The basis of a good and healthy crop of tomatoes is laid at a very early stage of growing seedlings of tomatoes, namely, from the correct preparation and seed treatment before planting. First of all, it is necessary to choose the right seeds, select the good ones from the weak and empty ones.
Shelf life: Seeds of tomatoes, as a rule, are stored much longer than in most seeds of other vegetables. With proper storage, compliance with all standards of lighting, temperature and humidity, tomato seeds can be stored for up to 5 years. For comparison, pepper seeds have a shelf life of 2-3 years.
Storage: Humidity is one of the most important factors that affects the shelf life of seeds. You need to make sure that they are stored in a cool and dry place, it is best to store tomato seeds in a refrigerator in a tightly closed jar. Dry storage at less than 18 degrees will give you good germination results.
First we need to sample high-quality seeds, then heat them, disinfect them and process them with nutrients, then soak, germinate and harden. Let's now take a closer look at each step of preparing tomato seeds for planting.
Tomato seed selection
To begin, let's see what we need to select seeds. If the seeds are large and heavy, then they contain a lot of nutrients and as a result they grow more healthy and strong tomatoes.
The easiest way to select good seeds is to prepare a solution of table salt (1 tablespoon of salt for a glass of water) pour the seeds into it and mix, then allow it to stand for a while. Good tomato seeds will settle on the bottom, and empty ones will float on top.
The precipitated seeds are washed and dried, and small and empty ones left to float on the surface are discarded. But you need to be careful, sometimes there are such situations when the seeds are very dry, in this case, even very high quality and large ones will still remain on top. Therefore, before throwing out, visually make sure that they are really bad.
Tomato seed warming before planting
If tomato seeds were stored in a refrigerator or other cool place, then they must be warmed up a month before planting. The temperature should be gradually increased from 18 to 80 degrees. At home, it is convenient to warm the seeds on the battery for several days.
Hybrid varieties of tomatoes in the mandatory heating of the seeds do not need.
Tomato seed processing before planting
It is very important to carry out seed disinfection, since most of the diseases of tomato live on their surface. Therefore, to avoid further infection of seedlings, it is necessary to disinfect the seeds, or as they say in the people to pickle.
There are two processing methods. Place the seeds for 20 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate or in, heated to 40 degrees, 2-3% solution of hydrogen peroxide for 8 minutes.
After the decontamination procedure, it is necessary to treat the seeds with nutrients, this will increase the yield of tomatoes. To do this, the seeds are soaked for 24 hours in one of the nutrient solutions. On sale you can find such industrial products as "Epin", "Immunocytophyte", "Wirtan-Micro", you can also use sodium humates or potassium humates, and for lovers of folk remedies suitable juice juice or aloe vera.
Sprouting tomato seeds
For quick germination and for an earlier harvest, tomato seeds should preferably be germinated before planting. To do this, they need to take a plate or saucer, put moistened gauze or cloth on it. And put in a room where the temperature is not lower than 20 degrees.You need to constantly monitor the humidity of the gauze, so that it does not dry out, or vice versa, was not too wet.
Since tomatoes are a thermophilic culture, in order to make the plant resistant to adverse environmental conditions, tomatoes need to be hardened and this should be done at an early stage as soon as the seeds begin to germinate.
Hardening is carried out by sudden temperature changes, as soon as the seeds start to drop, we put them in the refrigerator for the night, where the temperature is +2 degrees, and during the day we place them in about 15 to 20 degrees, this procedure should be repeated at least three times in a row.
It is proved that tomatoes grown from hardened seeds are more resistant to temperature extremes, the fruits are tied faster and the crop is 30% larger than that of non-hardened ones.
How to grow and what you need to know
After the issue of planting tomatoes resolved, it is worth planning the entire process. First of all, you need to know what conditions are necessary.
- Choose the right plot.
Tomato - a plant quite demanding. It loves the sun, but it is bad for the wind and drafts. Therefore, when choosing a territory for tomatoes, it is necessary to adhere to precisely these rules - open sun and minimal air flow. It should not be a slope or lowland, especially if there is always damp because of the proximity of groundwater, the area should be flat.
Tomatoes are extremely demanding on the soil. Sand loams with abundant addition of organic fertilizers are excellent for growing. It is categorically not suitable heavy soils, as well as cold and wet. Excessive acidity also harms this vegetable. One of the most important factors in which tomatoes will not grow is cold. Everything else can be corrected with new and classical agrotechnical technologies.
- Properly prepare the seedlings.
Tomatoes are planted in open ground in the form of seedlings. Seedlings are obtained from seeds. The process of preparing seedlings will be described below.
During growth and ripening tomatoes require attention. In order to get large and juicy fruits, it is necessary to take care of the crop - weed, remove weeds, loosen the ground in beds and water regularly.
Preparing the soil for planting tomato seeds
The first thing you need to do a gardener in early spring is to plant seedlings. Of course, it can be purchased, but a true gardener will grow seedlings personally. He will pick the variety or use the seeds from the previous crop. How to prepare the soil for planting tomato seeds? First, land for seeds can be bought at a specialty store. Such a ground will be already prepared - it will contain all the necessary substances. Then it will be enough just to divide the land into containers and plant seeds in them. They plant seeds for future seedlings at the very beginning of spring, choosing the brightest place in the house - window sills on the sunny side. Often, special lamps are mounted above the seedlings, then the choice of location is not fundamental, although there is still one thing but - in this place there should not be cold and there should be no drafts. The ideal temperature for seedlings is 20-24 degrees.
Remember that the future harvest depends on the quality of seeds and, accordingly, seedlings!
When Tomato Seed Preparation Is Needed
Tomato seeds are processed before planting
Seed material of tomatoes made to handle before planting. But not always these activities are really necessary and useful. If the seeds are old or bought in a dubious place, they need to be prepared. Seed collected by hand, in some cases also needs to be processed. However, purchasing seeds in a specialized store from reputable manufacturers does not need to process them. They have already been prepared, the manufacturer conducts all procedures for decontamination.
Most often, the seeds of gardeners are in excellent condition and are able to give amicable shoots without any preparation.Keep this in mind and listen to all sorts of advice with caution.
Seed should be disinfected only if:
- Tomatoes were affected by fungal diseases during the growing season.
- Seeds purchased from a dubious manufacturer, without any instructions on the packaging for processing
- Seeds taken from someone, do not know in what condition the plants were in the growing season
If tomatoes grew healthy, bought seeds and are confident in the producer, it is not recommended to subject seed material to processing. It is necessary to awaken the seeds only if they are old, the shelf life has gone, but the variety is good and I want to grow it.
As you can see, the preparation of tomato seeds is needed in rare cases. If you "process" healthy seeds, you can achieve the opposite result - they will grow badly and late, or they will all die. Be careful and cautious.
Crop seed producers resort to processing
Types of processing
Before you start preparing the seed, deal with its species. What they are for, how they work and in what cases are relevant. Producers of seeds of agricultural crops resort to processing, divided into three types:
- seed awakening
- increase immunity.
These methods are applied in different ways depending on the crop, its characteristics, and not to all plants in a row. This must be borne in mind when the gardener wants to do something with the seeds of tomatoes. Always wonder if this will be beneficial.
Let's analyze each type of processing and select those that can be useful for the preparation of tomato seeds.
Disinfection of inoculum involves the processing of a chemical agent to destroy pathogenic fungal spores on the surface and inside the seed. At home, for these purposes apply a weak solution of "potassium permanganate". Only seeds that are harvested from diseased plants or those grown near the affected crops are subjected to the procedure. In other cases, treatment with a chemical agent is impractical.
Healthy seeds can not be soaked in a disinfectant solution. This will lead to the destruction of the normal microflora in the seeds, the seedlings will be bad, and the immunity of the tomato will fall.
Agronomist scientists advise not to get involved in “awakening” in relation to tomato seeds
This procedure is recommended selectively. It will be useful only in the case of attempts to "wake up" the old seed material of a valuable variety. Tomato seeds sprout perfectly and without soaking them in special solutions. Have you noticed that with or without treatment, seedlings sprout in a standard 4-5 days? Is it worth in this case "torment" the seeds, if they grow through the time interval set by nature? Decide for yourself.
Agronomist scientists advise not to get involved in the “awakening” of tomato seeds. This procedure is recommended only when working with old seeds.
This procedure is carried out selectively. Seeds collected from weak plants are hardened or immersed in growth stimulants for a certain period of time. Fresh and healthy seeds do not need a procedure.
Having dealt with what is needed for tomatoes, and what is not, you can proceed to the preparation of seeds. To do this, select the appropriate method and determine its feasibility.
Of the many methods of seed treatment, it is worthwhile to listen only to the most proven, effective and useful. A measure is needed in everything - you should not first “fry” the seeds in the oven, then freeze them, then immerse them in exotic solutions and wait for seedlings after that.
Healthy seeds can be seen immediately
Healthy seeds can be seen immediately. They should not be touched at all, even soaked. They will sprout well and give a bountiful harvest, if you follow the basic rules of care and cultivation.
This is the easiest and most affordable way to disinfect tomato seeds. “Sick” seeds from parents affected by fungal diseases or seeds purchased from a dubious manufacturer need the procedure.
Seeds are soaked for 15 minutes in a 1% solution of "potassium permanganate". The ratio of 1 g per 100 ml of water.
Do not immerse the seeds in the solution for more than 20 minutes. After the dressing procedure, the seeds must be washed and dried. This is the most reliable and effective way to disinfect tomato seeds. Nothing more needs to be done.
To treat the seeds "just in case" is not recommended, since the plant's immune system will fall under the influence of a chemical preparation - it will only bring harm, not good.
This is another way to disinfect seeds. However, you need to be very careful with him. The heating temperature should not exceed 40 °. To achieve uniform heating of the seeds at home is very difficult. Therefore, agronomists advise to resort to the method of "potassium permanganate" - it is safe and secure. Many believe that putting seeds on the radiator can achieve a good result. But, unfortunately, it is not. This method will only gradually dry the seed, and not disinfect.
It is especially worth being careful when calcining and then cooling the seed.
Calcination is recommended for pumpkin seed. Tomatoes do not apply to it. It is especially worth being careful when calcining and then cooling the seed. Very often, such preparation for tomato seeds is deplorable.
Carrying out the procedure of calcination at home is not recommended. Tomato seeds purchased in a specialty store have already passed the disinfection stage. Do not process them.
All gardeners are accustomed to this term and mean by this the cooling of seeds in a refrigerator for a certain amount of time. However, under stratification, it is assumed that it is a long-term, deep cooling of the seed for up to 3 months. It is not recommended to subject tomato seeds to this procedure.
A subtype of stratification is used for tomatoes - cooling the seeds for a short time, 3-5 days at a temperature of 3 °. The procedure is carried out for those plants that are sown in early spring.
Cooling is carried out for the awakening of seeds, that is, it is more expedient to carry out this procedure with old seeds, but not healthy ones. To do this, the tomato seed is immersed in a wet gauze and put in a refrigerator in the department for vegetables. Gauze should not dry out, watch this. After 3-5 days, the seeds are removed. Anything more you do not need to do anything with them.
Gardeners are so accustomed to this procedure that they don’t even think about whether it is needed at all with respect to tomatoes. Soaking seeds in gauze dipped in warm water is necessary. So they quickly hatch and go to growth. The main thing is not to prokaraulit sprouts. That is, do not wait for the moment when they begin to intertwine with each other.
The temperature of the water in which the material is soaked should be 20 ° -25 °. It takes about 3 - 5 days to swell and peck. Keep this in mind and plan your seed planting based on these deadlines.
Soaking tomato seed is a standard procedure, but keep in mind the type of seed.
To enhance the immunity of tomato seeds, many resort to soaking them in growth stimulants.
Some manufacturers treat seeds with chemicals. When soaking sprouts inevitably fall into the environment of this drug. So they can just die. Therefore, it is better to soak the seeds collected by yourself or bought without any treatment from the manufacturer.
Growth stimulant treatment
To improve the immunity of tomato seeds, many resort to soaking them in growth stimulants.
To do this, use drugs such as "sprout" or "Epin."Immerse the seed for 30-60 minutes in a solution diluted according to the instructions for the preparation. This procedure is necessary if the seeds are old, no longer suitable. Stimulants wake them up and contribute to improving immunity.
Healthy seeds are not recommended for processing. Be sure to follow the processing time intervals. Do not keep the seeds in a growth stimulator for several hours; it will not lead to anything good.
This procedure is used at home quite rarely. However, it is effective for awakening the seed immunity. The method to soak the seeds in water enriched with oxygen is reduced. How to do it? This will require a compressor for aquariums. In such water, “resuscitate” the old seeds or those that are unlikely to sprout. The method is also good due to the fact that it is not necessary to resort to chemical preparations.
Barbating is usually applied to very valuable, rare varieties of tomatoes that are no longer on sale, and the shelf life of seeds has long passed.
Do I need this - "debriefing"
Do not forget that it is not always necessary to prepare the seeds, only if necessary
In order to properly process the seeds of tomatoes, you need to choose one or two ways. It's enough. Do not forget that it is not always necessary to prepare the seeds, only if necessary.
In addition to traditional processing methods, there is a lot of unconventional. Each gardener shares unusual methods. Someone soaks the seeds in vegetable solutions of garlic or aloe vera. Someone is preparing other drugs from different herbs. Nobody argues about the benefits and effectiveness of the methods. Agronomists say that such solutions are safe, but they are not very effective. They, by and large, do not give anything.
If you want to experiment with unusual processing methods, select for this purpose a separate group of seeds - an experimental one. The rest is planted in the standard way. So there will be no risk to remain without seedlings. This is the only way to calculate the method of preparation that is suitable for a particular variety, climate and growing conditions.
Many gardeners also use an unusual way to "calibrate" seeds. Seed material is immersed in saline and selected for release those seeds that have surfaced. Agronomist scientists just laugh. Why? The fact is that seeds emerge, not because they are nevskhozhi, but simply because of heterogeneous implementation. They have the same germination as those that "drowned." Reading about the next method of preparing seeds, look for a rational grain. The laws of nature have not been canceled.
Someone wants to get the result of soaking the seeds in the ash solution. What for? For disinfection.
But will it give the same result as seen from “potassium permanganate”? Unknown. However, many complain of poor germination of seedlings after treatment with such a solution. It may be advisable to simply add ash to the soil, and the seeds are still processed in the traditional way. Solve a gardener.
Far more important in the cultivation of seedlings is fertilization in the soil, its irrigation, rather than seed preparation
Far more important in the cultivation of seedlings is fertilization in the soil, its irrigation, rather than seed preparation. Experienced gardeners already know that standard soaking tomato seeds in gauze soaked in warm water before planting is all that needs to be done. They do nothing more. Agronomists recommend sowing healthy seeds dry, without any treatments.
Why seeds can not ascend
Gardeners often sin on poor-quality sowing material due to poor germination or lack thereof. Many argue that this happens if the seeds are not processed before sowing.
Agronomists, on the other hand, cite a whole list of reasons for nevskhozhestva, where the seeds are in last place. Frequent reasons:
- fungus settled in soil with seedlings
- heavy ground
- strong seed recess when planting
- cold room with air temperature below the required
- soil acidity
- infected seeds
It is necessary to pay attention not only to the treatment of seeds, but also to the composition of the soil, air temperature, and agricultural techniques during planting. Compliance with the basic rules of planting and selection of soil contributes to the friendly germination of seedlings, even without prior preparation of seeds. Of course, if the seed was harvested from a fungus-affected plant, it should be soaked in a “potassium permanganate” solution. It's enough.
Another reason for the non-occurrence of seed can be excessive processing. Soaking the seeds in several solutions, heating and hardening - all these procedures can not endure the seeds.
Seed can be subjected to one or two procedures, no more. Keep this in mind and do not overdo it with “ennobling” the seeds.
While watching you learn about the leaders of the tomatoes.
After weighing all the pros and cons, finding a “middle ground”, the grower will definitely grow healthy and strong seedlings. Gather excellent harvest and seeds for next year!
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Preparing tomato seeds for planting - protect the plants!
- The second treatment in the same concentration, blue vitriol - 2 weeks after the first. As soon as the tomatoes bloom, it is necessary to produce foliar feeding (50 g of superphosphate per 10 liters of water). Crush superphosphate, pour hot water and stir several times during the day. To spray with the settled solution. During the entire vegetative period, tomatoes are watered abundantly with warm water, with an interval of 2-3 weeks they feed up (under the root) with a 3-day mullein infusion with ash. When loosening the bushes tomato spud. In order for the peduncles to be pollinated in time, in the greenhouse it is necessary to apply active ventilation. The tomatoes really need a draft. Even in cool weather, when the air temperature drops to (+8. +10) ° C, you need to put on the vents. In calm weather, pollination is carried out by tapping the backwater. It has been observed shedding flowers in the days of steady cloudy weather. This indicates their inability to pollinate due to high humidity, at this time it is desirable to sprinkle the plant with a weak solution of boric acid.
- When picking the central root of a tomato, you need to pinch a little. After 1-2 weeks, as soon as the seedlings grow, it is necessary to produce the soil and pour it with a daily ash solution (1 table spoon per 1 l of water). After 1-2 next weeks, if there is an opportunity, make one more ground filling and water the seedlings. As a result, the plant has an additional root system and the plant itself becomes stronger. It is advisable to water the seedlings of tomato once a week with a warm, weak solution of potassium permanganate, and the next week with a daily ash extract. So that the seedlings do not stretch out and develop normally, it is advisable to give the illumination with fluorescent lamps, in the loop phase for 2-3 days around the clock, and then 16 hours a day. In March, when there are more sunny days, the backlight can be reduced to a minimum.
There are two processing methods. Place the seeds for 20 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate or in, heated to 40 degrees, 2-3% solution of hydrogen peroxide for 8 minutes.
Potassium permanganate - processing of seeds of tomatoes before sowing
Seeds of tomatoes, as a rule, are stored much longer than in most seeds of other vegetables. With proper storage, compliance with all standards of lighting, temperature and humidity, tomato seeds can be stored for up to 5 years. For comparison, pepper seeds have a shelf life of 2-3 years.Immediately before sowing seedlings, select the seeds of the pepper for planting. Make a solution of regular salt at the rate of 30 g per 1 liter of water.Then dip the seeds into it, mix everything and keep the planting material in the solution for 5-10 minutes. Weighty pepper seeds should sink to the bottom, and the weak and empty to emerge. Collect them with a spoon from the surface and discard them without regret, they will not be confused. Strain the solution, rinse the seeds down to the bottom. Spread out on a piece of paper and let dry.Then in the tank all this is placed in the cold - the temperature will be from minus 3 to zero. The duration of the procedure is from three to six weeks. If necessary, the seeds in a pot are mixed and slightly moistened. Immediately before sowing, planting material should be slightly dried. Go
Experienced gardeners rightly consider that the basis of a good and rich tomato crop in the future is the correct preliminary preparation and seed treatment before planting, from which good quality seedlings will then grow. Experts say that soaking tomato seeds is able to perfectly disinfect them and increase yields by 25–30%. First you need to select the seeds, removing all the weak and empty. After sampling high-quality tomato seeds, they are necessarily heated, then disinfected, and then treated with nutrients and soaked.
- When transplanting in open ground in this case, the seedlings will not experience shock, because the composition of the soil for them will change almost nothing! Go
- Infection, wintered on seeds,
- Preparing a tomato seed for planting is definitely needed - all sorts of pathogens of fungi and infections hibernate on them, which wake up with the plant and inhibit it already at the germ stage. However, no need to go too far! Many vegetable growers use several solutions at once for holding planting material, completely unaware of the consequences of their combination. Consequences are displayed, above all, on germination - planting tomato seeds on seedlings in fact can be a failure!
- If cloudy weather is delayed, spraying is carried out twice with an interval of 3 days. A gardener should know that at high temperatures (above + 30 ° C), high humidity (above 70%), dry air and soil, the flowers of plants are not pollinated and fall off. Emerged double flowers should be urgently cut off (viral disease), as they give clumsy fruits and retard the growth of the rest of the fruits. When growing tall tomatoes requires a support for the plants. The best way - trellis - every 30-40 cm to pull the wire. In this case, you can tie up the stem and brush with the fruit, which sometimes reaches 2-3 kg.
- Tomato seedlings are planted in the ground, depending on weather conditions,
- To obtain a good harvest of tomatoes, sunny covered areas are required, well-heated humus loose soil, rich in nutrients and moisture. Tomatoes are suitable neutral or slightly acidic soil. On acid soils, the plants die.
- After the decontamination procedure, it is necessary to treat the seeds with nutrients, this will increase the yield of tomatoes. To do this, the seeds are soaked for 24 hours in one of the nutrient solutions. On sale you can find such industrial products as "Epin", "Immunocytophyte", "Wirtan-Micro", you can also use sodium humates or potassium humates, and for lovers of folk remedies suitable juice juice or aloe vera.
- The following procedure is called etching. It will help to disinfect the seeds and prevent possible plant diseases. For this, sort the seeds by size. Make a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 1 liter of water). Put the selected planting material in the solution and hold the seeds in it for about 15 minutes. Then rinse with water and dry again.
Seeds that have a fairly hard shell should be dipped in a gauze bag into boiling water for 10–20 seconds.
If you sow tomato seeds unprepared properly, the seedlings may well appear non-simultaneously, and the seedlings will become very sick with such illnesses as root and stem rot, white and gray, fomoz, black leg and many others.This seedling is suitable for growing in greenhouses, and for planting in open ground.High density of soil
Planting cucumbers in the ground
Sowing tomato seeds on seedlings - how to wake up the seeds?
It is very important to properly form a bush. Tall plants formed in one stalk are better lit and ventilated. For this you need to carry out
In the open - no later than May 20-25,
The first tillage for planting tomatoes is carried out in the fall to a depth of at least 20-25 cm with the application of organic fertilizers. You can make and mineral fertilizers, such as superphosphate - 40-50 g, potassium salt - 20-25 g per 1 m2. When preparing the soil for spring planting, bird droppings are put in tomato - 1 kg, wood ash - 1-2 kg, and ammonium sulfate - 20-25 g per 1 m2. It is advisable to dig up the soil before planting 2-3 times, preferably with forks. Does not damage the plants and the introduction of humus. It is not recommended to introduce fresh manure during spring soil preparation, as when planting tomato plants on a plot fertilized with fresh manure, tops grow strongly, and the formation and growth of fruits is delayed.To do this, put the tomato seeds in a small gauze bag and put them in warm water (20-25 C). This procedure should last no more than 12 hours, at the same time every 4 hours it is necessary to change the water.Humidity is one of the most important factors that affects the shelf life of seeds. You need to make sure that they are stored in a cool and dry place, it is best to store tomato seeds in a refrigerator in a tightly closed jar. Dry storage at less than 18 degrees will give you good germination results.
In order for the plants to grow strong and healthy, for 1-2 days before sowing the seeds of pepper in the seedlings, process them with trace elements. Make small bags of gauze, put planting material in them and dip into a solution containing trace elements, for example, with the fertilizer Epin or Ideal. Leave the seeds in it for 12-24 hours. Then remove and dry, spread out on a sheet of paper. Flush them in this case is not necessary.
Need to process seeds before planting or not?
Before sowing, seeds should be decontaminated, except for inlaid and tempered seeds.
F1 hybrids seeds - are being processed before entering the store counter. The treatment is carried out against pests and diseases. Hybrid seeds are fully prepared for sowing. Sow them dry immediately into the ground or pre-optionally treated with growth stimulants.
Why do you need to soak
Presowing soaking can reduce the likelihood of disease by 50%. That is, answering questions from novice gardeners, we can safely say that it is necessary to soak the seeds! Since after carrying out this procedure, seedlings will be more stable, and the faster they germinate, the less likely that the seeds will die in the soil - they are quite able to eat pests.
If you have a lot of space for pots and pots, sowing seeds of tomatoes in seedlings, you can make 2-3 seeds at once in pots. When shoots appear, leave the strongest and do not disturb the tomato until planting in open ground. If there is a lot of planting material, then it can be sown in one container with the soil and, as the seedlings develop, thin out and then pick. Tomatoes respond very well to seating and grow very quickly in a new container.Soil toxicity
How to water tomatoes
Closed from May 1 to May 25 (preferably in the first half).
For normal development, tomato plants need a temperature not lower than 15 ° C. Prolonged decrease in temperature below 10 ° C leads to dropping of flowers and delaying the ripening of fruits.When the air temperature is 30 ° C, plant growth slows down, and at 35 ° C it stops altogether. When growing tomatoes in greenhouses or greenhouses during the daytime, it is necessary to create a through-flow of air. This reduces the temperature in the greenhouse and helps pollinate. Although tomatoes are drought-resistant plants, the need for water is high. In dry weather during the budding and growth of the ovaries, plants need abundant watering, otherwise with a lack of moisture in the soil, flowers and ovaries will fall off, and during the formation of fruits the apical rot will develop.
Other processing methods
For quick germination and for an earlier harvest, tomato seeds should preferably be germinated before planting. To do this, they need to take a plate or saucer, put moistened gauze or cloth on it. And put in a room where the temperature is not lower than 20 degrees. You need to constantly monitor the humidity of the gauze, so that it does not dry out, or vice versa, was not too wet.
First we need to sample high-quality seeds, then heat them, disinfect them and process them with nutrients, then soak, germinate and harden. Let's now take a closer look at each step of preparing tomato seeds for planting.
Instead of chemical fertilizers, seeds can be processed using traditional methods. For example, soak them in a solution of wood ash. Dissolve 2 g in a liter of water. Leave the solution to infuse for a day. All the while, periodically stir the ash. After that, put the seeds in gauze bags and dip them in the nutrient mixture for 2-3 hours. Then rinse and dry.
On the record, a man talks about the proper soaking of tomato seeds before planting and about the procedure for planting in the ground.
You need to select large and heavy seeds by weight - this will mean that they contain many useful substances, which means that strong and viable tomatoes can grow from them. Before proceeding to the selection of tomato seeds, it is necessary to prepare a solution of salt - a tablespoon in a glass of water. Then you need to pour the seeds there and allow them to stay there for a small amount of time. Empty ones will be on the surface, and suitable ones will certainly fall down.
Excellent results of awakening demonstrate seeds soaked in melt water. You can get the catalyst water in two ways: put snow in the tank and drain the melted water (not more than a third of the volume, throw the rest) or freeze the water in the freezer. To do this, use a plastic clean bottle or a tight plastic bag. Fill the container with a little more than half, and when the water should freeze, drain the liquid, which has not yet had time to harden.
You will need
- , That is, remove the sprouts in the leaf axils even at the initial stage of development of 3-4 cm, leaving "penhechki" 0.5 cm. This ensures that the stepson is not formed at this place.
- When spring frosts are planted, seedlings are covered with foil, spunbond or other covering material.
- However, tomatoes do not like soil with a close location of groundwater. This causes stretching of the plants and strong leaf proliferation. High humidity, rainy long-term weather create conditions for plant diseases with brown spot and blight, making fertilization difficult. It is not recommended to grow tomatoes after potatoes, peppers, eggplants, as these crops belong to the same families and have common diseases.
- Since tomatoes are a thermophilic culture, in order to make the plant resistant to adverse environmental conditions, tomatoes need to be hardened and this should be done at an early stage as soon as the seeds begin to germinate.
- To begin, let's see what we need to select seeds. If the seeds are large and heavy, then they contain a lot of nutrients and as a result they grow more healthy and strong tomatoes.
- If you want a guaranteed 100% germination rate and see sprouts much earlier, you can germinate the seeds of peppers. Disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate, place the seeds on a gauze or cotton cloth. Put in a saucer and lightly moisten. Put everything in a warm place. About a day later the roots will appear. After 2-3 days, plant sprouted seeds in a wet substrate.
- Pepper is a rather capricious crop, and its seeds quickly lose their germination, and since, among other things, they also germinate for a very long time, there is a probability that the seedlings will be few or no plant will grow at all. The way out is to prepare pepper seeds for planting in advance.
- Before soaking, they should also be heated, at home, you can do it on the battery for a couple of days. Also before soaking need to sanitize the seeds. You can do this by placing them for 20 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate or in a hydrogen peroxide solution heated to a temperature of 40 degrees. Now you can soak the seeds of tomatoes. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the volume of water must be 50 - 100 times greater than the volume of seeds. The probability that the seeds can suffocate while under the water column is small, since they do not need oxygen when swelling.
- Together with it you will drain all the impurities, salts and dirt, and the liquid remaining in the tank after thawing can be safely used for irrigation.
- Low temperature
- Especially often this mistake is made with purchased material. In most cases, it is already sold after treatment with various antiseptics, and does not need additional disinfection. For home-made preparations, it is enough to use 1-2 solutions that do not inhibit the plants and do not harm germination.
- In late August or early September, it is advisable to pinch the plant tops, which will give timely ripening of the remaining fruits.
- Low-growing varieties of tomato plant
In the climatic conditions of the Non-Black Earth Region, it is recommended to grow tomatoes from seedlings. For early harvest (June 10-20), the seeds of medium and tall tomatoes of medium and late ripening are sown in mid-February, but not later than March 1, and short-ripened short-ripening varieties - no later than March 15-20. According to folk signs, it is desirable to sow the seeds of all plants 2 days before the new moon or 2 days after the new moon.
Hardening is carried out by sudden temperature changes, as soon as the seeds start to drop, we put them in the refrigerator for the night, where the temperature is +2 degrees, and during the day we place them in about 15 to 20 degrees, this procedure should be repeated at least three times in a row.The easiest way to select good seeds is to prepare a solution of table salt (1 tablespoon of salt for a glass of water) pour the seeds into it and mix, then allow it to stand for a while. Good tomato seeds will settle on the bottom, and empty ones will float on top.
There is a method that is considered more effective than soaking and sprouting pepper seeds - this is bubbling, that is, treating the seeds in water saturated with oxygen. This method of presowing treatment of planting material will dramatically accelerate the emergence of pepper shoots. It takes about 1-2 weeks before sowing seedlings.- pepper seeds,
Seeds of tomatoes should be put in a gauze bag of a small size and immersed in warm water, the temperature of which does not exceed 20 - 25 degrees. In the course of soaking the seeds, the tomatoes should be mixed periodically. The time depends on how quickly the seeds will swell. If brown matter is released from the water, it must be changed. As a rule, the seeds of tomatoes for swelling may take about 18 hours. You can not make soaking before planting in extracts from ash, salt solutions, as this can inhibit the plant.After soaking, the planting material is lightly dried, and then either laid for germination, or sown in boxes prepared for advance seedlings.
When to plant peppers and tomatoes for seedlings?
This is largely depends on the geographical location.
In Moscow, in central Russia, in its northern regions, tomatoes and peppers have to be grown by means of seedlings, making sowing at the junction of February and March.
In the south of Russia, in Ukraine, you can begin to sow in mid-January, and finish in early February.
Lunar calendar: about sowing dates
According to his recommendations pepper is best sown in the first phase of the moonwhen she is under the influence of Scorpio, or Libra, or Sagittarius, or Aries.
In terms of months, by date, it looks like this:
- January: 15-16, but you can and 17-20,
- February: 11-12, also fit 13-16,
- March: 9-10, but also 16-17.
For tomatoes, such numbers are recommended lunar calendar:
- February 10, 13-14, 17-19, if you grow tomatoes in a greenhouse,
- March, 12-13 or 16-17, if the tomatoes grow in the open field.
Planting peppers and tomato seedlings - step by step instructions
To meet the expectations of a good harvest, you must:
- get good seeds,
- prepare them thoroughly sowing
- sow seeds and get viable seedlings. We consider this position in detail.
Emergence of seedlings
If the temperature under the film can be kept at 24-26 ° C, then 3-5 days after planting tomatoes will sprout, but shoots need to wait 7-12 days. If it is colder, germination will slow down.
As soon as sprouts appear, all containers immediately move closer to the light, on the window sills. Now the temperature must be reduced to 16-18 ° C, otherwise the tomatoes will go to unreasonable growth. Peppers do not tend to stretch out, 20-22 ° C is optimal for them.
Young shoots need highlightingMarch sun is clearly not enough. Fluorescent lamps are preferable here, mainly because they do not heat up and are not dangerous for closely located plants.
It is also recommended to use foil, mirrors, rinse the glass on the windows to the maximum transparency so that there is more light. If it is enough, plant growth accelerates noticeably.
Tip! In the first three days, it is desirable to cover the shoots continuously, day and night, then this period is reduced to 16-18 hours a day.
A dive of tomatoes is made when the second true leaf appears. Boxes with seedlings are watered abundantly and, acting carefully, transplant plants into large pots 10–12 cm high and 7–10 cm in diameter.
The roots do not pinch in order to avoid their infection from the soil, but if the sprout is from more resistant hybrid varieties, it can be pinched for better branching of the root system. It is useful to put a superphosphate under the roots, several granules, and sprinkle them with earth.
It is recommended to feed the peppers anyway, but as far as tomatoes are concerned, it is useful to pay attention to the color of the leaves and the general appearance of the sprouts.
The weakness of the stalks, their pallor suggests that the plant needs to be fed. If his appearance is vigorous, and the color of the leaves is dark green, then everything goes well.
Feed can be a solution of bird droppings or liquid types of fertilizers, for example, such as the "Effect".
Preventive treatment for diseases
She must be held 2-3 days before planting seedlings in open ground. This is protection from phytophtora, infection with this fungus threatens to destroy the plant.
Later, after placing the plants in the place of permanent residence, the next stage of crop cultivation will begin.
If the seedlings turned out strong and viable, then the development of plants promises to be successful, and the harvest - rich.
So, we told when to sow peppers and tomatoes for seedlings, described the rules for planting tomatoes and peppers for seedlings.
Stage 2. Warming and hardening
It is possible to increase germination by heating: the planting material is kept for 2-3 hours in hot water or under heating devices at a temperature of 40-60 degrees Celsius.
Hardening is the opposite method of stimulation for germination (seeds are placed for a day in the cold 0-3 ° C). The procedure is carried out after the soaking stage, as they must be wet.
Hardening seedlings on the balcony
In order to increase the resistance of crops to frosts and their productivity, experienced gardeners recommend hardening seedlings and grown seedlings by lowering the temperature once or alternating heat and cold.
Seed preparation for seedlings
Seeds before planting are prepared for several days - they are immersed in water and remove all that has surfaced. High-quality seeds will remain at the bottom. Water is drained along with the garbage, and the remaining seeds must be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate:
- make a solution of potassium permanganate to get a thick purple hue.
- lower the seeds into the resulting solution for 25 minutes.
- after disinfection, seeds are soaked in ordinary water before swelling, for about 10 hours.
When planting material is ready, it is planted in the ground for two or three seeds. Capacities for planting can be bought, such as small peat pots, which are then planted in open ground. You can use disposable cups or cut the bottoms of plastic bottles. Here the imagination of gardeners is not limited by anything.
Planting is necessary to a depth of one centimeter, not deeper, otherwise the seed may not break through. During the growth of seedlings it is necessary to ensure that the plant does not dry out, but it is not flooded with water. Ideally watered by spraying moisture to maintain uniformity.
As soon as the seeds rise to about a height of 5-7 centimeters, it is necessary to plant them or simply thin out. It is necessary to carefully consider the seedlings, remove unhealthy plants, and again you need to plant one by one. This process is called a pick.
Stage 3. Treatment of diseases (pickling or disinfection)
Disinfecting seeds with a 1% manganese solution for half an hour will destroy the causative agents of various infections. After soaking, the material should be washed in cool water and dried thoroughly (in the oven you can not, you can use an infrared heater or blower at a great distance, so that the heat felt a little hand).
Preparing the soil for planting seedlings
The process of preparing the soil for planting tomato seeds is different from the process of preparing open ground. In the first case, it is enough to buy a few kilograms of finished land in the store. But the cultivation area itself must be prepared carefully and in two stages:
- prepare the ground in the fall.
- prepare the soil in spring.
In the fall, after harvesting, the land is carefully removed from plant residues and debris. Then it is dug up by a deep method, to a depth of 20-25 centimeters with a seam overflow. If the soil is noticeably heavy, then it is necessary to add sand at this time - 1 bucket per square meter. It should be quite light and fertile ground.
Increased acidity is “treated” with lime in the amount of half a kilogram per square meter. Liming the soil is done at the time of digging.
Organic fertilizers are also laid in the fall - manure, compost or humus. The processed soil is left in this form for the winter - the frosts will have to destroy all the pathogenic bacteria from the ground, and fertilizers can be absorbed evenly into the ground during the melting of snow and spring rains.
In spring, the soil is also processed before planting. Mineral fertilizers are introduced during the spring loosening or digging the earth. Mineral fertilizers are introduced into the ground to a depth of 15-20 centimeters per square meter:
- 20 grams of saltpeter
- 50 grams of superphosphates
- 20 grams of potassium chloride.
A good digging and loosening is extremely important, because tomatoes have a weak root system and they need to take all the substances from the soil from a limited space. The uniformity and good saturation of the soil with oxygen is important. In this case, the plant will grow well and will give a good harvest.
Preparing the soil in a greenhouse for planting tomatoes
Seedlings can be planted in the open ground, when it is already completely warming (the very beginning of the summer), or in the greenhouse. In any case, whether it is an open area or a greenhouse, beds are made on the ground, with a distance of at least 50 centimeters. Depending on the variety, the tomatoes can be high or low, but the bushes will definitely be "spreading." For them, you need a place.
The distance between plants should also be at least 30 centimeters.
For greenhouses, as well as for the open surface, there is a rule - add fertilizer in the form of chicken manure or urea to each prepared well. This will help the plant adapt to a new place and settle down faster.
The greenhouse is used in the case when you want to get the first fruits as soon as possible, because on the open ground to wait for the harvest will come until August. In this case, it is necessary to prepare the soil in the same way, after having fertilized well and dried the ground before planting.
No matter how you would grow tomatoes on your plot, it is very important to further rid the beds of weeds, in time to fluff up the land under the plants and not let it dry out.
We hope that these simple tips will help you grow a wonderful crop of tomatoes in your backyard areas and enjoy the results of your work all year round!
Sorting seeds before sowing
Collected seeds in your garden before sowing must be sorted, leaving large and healthy. For the selection of empty seeds, we need a solution of sodium chloride (2 grams dissolved in 100 ml of water).
Dip the seeds into the solution, mix and after 10 minutes the empty seeds will float to the surface, discard them, they are not suitable. Rinse the remaining seeds in running water and dry.
How to process the seeds?
Varietal seeds, purchased and collected in the garden - must be treated against diseases and pests. Flower seeds are also treated before sowing.
Seed heat treatment
Seeds are placed in a bag and dipped in a thermos with hot water for 20-30 minutes. After that, immediately washed with cold water for 1 minute. Observe the heat treatment mode, otherwise most of the seeds will become unsuitable.
The temperature and processing time are shown in the table.
Attention: during heat treatment of seeds about 30% can lose germination. It's all right, unviable seeds die.
To combat viral diseases, keep the seeds in a weak solution of an Imunocytophyte (1 tablet per 100 ml of water) 3 to 12 hours. You can also hold in a solution of Fitosporin according to the instructions.
A solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) works well. To do this, pre-heat the seeds in hot water (45-50 degrees) for 2 hours. It is better to use a thermos for this procedure. After warming, place the seeds for 30 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (1-2% solution).
For processing crops such as onion, radish, tomato, physalis, lettuce, legumes, corn - pickle in 1% solution of potassium permanganate within 45 minutes.
Carrots, eggplant, pepper, dill, cabbage and pumpkin - use 2% solution of potassium permanganate within 20 minutes.
Also use special preparations for seed dressing - Bunker, Commander, Winner, Baytan, Fundazol and others.
Attention - after treatment with chemicals, be sure to wash the seeds with water at room temperature.
Cooling or vernalization of seeds accelerates the germination of cold-resistant crops. This method is used for parsley, carrots, parsnips.Soak the seeds at room temperature until swelling, germinate in wet gauze until 10-15% of the seeds hatch. Then place the seeds for two weeks in a room with a temperature of 0 to 1 degrees.
Attention: Seeds of beet, spinach, leaf lettuce are not recommended to be prepared in this way.
Seeds are covered with peat mineral mixture. The mixture creates a nourishing and protective sheath, the treated seeds are larger in size and round in shape.
Sowed seeds should be sown economically, seed consumption when sowing is small, thinning is not necessary.
Seeds are sown dry laying out in prepared holes or grooves. The soil before sowing is good to water.
Tomato seed bubbling
The owners of the aquarium compressor, which gives the fish air, we recommend another interesting procedure for preparing seeds for planting.
Sparging is the soaking of seeds in warm water enriched with oxygen. We place the seeds in a jar, fill it with water, fix the hose coming from the compressor at the bottom, and leave it to “boil” for 12 hours, while the water temperature should be at least 20 degrees. After which we dry the seeds to a friable state.
It’s clear that doing everything ideally sometimes doesn’t have enough time or just laziness, but if you want to achieve maximum yield, you need to pay attention to the processing and preparation of tomato seeds for planting.
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How to prepare tomato seeds for seedlings? If it was decided to independently grow tomatoes, then it is worth doing from the very beginning. Buy need not seedlings, and seeds. This is the only way to be sure that all the important nuances of caring for them will be observed.
It is better to buy grains for sowing, but you can also collect them (only from a high-quality harvest). There is always a drawing of the intended harvest on the package. It is important to examine the packing dates indicated on the package and the particular weather conditions that a particular variety can withstand.
In regions where the climate is cold, it is better to choose early varieties. In warm areas, you can try to grow late varieties. It is important to consider the place where the future seedlings will be planted. There are special varieties for greenhouse, open ground and even for the windowsill of a house.
As soon as the variety was chosen, another question arises: how to process the seeds so that the crop would be pleased with its quantity and quality without the appearance of major problems?
Preparation of tomato seeds for sowing on seedlings begins with the selection. After the purchase is made, the pack is opened and the selection begins for further care. They are poured on a paper surface and only those that are large and dense are selected. Empty, small will have to throw.
Properly prepare the seeds, determining their density, will allow the liquid with sodium chloride. As soon as the grains fall into a similar solution, you can immediately determine the quality part. Dense seeds are at the bottom, and hollow float to the surface.
Even on purchased grains from a pack many microbes and fungi inhabit. When released into the ground, they begin active livelihoods. The first shoots sprout weak and die. Therefore, the preparation of tomato seeds for planting seedlings is not complete without disinfection.
The recipe on the basis of potassium permanganate is very effective and popular. But do it right. Too saturated solution or an increase in the residence time of grains in it affects the speed and quality of seedlings. Tomato seeds in potassium permanganate should be no more than 35 minutes.
In water enough to add 1 g of potassium permanganate and mix well. After the grains in the allotted time are in this solution, they are washed with plain water and left to dry completely in a warm room.
Pick and watering seedlings
Many beginning gardeners and gardeners are frightened by the long absence of shoots and begin to take measures that are not necessary: thus destroying the shoots that have not yet turned out. The moment when the root system develops at the crooked seed and the first cotyledons of plants are selected on the surface, one of the most intense.
Black Earth Period
The time from planting seeds into the soil, before the appearance of seedlings is called the “black earth” period, it differs in duration for different crops. With proper preparation of the material shoots appear faster. Some vegetables and flowers germinate within a few days, others up to 3 months. At this time, they should be checked by loosening the ground in the seat and washing it to get rid of mold and other harmful microorganisms.
Tomato growing technology
The last method of seed treatment is hardening. It will help plants to tolerate adverse conditions well, for example, temperature drops. After disinfection, soak the pepper seeds in warm water, let them swell, and then immediately put them on the bottom shelf in the fridge for a day. Then dry and start sowing seeds for seedlings.
Growing tomato seedlings
In addition to the well-known pre-soaking, there are some other ways of processing tomato seeds. Bubbling is the soaking of the seeds in water that is saturated with oxygen. To carry out this procedure at home, it is advised to use compressors - the same used for aquariums. Air or oxygen is supplied to the bubbler under the necessary pressure - for tomatoes the time is approximately 18 to 24 hours. After this kind of treatment, you can expect an excellent rich harvest from future seedlings, from which strong tomatoes will grow.
Picking tomato seedlings
For seeds, it is desirable to take the fruit from the first two lower hands, in shape they must meet this grade. If the fruit is not typical for this variety, then such a tomato is not suitable for seeds - there was a pollination. To remove the fruit on the seeds must be mature or brown and maintain them at home to a mild state. In a convenient small dish, seeds are cut from sliced tomato slices, a little water is added and aged for 1-2 days until the pulp floats up. The fermented mixture is drained, the seeds are thoroughly washed with clean water. Floated ones are thrown away, and those that remain at the bottom of the dish are evenly scattered on paper and dried. Dried seeds are placed in packets marked with the year and variety. Sow them preferably one year after harvest. When sowing the following year, seed germination is lower, the crop of tomato decreases and more often there are plants with barren flowers.
(Reach 0.8-1.5 m) it is advisable to plant obliquely, that is, dig a trench 2/3 stem length, remove leaves from the stalk at the same distance, place the plant in a trench and cover it with fertile soil, leaving 1 / 3 stems with 3-5 leaves. With this planting plants provide a powerful additional root system, which will favorably affect the future harvest. Tomato seedlings that have been planted need to be plentifully watered with a weak solution of manganese (2 g per 10 l of water). You can ground the ground with peat or humus. After a week, you must give the first dressing: a matchbox of ammonium nitrate or urea in a bucket of water. Seedlings should be planted in the ground at a distance of 40- 60 cm from each other, depending on the variety of tomato. Stunted - 40 cm, sredneroslye and tall - 60 cm apart.
Planting tomato seedlings in the ground
Sprouted seeds are sown in boxes to a depth of 0.5 cm, covered with glass or polyethylene and placed near a heating radiator. On the 3rd day shoots appear. However, it is necessary to take into account that seeds of hybrid varieties with small seeds, as well as varieties of foreign selection, germinate only at 7-10 days.In addition, dried and long-stored seeds have a lazy germination. Therefore, it is not recommended to throw out the soaked seeds ahead of time. During seed germination, the temperature should be maintained at +18. +25 ° С, and after the mass emergence of shoots in the first 3-4 days +13. + 15 ° С during the day and +10. + 12 ° C at night. In the future, the temperature should be on cloudy days +15. + 17 ° С, on sunny days +20. + 25 ° С, and at night +8. + 12 ° C. To do this, it is necessary to open the window sash at night, and put a cardboard barrier on the radiator side. Watering the seedlings is rare, but abundant.
- Sparging is the soaking of seeds in warm water enriched with oxygen. We place the seeds in a jar, fill it with water, fix the hose coming from the compressor at the bottom, and leave it to “boil” for 12 hours, while the water temperature should be at least 20 degrees. After which we dry the seeds to a friable state.
- Hybrid varieties of tomatoes in the mandatory heating of the seeds do not need.
The basis of a good and healthy crop of tomatoes is laid at a very early stage of growing seedlings of tomatoes, namely, from the correct preparation and seed treatment before planting. First of all, it is necessary to choose the right seeds, select the good ones from the weak and the empty ones.- solution with fertilizers or wood ash,In the course of coating, the creation of granules by building around the seeds mixtures of protective, nourishing and stimulating the correct growth of substances. Planted seedlings begin 3 to 6 months before the intended seeding. Most often, such a procedure is usually carried out for large batches under production conditions.In the preparation and sowing of tomato seeds on seedlings, it is important to follow the sequence! First they are awakened in melt water, then disinfected, and finally they are treated with bioactive substances. The last stage is important to conduct at a temperature of at least 20 ° C. At lower temperatures, the treatment efficiency is significantly reduced.As for the last point, make sure that the planting material is at least a few days in a warm atmosphere. If it was stored in the cold before sowing, the seedlings will turn out only in 2-3 weeks instead of 2-3 days or not at all.
Caring for tomatoes: watering, feeding
There are many reasons for the death of sprouts:
Tomato plants have the ability to kill bacteria and some pests. Therefore, it is useful to use a decoction of tomato tops for spraying other crops.
Tomatoes are needed: systematic loosening, feeding, watering. During the budding of the plant, it is advisable to sprinkle with substances stimulating fruit set or with a solution of boric acid and baking soda. On 1 liter of water -1h spoon of soda and 1/4 h of a spoon of boric acid. Before flowering, give abundant watering with warm water at the rate of 3-4 liters per bush, and a weak solution of potassium permanganate (1 l per bush). At the same time, it is necessary to bring wood ash under each bush, loosen the ground and water it abundantly. 3 weeks after planting, sprinkle the plant with a solution of copper sulphate (20 g per 10 l of water). For better adhesion to the leaves, you can add 2 tablespoons of laundry detergent per 10 liters of water to the solution.
Formation tomato and pasynkovanie
When the first leaves appear, tomato seedlings dive. Cooked peat pots or other containers (at least 10-15 cm deep) are filled with prepared soil for about 2/3 of the capacity, then watered with a weak solution of manganese, make holes and plant the plants. The soil around the plant is gently crimped.It’s clear that doing everything ideally sometimes doesn’t have enough time or just laziness, but if you want to achieve maximum yield, you need to pay attention to the processing and preparation of tomato seeds for planting.It is very important to carry out seed disinfection, since most of the diseases of tomato live on their surface. Therefore, to avoid further infection of seedlings, it is necessary to disinfect the seeds, or as they say in the people to pickle.
Tomato fruit harvesting
Stratification is another method of preparing tomato seeds for sowing. It is best suited for those seeds that tend to grow for a long time. Indeed, in the natural conditions in the fall, the seeds fall on the soil, then become covered with a layer of leaves, and in the winter season - with snow, they are overcome by frost. It is in such conditions that they are before the onset of spring, after which they already germinate. The same, close to natural, conditions are created artificially in the course of stratification. For this, the seeds are mixed with wet sand, peat is also suitable due to its good breathability and ability to retain moisture.
Collecting tomato seeds
Tomato has been an indispensable vegetable on our tables for many years now. But in order to properly plant and grow this culture, it is necessary to follow all the rules. Competent preparation of tomato seeds before sowing will give every gardener the opportunity to get stronger and more viable seedlings, which will have strong immunity to various diseases.
Infection in the soil under the seedlings,
For 10 liters of water take 4 kg of tops of water and boil for 30 minutes on a small fire. After settling the broth is filtered and 40 g of soap is added. 1-2 liters of broth diluted with 10 liters of water. Tomatoe decoction is effective against leaf-eating pests and their larvae. The infusion of tomato tops effectively acts when bacteriosis of the earth. In May, the beginning of June, when there are sharp temperature drops in the atmosphere (in the daytime (+15. +20) ° С, at night up to 0 ° С) the root system of some plants dies. At this time it is necessary to water the infusion of tomato tops. To put 1-2 kg of tomato tops in a bucket of warm water. Insist 3-5 days in a warm place or in the sun. Strain, dilute 1/3 of a bucket of water, pour directly under the roots or when planting the plant in the hole. In addition, the tomato gets along well with some plants with mutual benefits. It can be planted in aisle with cabbage, then the cabbage does not attack the cabbage. Fruits of a tomato become larger, their productivity increases. Planting tomatoes in between the rows of strawberries increases the yield of berries and extends fruiting. I wish you great success!
Preparation of tomato seeds for planting includes procedures to strengthen the plant, reduce the risk of disease and increase the number of crops in the future. Before planting the seedlings, the seeds must be disinfected, hardened, bubbling and supplemented.
Many vegetable growers, sparing time and energy, are wondering if it is necessary to soak the seeds? Processing of seeds of a tomato before landing without soaking will not do. Seeds can be poured with a thin layer of thawed or rain water for 48 hours. If you pour too much water, they can rot.
There are many other solutions to soak tomato seeds used by gardeners. You can use aloe leaf juice or purchased solution. Processing seeds of tomatoes before sowing can be carried out with solutions based on sodium humate, zircon or Epin extra. They stimulate growth and strengthen cultivated plants.
Pre-seed preparation of tomato seeds continues the procedure of hardening. Soaked grains must pass through the quenching stage. Hardening of tomato seeds before planting is recommended for persistent transfer of adverse weather surprises in the future (wind, hot days or cold nights).
In order to harden future plants, you need to place the grains in a wet towel and leave to lie at a temperature of 20 degrees for about 12 hours, then the towel moves to a cold place for 7 hours. To harden the seeds in this way need for three days. All this period, you need to monitor the temperature and humidity, otherwise the planting material may rot or become moldy.
Hardened seedlings will not succumb to changes in temperature and resist the bad weather.
The treatment of tomato seeds before sowing requires a disinfection procedure. Seed disinfection is carried out using a wide variety of recipes, the most popular are prepared on the basis of 0.1% potassium permanganate and 10% hydrogen peroxide.
Seeds of tomatoes before sowing need in such a procedure as bubbling. It allows the seeds to swell, saturate with oxygen and later germinate faster. Seeds are poured with half a glass of water and stirred periodically for 4 hours (bubbled). If the house has an aquarium, then you can connect the tube to the compressor. Grains will be more enriched with oxygen. After a while, they are placed on a dry cloth for complete drying.
Presowing treatment of tomato seeds to increase the yield is carried out with water. The following recipe is popular. Nitroammofoska, sodium humate and wood ash is poured with a liter of water. The grains of tomatoes in potassium permanganate are kept in a specially made gauze bag, which is dipped in the resulting solution for half an hour. After that, the seeds are in a wet towel until they begin to germinate. As soon as the first shoots hatch, they are transplanted into the prepared soil.
In order to process the seeds of tomatoes before planting is not wasted, you need to perform each stage correctly. Consider the place of further planting of seedlings, taste, height of bushes, weather conditions and other factors.
More about soaking procedure.
The question of whether to soak the tomato seeds before planting, will be given a uniquely positive answer. Soaking tomato seeds is recommended for growth and high yield. If you skip this stage, the seedlings will come out badly and the bushes will be prone to many diseases, as well as pests. Crop, too, will not please their quality and quantity. Whether to soak the seeds is up to everyone, but further result will depend on this step.
Soaking tomato seeds allows many times to reduce the risk of these problems. Extremely rarely treated seeds are subject to disease.
There are many recipes and ways to soak tomato seeds before planting. How much tomato seeds can be soaked depends on the recipe and ingredients used. What can dunk the landing base? Recipes that are popular and effective among agronomists and gardeners amateur.
- Soak the prepared base can be in aloe juice. The product is safe, natural and nutritious. Increases plant resistance to disease, stimulates growth at all stages of development. How to soak the seeds in aloe leaf juice? The fleshy aloe leaves are placed first in a cold place. After that, squeeze the juice. Can be applied pure or stirred with water. A cloth bag with its contents is dipped into the solution for 24 hours.
- Seeds useful infusion in the composition of wood ash. In one liter of water, 60 g of ash is dissolved and left to infuse for two days. After two days, the infusion is ready for use. In the infusion for the enrichment of mineral components it is necessary to leave the base for 4 hours.
- Processing seeds of tomatoes can take place in a solution with Epin. This is a plant-based drug that not only stimulates plant growth, but also increases its resistance to various adverse factors (lack of light, cold weather). In warm water (100 ml), add 5 drops of the drug and leave for about two days. Epin for seedlings is used to stimulate the process of its germination.
- You can soak tomato seeds in a mixture based on chicory acid. The drug Zircon is a powerful activator of the growth of seedlings and their roots. Soak the seeds in Zircon need about a day.
- Phytosporin can be used for soaking seeds. It is a biological means of protecting grains from diseases.About 3 drops of the drug are added to a glass of water and the seeds are soaked for three hours. After the procedure, a protective film of beneficial bacteria is formed on the seeds. It prevents the penetration of pathogenic bacteria inside.
Soak tomato seeds can be in solutions with various ingredients that will positively influence the further development of the cultivated plant: honey, mushrooms, tea, onion peel. The main thing is to keep the proportions in order not to harm future shoots with care.
The disinfection procedure is necessary in order to get rid of all pathogens that live on the shell of seeds. The composition of the most common recipes includes potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide.
- Soaking seeds in potassium permanganate tomatoes is carried out for the purpose of disinfection. How to soak tomato seeds before planting with potassium permanganate? Preparing a solution of light pinkish hue. If the mixture is saturated, the tomatoes may die. Keep in potassium permanganate seeds need no more than 35 minutes. After 30 minutes, they are taken out of the mixture and washed. You can use baking soda for this purpose. This will completely disinfect the planting material.
- To prepare the solution is very simple. In a liter of water is diluted with 30 g of soda. In this solution, the seeds are left for three hours. Then washed with clean water and placed in gauze, soaked with fertilizers. After three days, you can begin sowing seed. Thanks to these solutions, the seedlings will have a strong stem, roots and a high yield will be obtained.
- How to process tomato seeds with hydrogen peroxide? Within two days, you can soak the seeds in hydrogen peroxide 10% to achieve a disinfecting effect. The amount of active ingredient should be equal to the number of seeds. A solution with hydrogen peroxide allows to reduce the content of nitrates in fruits, the germination rate increases, the immunity is strengthened. In addition, it helps to disinfect the surface of each grain, which often contains germs and fungi in a dormant state.
- Often gardeners use biological preparation Fitolavin for self-growing tomatoes. Composition based on streptothricin antibiotics prevents the development of the most common diseases among tomatoes. The drug is absolutely safe for humans and does not affect the useful flora of the soil.
- Thermal disinfection has been popular since ancient times. The method allows to get rid of harmful germs and increase yields. To this end, for the planting material for two days, arrange a place where the air temperature will be about 30-50 degrees.
If already at this stage to start the fight against bacteria and fungi, then in the future green bushes will be able independently to fight the invasion of pathogens.
The prepared base must be germinated at the end. To this end, tomato grains are placed on a damp cloth, covered with another layer of wet tissue and cleaned in a warm room. As needed, the tissue is re-moistened. As soon as the first shoots hatch, the seeds are planted in the soil.
Preparing tomatoes for planting is not without good soil. For the seeds to germinate, special conditions are necessary:
- the soil before sowing should be doused with boiling water to get rid of any infection,
- sanitize the seeds themselves,
- loosen the soil well
- plant no deeper than 1.5 cm
- the soil should not be cold
- the presence of sufficient moisture
- waking seeds from a state of rest.
How to prepare tomato seeds for planting there are other rules. Before sowing, they should be a warm place. If they are in the cold and are immediately planted in the ground, then the first shoots will hatch not after three days, but after three weeks.
Soil for tomato seedlings can be prepared independently.Useful chernozem, humus, peat, superphosphate or wood ash. Components can be mixed together.
When sowing cooked grains in one large capacity, you must follow the rules. The distance between the recesses should not be less than 2.5 cm. After planting, the container is covered with glass or plastic wrap. The soil requires regular watering and ventilation. As soon as 90% of seedlings ascend, the film is removed.
Determining the term of planting grains in the ground, gardeners rely on personal experience, they must take into account the climatic norms, the selected variety of tomatoes and the conditions in which they will grow.
If the seedlings are planned to be grown in a greenhouse, the best time for sowing seeds is considered the end of February. For further cultivation in open ground, but under cover, the beginning of March is considered the best time, and the end of March is considered uncoated.
But some vegetable growers do all actions that concern planting and care of plants according to the lunar calendar. It is developed by astrologers and agronomists. According to them, the Moon, being at different distances from the Earth, acts on the entire living part of the world. To sow, transplant plants need a growing moon. In this case, seedlings grow well and quickly. Dates according to the lunar calendar are calculated annually different.
As soon as the first true leaflets appear, the seedlings swoop (pinch long roots, without touching the weak and short). Large and strong bushes can be transplanted into separate containers, for example, disposable plastic cups. At the bottom of the cups it is necessary to make holes so that the moisture does not stagnate.
To avoid any problems with seedlings, you need to follow important rules for caring for her:
- you need to water regularly, better with a watering can, without pressure,
- seedlings are placed in a well-lit place, without drafts,
- the container must always be turned with different sides so that the stems are even and do not stretch upwards,
- there should be enough space for the development of each bush,
- every two weeks it is recommended to apply mineral or organic fertilizers.
In the care of tomato seeds is nothing complicated. If you devote a little more time to the preparatory stage, taking into account all the features, then there will be fewer difficulties in the future and the result will be pleasantly surprised.
The sprouted seedlings should be watered very carefully, pouring water into the pan, where cassettes or other containers with holes are installed. The soil surface should remain dry and loose to prevent the development of a dangerous disease - blackleg. Therefore, each procedure irrigation combined with surface loosening.
Automatic watering of seedlings
The frequency of irrigation and the amount of water depends on the composition of the earth mixture. If the soil is soaked to the top, and there is still liquid in the pan, it must be drained and powdered with dry earth to the cotyledons.
Planting adult seedlings in individual containers is called picking. From the correctness of its implementation depends on the further growth of seedlings.
To facilitate the process of extracting seedlings, it must be watered abundantly. Large pots or cups of 2/3 filled with prepared soil mixture, which is deepening for transplanted seedling. It is necessary to take out seedling together with an earthen clod.
To stimulate the development of lateral roots, the main root can be pinned, freeing the system of seedlings from excess soil. The ground covered around the seedlings placed in the hole must be pushed in. After watering the plants are transferred for 2-3 days in a shaded place.
In order to pick out seedlings do not stretch it is necessary to provide it with good lighting. If the sun's rays are not enough, then you need to take care of artificial light sources, so that the seedlings will gain stockyness.
Cultivation of seeds from China
Modern selection does not stand still, annually displaying all new varieties.Recently, the purchase of seeds on the Internet has become popular. A special variety of varieties and colorings are famous Chinese manufacturers.
Seedlings of mini watermelons from seeds ordered in China
If you bought planting material on Aliexpress, then you were looking for information on how to grow seeds from China for seedlings. The variety of seeds offered by this eastern country alone is striking.
Its main drawback is that all the necessary information regarding the timing and recommendations for planting is written in Chinese or not at all, so you have to look for it yourself - on thematic forums and websites.
It is quite risky to make such purchases, because if they do not grow, or the seedlings do not take root, it is impossible to sort out the causes. If curiosity still prevails and you want experiments, here are some recommendations:
- start with small purchases, one package will be enough
- do not buy exotic plants, the probability of their survival on the territory of Russia is very small, even when planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse,
- first find the information, the variety may be different, but one plant is often planted on seedlings at one time.
Before sowing seeds for seedlings, process them to get healthy and high-yielding plants. Depending on the type of culture, the procedure being carried out and the temperature regime may differ, as well as the rules for watering and picking the seedlings.