributes of the site.
If the area is small, greenhouse can be arranged right at the wall of the house from the sunny side. When choosing a place you need to consider not only his illumination, but also wind protectionrisks flooding and rain water erosion, soil quality.
The list of main crops that can be grown in greenhouses:
- onions on greens,
- salad turnip
- early cabbage
- parsley and dill,
- early tomatoes,
- various ornamental plants.
Cold-resistant crops can be sown directly in the prepared greenhouse soil., but tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers and others heat-loving species must be planted seedlings. To do this, their seeds are first germinated indoors using special cassettes or boxes.
When transplanting plants in a greenhouse is very important prevent thickened landingsAfter all, in close quarters, the stems are drawn out, lose their strength, and are more often subject to illnesses. Should be considered and open-air landing dates: overgrown seedlings obscure other cultures, complicates the care of plants, worse survives.
For the same reason greenhouse is not recommended to choose curly and tall species. For example, to get an early crop of cucumbers, give preference to better bush and low-grade self-pollinating varieties that do not need large space and do not require a garter.
Advantages and disadvantages
Film-coated greenhouses possess nearby advantages:
- the construction of such a construction requires minimum costbecause the film is one of the cheapest materials, and the frame can be assembled from wooden bars, fittings, metal pipes that are not needed in the household,
- to stretch and secure the film, do not necessarily have special skills,
- this coating is absolutely safely in operation, does not need special care,
- film greenhouse low weighttherefore it can be installed anywhere and does not require a solid foundation,
- film is great lets in sunlight.
It is possible to assemble and install a greenhouse alone. in a few hours. If necessary, the design is easily moved to another place at the end of the season, and as easily dismantled. To care for the plants and airing, the coating is simply rolled up on one side or tilted upwards on the frame.
There are film greenhouses and separate limitations:
- film ineffective with severe frosts and prolonged cold snaps, therefore, the greenhouse is used only in the warm season,
- this coating must be removed from the frame for the winter and completely change in 2-3 seasons,
- on bright sunny days in tightly closed greenhouses occurs overheating of plants, from which they can die. To avoid this, you should open the greenhouse for airing in a timely manner or shade the film from above,
- weakly fixed to the frame will be blown away.
The device greenhouse film type
Despite the simplicity of the design, a greenhouse with a film coating has its secrets. Very important right pick up the material for the frame and properly fix the filmto avoid its damage. The simplest option is polypropylene pipeswhich easily bend into arcs, keep their shape well and do not rub the coating. The ends of the pipes can be stuck in the ground, but more securely fasten them to the frame of the boards.
Wooden frames are more durable and resistant, but without special treatment, they do not last very long. If the choice fell on wood, you should take care of the purchase in advance. protective impregnation or paint.
In addition, all elements of the frame must be carefully sandedto avoid rubbing the film at the attachment points.
In the presence of fittings, steel angles or pipes You can make a frame of them, but such a greenhouse should immediately be installed on a permanent place or make collapsible. It should be noted that metal, unlike wood and plastic, heats up strongly under the sun and heats the film, which leads to premature deterioration of the coating.
In addition, the rough surface contributes rubbing of the film in the field. Both problems are solved very simply: rubber is put on over the metal (hose pieces, plastic tubes) and painted white. Rubber and plastic do not tear polyethylene, and the white color reduces the heating of elements by almost two times.
To make the greenhouse stronger, you must install additional spacers at the corners of the structure and stiffening rib from each side. If the structure is tall and long, you can put several vertical props out of the timber inside. Some gardeners prefer to strengthen greenhouses with the help of stretch marks from wire, stretching it between the frame and the pegs hammered into the ground.
How is the film fixed on greenhouses and greenhouses? Having dealt with the frame, you should take care of film fixing methods. On small greenhouses, she just pounce on top. and is fixed around the perimeter with something heavy, for example, pressed down with stones, planks, bricks. For larger structures This method does not fit. There are several options for mounting the cover:
- beadings or wooden slats and nails,
- furniture stapler,
- special mounting profiles,
- plastic clips of various diameters.
Fixing film with the help of beadings and nails does not require much effort, but the quality of such attachment is noticeably reduced by the end of the season. The tree cracks in the sun, gaps appear between the frame and the film, the coating is kept only on the nails. Two or three windy days are enough for the polyethylene to break off. Similar problems arise and when fixed with staples: over time, gaps appear in the attachment points and the film has to be changed.
Factory mounting profiles allow you to quickly and accurately fix the coating on the frame. They are suitable for both straight and curved sections, so they are often used in the manufacture of arch type greenhouses.
Working with them is quite easy, and the only drawback is the high cost of fasteners.
The most convenient and practical option of mounting the film when mounting it yourself is plastic clips for the greenhouse.
They differ in diameter and length, are highly resistant to temperature effects, serve at least 5 years. If necessary, the clips can be cut into pieces 2 cm wide.
How to make greenhouses and greenhouses under the film with your own hands: consider the photo and step by step instructions? First you need to decide on the size of the greenhouse and find the optimal place for it. In the absence of experience you should not immediately occupy a large area, it is better to add later. By the size of the future greenhouse prepare the site: it should be located from east to west, be illuminated by the sun most of the day, have protection from the wind. The selected area is cleaned and leveled, the fertile soil layer is removed and set aside.
Now it is necessary pick up material, prepare tools for work. The easiest way to do it yourself PVC arched greenhouse type of pipe, film and strengthen it with a wooden frame. During the construction process will require:
- 4 boards with a section of 40x200 mm
- rebars 70 cm long,
- PVC pipes
- metal fasteners for pipes,
- thick plastic film
- nails, screws and screwdriver.
Step 1. Boards soaked with antiseptic and dried in air. Further knock out a rectangular box the size of the future greenhouse and set it on the prepared site.
Step 2. From the inside at the corners of the box drive metal rods into the groundwhich will provide additional strength to the base.
Step 3. The length of the box from the outside drive in reinforcement every half meter. The rods must be buried not less than 30 cm. On the opposite side, they do the same, placing the rods parallel to each other.
Step 4. The pipes are cut so as to form pieces of the same length, after which they are put on the ends of the reinforcement protruding from the ground. Should turn out parallel parallel arc above the box.
Step 5. Take metal fasteners and fix the pipes to the boards with screws and a screwdriver.
Step 6. Fill the inside of the box with a layer of organic matter, then spread a layer of dry leaves or rotted straw, and on top of it pour a fertile soil with a layer of about 10-12 cm. Now you can cover the greenhouse.
Step 7. Unwind the film and stretch it on top of the arc. On both sides the film should hang down to the ground. With clips the cover is fixed on each arcwhile trying to maintain the same material tension. The bottom edge of the film around the perimeter powdered with earth or pressed down with boards.
So, with minimal cost, you can make a convenient greenhouse on the plot. Depending on the type of material (you can make a greenhouse with your own hands from a covering material), the assembly methods are slightly different, but the basic steps remain the same. If technology is observed, the greenhouse will last more than one year., providing its owners with environmentally friendly products.
Rail (option for the frame of wood).
In this method, you can use wooden slats (beadings for windows are not recommended) with nails or screws, and even better packing tape fastened with staples from a construction stapler.
As an option - cut the tape from the old linoleum or from any other strong material.
For many, this is the worst way to cover the greenhouse - because you have to spoil the film. For a long time such a film does not live, on the strength of a couple of seasons. Well, if you nail a cheap film, but nailing a long-lasting expensive film for a couple of seasons is nonsense, especially if there are safer ways.
Although the breakthroughs from nails are not afraid of reinforced film for the greenhouse.
Rack nailed to the ends
If in the first method the fastening of the film to the greenhouse frame is done both on the sides and to the roof rafters, in this film it is fixed only on the greenhouse ends. How exactly - in the photo below.
If the film is not reinforced, then it is very often torn on nails (from the wind). This method reduces the damage to the film and the chance that the wind will tear the film.
Clips, clips (option for PVC pipe frame, fittings)
How to fix the film on the greenhouse of plastic pipes? You can fix the film on the greenhouse with the help of special clips.Such clips can be found in the store, the price they are not too expensive.
But if you could not buy clips, you can make them yourself from the same plastic pipes. The process is not particularly intricate. To do this, cut the tubes and cut the side part into them. To make the fastening of the film to the PVC pipe will have to experiment a little with the size of the cut in the clamp. The edges of the clips are better to grind off, otherwise they may tear the film. An example of such a greenhouse made of PVC with snaps is described here.
Under the metal clips enclose any material that will not allow the metal overheated in the sun to spoil the film.
Some originals secure the film with stationery clips. If the frame allows, then why not.
Greenhouse film fixation system
This fixation system consists of 2 parts - made of PVC clips (resistant to UV radiation) and a galvanized (aluminum) profile. I think the principle of its operation is clear - the PFH snaps into the profile along with the film, without any damage to the material. Attach the system to the roofs, side walls and ends.
Another option - double clips for mounting the film on the aluminum profile.
Of all the methods of mounting the film on the greenhouse - this is the most simple, in terms of installation and dismantling of the film.
The safest way to fix the film to the greenhouse. First you need to cover the greenhouse with a film, and on top of it the net, the net itself is tied to the body.
In this case, the film is not damaged in any way, but there is one drawback - you will have to stretch the film more often, especially after rain and if there is no additional fastening.
Eyelets and elastic cord
Quite a specific way, and therefore I will describe in passing. Eyelets are a hole in the film reinforced with a metal or plastic ring. For conventional film, it is not suitable, only for strong and preferably with the addition of a cuff that will not allow the grommet to break through the material.
If there are interesting examples of mounting the film to the greenhouse - share with them in the comments.
There are many different types of films for attachment to the frame with their own hands, which is used as a covering material for greenhouses and greenhouses. When choosing a material, the consumer should be guided by the following criteria:
- mechanical strength and durability. Will the material last only one season, or can it be reused?
- the ability to transmit light
- market price.
Of course, the characteristics of the polymers are not limited to the above. You can talk about thermal and chemical strength, t. e., how much it is able to withstand high temperature and the effects of chemicals that are contained in fertilizers, its antistatic properties, etc.
There are several main types: the usual for all greenhouse films, which are the most common - polyethylene, reinforced (based on polyethylene), light-scattering and light-stabilized, polyvinyl chloride.
In addition to these, there are also specialized species with unusual properties (for example, a three-layer air-bubble, or polyamide) intended for the cultivation of exotic plants. Their use on the dacha is functionally redundant and unnecessarily expensive.
It is best to choose the advice of experienced gardeners. For this there are specialized forums and numerous articles on the Internet. By the way, if you have an opinion on this issue, share it with the forum users - you will be listened to.
Simple mounting methods
To fix the cover on in the following ways.
The option of mounting the film on a metal structure with your own hands using a clip. (It is a clamp in the form of an aluminum profile with the original fastening system). If the clips are not supplied with the greenhouse frame, they can be made independently.To protect the shelter from mechanical damage, the clips can be provided with rubber pads.
You can also stretch the covering polymer on the frame with a mesh. Replacing the mesh can such a material as the cord. You must first tension the film on the frame, and on top to secure the proposed methods.
In order for self-made work to be successful, you should follow a few simple rules. First, regardless of the way you will cover your metal greenhouse or greenhouse, these works should be done in dry, windless or windless weather, in order to avoid gusts and material overflows.
Cord (fishing line 0.5 -1.0 mm) is fixed at the base of the greenhouse and tensioned, overlapping, as it were, in a zigzag. It is better to use a standard roll of 32 meters. For durability, a similar procedure can be done from the inside, then the coating is fixed as in a cocoon from the resulting mesh.
And further. No need to make excessive efforts when trying to stretch the film material. The polymer, due to its structure, is susceptible to deformation, and the deformed places will sooner or later break, and the material will be damaged.
Some subtleties you should know
The problem faced by amateur gardeners during the attachment of the film to the frame is that the metal, by virtue of its rigid structure, deforms the softer material, making it unusable. A simple way to solve the problem is to glue the place of contact between the frame and the covering material with building tape.
By the way, this procedure will prevent the film from another problem - heating. Metal coated with white construction tape will heat up less, and hence the effect of high temperatures on the coating will be minimal.
Covering a metal greenhouse with your own hands is not so difficult if you do not rush and follow the appropriate instructions and tips. However, there are strict rules that should be followed.
- the greenhouse film is attached to the metal frame at a positive ambient temperature in the range of 10 to 20 degrees Celsius,
- cover the frame should be about 3 days before the seedlings are placed in the greenhouse,
- It is strongly not recommended to use nails, screws or wire for fastening the film. The result will be an irretrievable loss of covering material.
How to make a warm garden bed
Only with the proper organization of the beds inside a greenhouse without heating a special microclimate is established in which plants develop much faster than in open ground. To do this, make warm beds. This scheme is easy to integrate into a home-made greenhouse and start the garden season in early March.
Device warm beds in a greenhouse
For a warm bed you need fresh manure, plant residues and any organic matter.
All this is laid in a layer of about 40 cm to a depth of 70 cm and watered with hot (70-80 ° C) water. The remaining 30 cm to the soil surface is filled with a nutrient substrate. After a couple of days, the lower layer will warm up the upper layer well and you can start sowing.
A simple set of available materials and a little effort put together will give you a good greenhouse, which will bring a lot of benefit to the economy.
The main criterion when choosing a place for a greenhouse is light. The sun's rays should illuminate the plants all day.
The area blown by the winds, located in a valley where the water constantly flows, is not suitable for this purpose. In relation to the cardinal points, the optimal orientation for it is east-west.
If this does not work out, then try to position the frame of the greenhouse so that the sun illuminates it at least until noon.
The place for the greenhouse should be as open and sunny as possible.
The main thing is not to let the plants freeze at dawn, when the temperature is the lowest, otherwise the cucumbers will stop growing.
If the rays of the sun get into the greenhouse only after lunch, by nightfall it will not warm up enough, in the morning the plants will be cold again, and in the afternoon it will be too hot, therefore, you will not get a crop in such a greenhouse.
An unfortunate place for a greenhouse - a site with a slope. Choose a fairly flat surface without high vegetation nearby, with a convenient approach so that you can freely bring up manure and water.
Attention: lift the northern side of the greenhouse relative to the southern centimeters by 10. This will ensure good warming of the sun, protect it from frost, and raindrops will not linger on the surface of the greenhouse.
Classification of greenhouses by type of heating
Depending on the type of heating greenhouses are:
Drawing: warm greenhouse for cucumbers
- Cold - the temperature in them depends only on the amount of solar heat.
Semi-warm - heated with the help of heat emitted by oxidizing biofuel, which is most effective horse manure, mixed with soil, sawdust, straw, fallen leaves.
The frame of the greenhouse is made of such materials:
- metal round profile,
- the reinforcement of their fiberglass,
- PVC pipes
- window frames.
The greenhouse is covered with a dense film of polyethylene, lutrasil, spunbond, cellular polycarbonate, glass.
Types of greenhouse designs
If the greenhouse is planned to be used constantly, then it needs a foundation, but it is a variant of a temporary shelter, then you can do without a foundation. According to the constructional design, greenhouses can be very different:
- Greenhouse simple arc-shaped - uncomplicated design that occurs most often. Arcs of reinforcement of metal, fiberglass or polypropylene pipes are inserted into the ground every 0.5 m and covered with a film. Then shelter rooted to the ground with bricks or wooden bars. Another option: make a frame of wood, and on it fix the frame of the arcs. Such a borage can be brought into the room for the winter without disassembling, and placed every spring in a new place. As a reinforcing element, the arcs are sometimes fastened with a horizontal rail. If the greenhouse is long, then to preserve its shape, it is supplemented with vertical supports placed under the first and the outermost arc.
- Wooden portable. If the farm has extra wooden bars or slats, they can be used for a portable, easy-to-install greenhouse. Such a design, made with minimal cost, is good when the land in the garden has not yet thawed and it is impossible to insert arcs into it. From the wooden bars they knock together 1 or several pairs of gratings. Of these elements collect greenhouse, relying one element on another. Sections should be stapled to each other so that they do not disperse and cover with a thick film. Types of greenhouses by design
- Stationary made of wood. Such a greenhouse is collected from planks and bars. First, make the board base in the form of boxes of arbitrary sizes, taking into account the available space, stuffed frame of the bars, covered with the same film or cover with polycarbonate. When there is no space for a greenhouse for cucumbers in the garden, then such a small building can be placed even in the yard, but then the box is made in the form of a box and the soil is poured into it.
- Metal. Greenhouse metal is the most durable. Carry out its frame from a corner or pipe, make as collapsible, using bolted connections, and stationary with the use of welding. Scheme: greenhouse with metal base
- From window frames - is a construction of windows unfit for direct use. The invention is very practical, and, most importantly, its cost is almost zero.
Consider some of the options in more detail.
Greenhouse made of wood and polycarbonate do it yourself
As a material for such a greenhouse, you will need boards or logs for the base, wooden bars 40 x 50 for the frame and 20 x 40 for the roof, polyethylene film, stainless steel screws for wood, approximately 55 x 4, cellular polycarbonate 10 mm thick, and from the tool plane and screwdriver.
The work is performed in the following sequence:
- Swarm a trench 0.7 meters deep and 2 m wide. In length, it can be any. The walls of the trench to the bottom somewhat narrowed to prevent the sliding of the ground.
- Pour a waterproofing layer of sand and gravel, on top of a layer of organic litter - biofuels, then a 30 cm layer of soil.
- We make a wooden base of the boards or logs. Over it we fasten racks through each meter.
- We make a strapping of wooden bars around the perimeter with a height of about 1 m. Pre-wood is treated with an antiseptic. We fix the design with screws. At the same time, we leave the opening under the entrance to the greenhouse closer to the south side.
- We perform a gabled frame for the roof using 20 x 40 bars. We make a ramp at an angle of 30 degrees, the length of the slope is about 0.5 m, and the total height of the greenhouse is 1.25 m.
- We take sheets of polycarbonate honeycomb and fasten them to the side walls of the greenhouse.
- We proceed to the last stage - we cover the roof with durable polyethylene film and we fasten the structure with self-tapping screws.
Tip: to prevent the polycarbonate from cracking during fastening, and the film does not tear, make your own lining of aluminum and screw the screws on the homemade washers not into the base material, but into the self-made washers.
Greenhouse from old window frames
If you have changed the windows in the house and you still have old frames of the same size, then they will serve as an excellent material for the construction of the borage greenhouse. In addition, we need bricks, boards and logs. Then we act using the following instruction:
- We treat wood with antiseptic, bituminous mastic or engine oil.
- Mark up the perimeter. If we plan the device of a semi-warm greenhouse, then we dig a trench for biofuel. When a decision is made on a cold-type borage device, we dig a shallow ditch for the foundation.
- We lay out the foundation for the future greenhouse of brick.
- We lay the timber on the foundation and mark on it from the inside the segments, the length of which is slightly less than the frame width. Greenhouse for cucumbers from old window frames
- We install by marking the board in an upright position.
- Fasten horizontally to the top of the board, but already outside the vertical boards. The ends of the vertical boards and the edge of the horizontal combine.
- We mount the rafters in the form of a miniature house and the frame is completely ready.
- We fasten the frame using screws. At the same time, we make one or several frames opening, for which, on the one hand, we install on them an appropriate mechanism (loops). Gabled roof frame
Build a greenhouse "Butterfly"
The Butterfly glasshouse is very functional and convenient, the design for it can be purchased in a specialized store, but it is cheaper and safer to make it yourself. Here is a guide to facilitate the work:
- Mark up the site, calculate how much material is required.
- We dig up a pit to a depth of about 0.6 m.
- We arrange the foundation of concrete, after making the frame of steel reinforcement.
- We make boards in the form of a solid board or glazed. If we choose a folding option, then fasten them to the foundation with door or piano hinges, and solid with corners.
- We install wooden or metal supports in 2 rows in the center of the greenhouse.
- We make the upper part of the greenhouse along the length equal to the board and fasten it on the posts.
- We prepare the side frames and attach them to the upper part with any hinges.
- Fix on the sides stops from a bar with a U-shaped bracket at the end. They will keep the frame open.
- We arrange a greenhouse shelter, for which we use glass, polycarbonate or film.
Scheme: greenhouse butterfly from window frames
As you can see, there are many options for arranging a greenhouse for cucumbers. It is easy to carry out any construction with your own hands, you just have to apply a little skill, imagination, and most importantly, desire, and then everything will work out.
Wooden greenhouse how to make quick and easy
Greenhouses made of wood are the first steps of gardeners in the difficult business of growing plants. The simplest greenhouse is willow or hazel twigs bent into an arc. These arcs are covered with film, and the edges of the film are covered with earth. Such primitive greenhouses open in the summer and disassemble the fall.
More advanced gardeners greenhouses make collapsible so that next year they can be reused. How to make a greenhouse of wood with the lowest financial costs? It is not as difficult as it seems.
Types of films for greenhouses
Modern industry produces several types of films:
- Non-stabilized polyethylene film,
- Polyethylene film stabilized hydrophilic,
- Polyethylene heat-holding film,
- Polyethylene film reinforced,
- Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer film,
- PVC film.
Each type of film has its advantages and disadvantages (see also Reinforced greenhouse film and Air bubble film for greenhouses).
When choosing a film for a greenhouse should take into account their technical characteristics. To connect the sheets of film using an iron with a thermostat. For this film is laid overlap.
A newspaper is laid under the film and on top of the film, and then the film is welded with an iron. The temperature of the iron is chosen empirically.
Greenhouses dug into the ground
One of the most simple but effective greenhouses is a single-sided greenhouse dug into the ground. The advantage of such a greenhouse is that its construction does not require large financial expenditures and there are no drafts in it.
Such a greenhouse can be covered with glass and film. This greenhouse accumulates heat from the sun during daylight hours. The frame of a wooden greenhouse can be made of any sawn timber.
Such greenhouses must be treated with antiseptic without fail. If this is not done, then in 3-4 years it will fall apart. It is better to make a greenhouse with your own hands from a tree, which is buried in the ground, collapsible.
To do this, it is necessary to assemble the greenhouse with screws. To hold the frames it is necessary to provide supports of different lengths. Such greenhouses can be gable.
Greenhouses, ground under glass
Gardeners have always been doing greenhouses with their own hands from wood from scrap materials, even greenhouses were made from bottles ..
During the mass replacement of wooden windows for plastic, enterprising gardeners successfully use old frames. To protect the ground greenhouse from rotting it was raised by 7cm. above the ground.
Greenhouse under glass frames
Protection of wooden structures
Wooden constructions of greenhouses are subject not only to rotting, but also to the defeat of various tree beetles.
Protect wooden greenhouses with their own hands made gardeners in various ways:
- Impregnation of wood under pressure
- Wood impregnation by soaking,
- Wood antiseptic using hot-cold bath,
- Impregnation from the end of wood,
- Impregnation method of pricks,
- Osmotic method of wood impregnation,
- The way of bandages and superski
- Scouring wood antiseptics.
Of all the above methods of wood processing the most suitable for gardeners last.
This processing method is carried out in two ways:
For antiseptic apply antiseptics, which, before use heated to 60-70 ° C:
At normal room temperature, antiseptics are used:
- Copper sulfate
- Sodium fluoride
- Zinc chloride
- Dry wood is impregnated with oily, and raw wood with water-soluble antiseptics
- Wood antiseptics cover twice
Wood protection is regulated GOST 28815-96. It should be taken into account that the wooden greenhouse with your own hands must be protected from decay. Wooden greenhouses are in harsh operating conditions.
Especially the details recessed into the ground. The tree for the foundation, frame and other structural elements can be painted with paints for wood.
- When purchasing antiseptic formulations, attention should be paid to the class of conditions of service. It must be from XI to XIII
- Washout: moderate grade III
- Source or nature of moisture: soil moisture and organic pollution
How to make a wooden greenhouse warm, with a favorable climate for plants? For more efficient use of the greenhouse should take care of its heating. If you hold the pipe from the boiler and the battery in the greenhouse, it will already be a greenhouse (see Greenhouse stove: what do experts advise?).
However, there is an old and efficient way to heat. This manure horse, cow and other animals. Any human waste: food waste, plant debris, grass, straw, leaves, etc. under certain conditions, they will release heat (for more details, see Heating for greenhouses by mining: features of use).
To do this, dig a hole in the ground and fill it with waste or manure. In order to start the heat release, it is necessary to tamp the manure well and pour it with water. From above to arrange beds for growing plants (for more, see. How to cultivate the land in the greenhouse and how to increase its fertility).
Sometimes, in order to protect themselves from frost, electric cables are placed in the ground for heating and saving plants.
Oddly enough, but the location of the greenhouse depends on its efficient operation. The greenhouse must be placed on the territory so that it is protected from cold winds.
The long side of the greenhouse should be facing south. It is desirable that near the greenhouse there were no fruit trees creating shade.
Materials for the construction of the greenhouse will need boards and softwood bars. Coniferous breeds fit without exception. Resin contained in wood contributes to durable operation.
The foundation for a greenhouse should be made of bars or thick boards not less than 50 mm thick. Hardwood is not recommended.. They crack and rot faster, from the moisture they are very jarred.
For connections it is necessary to use screws, plates, nails coated with zinc. If there are no galvanized fasteners, they must be protected. The easiest option to paint with nitrocellulose paint.
How to build a greenhouse for cucumbers: a brief guide
Getting the harvest of fresh cucumbers from your site as early as possible is a cherished dream of any summer resident. But no matter how strong this desire may be, without a greenhouse or greenhouse, this is hardly feasible before July-August.
However, greenhouse - this design is quite expensive, but a small greenhouse, in which you can grow young cucumbers or any other crop, is quite capable of making yourself in your garden.
Choose a design
There are several options for making a greenhouse, and the choice depends not only on your artisan skills, but also on its future purpose. If you want to get for the sample only one crop of cucumbers, you can make a budget option that will cost you very cheap.
If you expect to use it all spring and summer, then you should put a more solid construction.Although its price will be somewhat higher, the result will please you with a rich harvest throughout the season.
The simplest, but at the same time quite productive homemade greenhouse for cucumbers can be done in an hour or two.
- First you need to determine the area of land that you can take under the covered beds.
- Then a frame is made from a wooden bar with a section of 4 cm by 4 cm, covering the entire area of the bed. In order for you to conveniently handle seedlings, the most optimal frame sizes can be within 1.5m by 4m.
- After the frame is made, through holes are made in the bars from top to bottom every half meter.
- You insert arcs into these holes, which you can easily bend with your own hands from rods-rods 3 mm-5 mm thick. The height of such a greenhouse can be about 50 cm, and the diameter of the drilled holes, respectively, should be such that the arc firmly held on the frame.
- The last stage is the lining of the resulting construction with a polyethylene film. To do this, buy only transparent, colorless polyethylene, 100-150 microns thick, and use a construction stapler as a fastener, targeting the film directly to the wooden frame.
A greenhouse so upholstered will serve you faithfully for at least 3 years, and now you just have to throw the seeds on the ground in time and cover their beds with the made designs.
Council If your garden allows you to arrange several of these greenhouses, then you do not need to make one large, but rather several frames of the specified sizes. It will be convenient for you to pick it up, process it and, if necessary, quickly cover the plants.
Match with knowledge
In the photo - small parnichki.
If you want to shoot several harvests in one season, then you should take advantage of the experience of farmers, which will tell the next instruction. In this case, you will have to deal not only with the manufacture of the frame for the year-round greenhouse, but also to prepare the soil for a bountiful harvest.
Many manuals, telling how to make a simple greenhouse for cucumbers, miss this rather important aspect, and you need to start with the preparation of the soil on the site most suitable for growing cucumber seedlings.
Preparing the land
- First you need to dig a pit with a depth of about 50 cm in a place that is not only well lit and warmed by the sun in the spring months, but closed to the winds. The size of the pit should match the size of the bed.
- A gravel pillow is poured at the bottom of the pit, the stones will accumulate heat inside themselves, warming the ground during the night hours.
- We put on the gravel a nutrient layer, in which quality we use manure mixed with earth in a ratio of 1 to 5 - to 1 part of the land not less than 5 parts of manure.
- From above everything falls asleep 30 cm chernozem and abundantly shed warm water.
- For the formation of humus in the soil, it would not be superfluous to colonize a colony of earthworms in your garden bed.
Council Removing the soil, make sure that the fertile layer does not mix with the loams located below, this will save you from having to buy land for the greenhouse.
We put the frame
The next step is a box, limiting the area of the beds. Bricks can also be used for this, but if you have a 10 cm square beam or round timber of a suitable diameter, this would be the best option.
The tree can be pre-treated with resin or water-based impregnation, but without using drying oil or other chemical impregnation, which can be absorbed into cultivated cucumbers and then cause harm to human health. Around the beds of prepared wood knocks box.
Tip: If you decide to use a brick for the frame, then use only clay as a binding agent.
The recommended greenhouse height for cucumbers should be not less than 50 cmbut no more than 1.60m. And now your task is to make metal arches of a suitable size. For this, you can use reinforcement section 10 mm - 14 mm or shaped tubes of the same size.
By the way, you can find ready-made tunnel-type frames of almost any size for sale, and if this option is more preferable for you, use it without thinking. Now you know how to make a greenhouse for cucumbers correctly, and the last thing left to solve is what to sheathe the finished frame.
We sheathe frame
In fact, the choice you have is quite large - from plastic or even food self-adhesive film to cellular polycarbonate. To a large extent, the choice depends on the material from which the entire structure is made.
If this is a profiled pipe, then carbonate sheets can be used, fastening them with screws to the frame. In other cases, it is better to use polyethylene film, which has proven itself well over the past 50 years of its use in home gardens.
We hope, after reading this guide, you have already understood how to make a greenhouse for cucumbers, and in just a few hours you will put it on your site. If something remains unclear, watch the video in this article (read also some useful tips on how to choose the right polycarbonate for the greenhouse).
How to cover and secure the film on the greenhouse
Stretch the material on the frame as follows:
- do not cut rolls in advance,
- throw a whole hank through the arc
- pull so that from both edges there is a stock of 20-25 cm for fasteners,
- cut off
- repeat the procedure, closing the gaps on the frame with the overlap,
- fold all the strips on a flat surface and tape together,
- place and fix on the structure,
- cut out the details of the butt with a margin and fix it too,
- Cut out and fit the details of the vents and doors.
Council To ensure that the tape is well fixed parts, clean and degrease the gluing sites.
Mounting film frame - an important component of the durability of the greenhouse of the arcs. If the base is made of metal pipe, put on it pieces of plastic pipe or unwanted hose. If a profile is used, it can be wrapped in white cloth. This will protect the film from overheating at the points of contact with the metal.
A popular method of attachment - a thick fishing line or cord. The thread is fixed in the lower corner on one side of the greenhouse. Then, in a tensioned state, a zigzag from one edge to the other is raised at the top. A similar procedure is carried out from the inside, so that the film is between the taut fishing line.
Greenhouse Shelter Tips
Experienced farmers give recommendations for the correct procedure:
- Calculate the amount of material. The film is sold in rolls. Knowing their width (standard - 1.5 m), as well as the width and length of the arc of the greenhouse, you can easily calculate the desired length. Do not forget about the ends. Note: in a roll, the polymeric material may be two-layered.
- If your greenhouse will be used from March to late autumn, it is wise to purchase a reinforced film. It is stitched with plastic threads and consists of cells, therefore it is more durable and resistant to the severity of snow, water, etc. For other cases, a simpler and cheaper material will do.
Start laying the film immediately when the frame is installed and secured in the ground. Choose a dry and warm day without a strong wind. Stretched during the cold period, the film sags after the temperature rises. If you work in the heat, then the next night the material may break.
Shelters have several advantages that make their use simple and long-term. This is due to their mobility, light weight and installation, which everyone can handle. Greenhouse can be purchased ready-made kit or made independently, be it with arcs or not.It is used both for the cultivation of heat-loving crops in regions with a temperate climate, and as a temporary shelter when planting seedlings in open ground.
Greenhouse under arcs with covering material can be purchased with a ready-made kit or assembled by yourself. Deciding to create a structure yourself, you should know a number of features. Arched greenhouse can have any height and width. The optimal width is a distance of 0.6 to 1.2 m. It is directly proportional to the height. Often, the width and height make the same - 1 m. Before installation, you should accurately determine the type of vegetables grown and their height, the installation location of the structure. Greenhouse, made of arcs, looks like in the photo.
Arcs under the greenhouse do not install more than 1 m from each other. It is worth considering that the collapsible design has less strength. By reducing the distance between the arcs for a greenhouse in St. Petersburg, you can make it more stable and robust. The size of the arc for the planned greenhouse depends on the area of the room. When making arches for a greenhouse with your own hands, you need to take into account the material used at home:
- tree branches,
- aluminum profile,
- heating pipes,
- hose and wire
- plastic or metal pipes.
The choice of material from which to make the arc for the greenhouse with his own hands, remains for the owner.
Choosing tree branches, it is worth understanding that such a greenhouse of arcs with a covering material will reliably last no more than a season. The branches are interconnected and firmly fastened, they can be combined with the used hose. The bark is not removed from them. When choosing strong long branches, the design can be obtained without an arched vault, rectangular.
Arcs are fastened with nuts or bolts. Such a framework is notable for its ease and simplicity of fastening the covering material. The disadvantage is the relatively high cost of the material.
The tube frame can be easily assembled using factory couplings and fastening systems designed for them. A problem may be the bending of a metal pipe with the aim of using it as an arc on a greenhouse, which is used to fix covering material. To do this, you must have special equipment. The use of plastic blanks is much easier. They bend easily and give the frame the desired strength. The main thing is to properly fasten them to the ground using special pins about half a meter long, made of metal or wood. The pipe is put on the resulting peg. If you try to drive into the ground plastic arches for a greenhouse, they can be damaged or split. The larger the diameter of the pipe, the more reliable the design will be. In the presence of a wooden box plastic pipe can be fixed with a metal bracket to the tree.
Plastic flexibility is bad for the strength of the structure. The plastic arc used for the greenhouse bends easily when pressed or carelessly handled. The door is better to do with a wooden box, as this part is most often used. To facilitate the operation of the precast greenhouse on the arches with a covering material, a fully wooden box is used, to which the plastic arches for the greenhouse are attached. The use of a metal arc for a greenhouse in a PVC sheath is similar.
The presence of welding equipment will be one of the main conditions. Difficulties will arise in the bending of the metal. It is easier to cut it and, having fastened by welding, to give the desired shape, getting a metal arc for a greenhouse in a PVC shell.
The metal frame is often installed on a ready-made foundation, in which fasteners are left. Rods will be needed, the length of the entire length of the greenhouse, and short, for the manufacture of arcs. A greenhouse made of metal arches with a covering material will be the most durable and reliable.
Ways of fixing the film
There are many ways to secure the film.The easiest way is with a wooden greenhouse, to which it is nailed, previously wrapped around a special strip in several layers. This will prevent material damage. The metal frame should be wrapped with a white cloth or wrapped in pieces of old hoses, as it is exposed to heat and becomes very hot. You can make holes in the metal and fix the film on the screws. Stretched film strengthened with a cord or fishing line, which is attached with a small step on the inside and outside of the greenhouse. Arcs of plastic pipes are simply covered with a film and fixed on top in several places with a cut pipe of slightly larger diameter. The main thing is to make the edges smooth so that they do not tear the film. Special clips for film are available, which will facilitate the fastening of covering material to the arches of the greenhouse.
When installing polycarbonate, it is worth protecting the ends of the sheet with special devices or self-adhesive tape. Do not forget about the holes for condensate to be left.
Polycarbonate is attached to the metal frame using special screws or a thermo washer. Their use will protect the shelter from the penetration of air through the attachment point. Considering that polycarbonate can expand when exposed to heat, it is not fixed very firmly, leaving room for movement. In places of contact of the material with the metal frame is wrapped with a thermal film.
What type of covering material only the user decides. PVC film is the most affordable option. The use of glass and polycarbonate will be more expensive, but their service life is much higher. Non-woven fiber will ensure maintenance of a favorable microclimate in the greenhouse. Its use will rarely allow you to visit the garden and is ideal for summer residents visiting the site. In addition, temporary shelters for seedlings easier to make of the film.
Ready kits for greenhouse
There are a number of ready-made greenhouses with embedded arcs of mass production. The convenience of their acquisition lies in the ease of installation and the availability of detailed instructions. There is no need to search for components and their compounds. Most popular models:
It uses sewn covering material and arcs made of polymer 0.20 cm thick. The length of the arc for a greenhouse is from 4 to 6 m. Special legs serve as a mount to the ground structure. The appearance of the greenhouse of the arches, covered with covering material presented in the photo.
PVC arches make the greenhouse strong enough. The length of the arc for shelter can be up to 8 m. The finished kit contains both legs and clips clamping.
has a construction of galvanized profile. The kit includes PVC film, screws, nuts for fastening, fixing slats, cords for fixing the film. This greenhouse can be called the highest among the greenhouses of the arcs with the use of covering material.
Websites of companies that produce greenhouses from arcs with covering materials provide detailed information on the assembly of models, including a detailed video.
In addition to ready-made kits for the greenhouse, you can purchase individual items. So, the arcs used for the shelter, you can not do yourself, and take a kit anywhere in the country.