Crop production

Cultivation of apple trees "Northern synapse": the advantages and disadvantages of the variety, planting and care

In pre-revolutionary times, famous apples of the Crimean Sinap were brought to the table by Russian aristocrats - a variety with excellent taste, but not frost resistant at all. I.V.

Michurin set the task to bring a variety that is not inferior to the Crimean synapa in taste and capable of withstanding the frosts of central Russia.

The result of many years of experiments was the Northern Synapse variety, which is considered to be created by S.I. Isaev.

Description of apple varieties Northern synapse

Late-winter - apples ripen after 2-3 months of storage.

The apple tree variety Northern Synapse is a large, tall-growing tree with a wide, tapering to the apex, crown of medium density.

The apple tree has several strong skeletal branches and a large number of thin lateral shoots. The bark of the branches of the first three orders of trunk has a gray color.

Fruiting at the Northern synapa of the mixed type - from fruit planes to skeletal growths.

When grown in a nursery, the branches of seedlings are painted in cherry color with a gray tint; lentils (formed on the shoots and perform the function of gas exchange) are small, white.

The leaves are shiny, dark green with a gray tinge, elongated ovate, wide. Short petioles grow at an acute angle to the leaves. The flowers are large with pink leaves.

Apples of medium size, conical or cup-shaped, yellowish-greenish color with brown-red blush.

On the peel visible subcutaneous specks of light color. Fruit weight from 95 to 150 grams. The taste of the Northern Synaph is sweet and sour, with a spicy aftertaste, refreshing, juicy apples.

The fruit ripening period is the beginning of October and later. The variety is characterized by moderate resistance to drought and diseases such as scab and powdery mildew.

It grows well in the Central Black Earth, Lower Volga, Middle Volga regions.

The advantages and disadvantages of the variety

Variety Northern synapse many gardeners consider the king of the Russian garden. Indeed, despite the demands for care, there are many advantages at the Northern Synapa:

  • The fruits are well preserved: until the beginning of June.
  • The apple tree begins to bear fruit on the 5th - 8th year after planting in open ground, on the dwarf rootstock - even in the second year.
  • High yield: up to 170 kg of fruit can be harvested from a fifteen-year tree.
  • Good winter hardiness.

The disadvantages of the variety include the following:

  • For a good ripening apples need a very warm summer. For the appearance of a beautiful blush by the warm summer, autumn should also be with night and daytime temperatures.
  • Unripe apples are not recommended to be harvested: their tastes are worse and they are poorly stored.
  • Northern synapse requires constant care, otherwise the yield drops, the fruits become shallow, their taste deteriorates.
  • Trees are large.
  • In especially fruitful years, the quality of the fruit is reduced.
  • Late period of fruit ripening.
  • After harvesting, apples must lie down for 2-3 months to gain flavor.

Planting seedlings

The northern synapse loves a large amount of light and space, so it should be planted in open areas away from tall, large trees.

Breathable loamy and super-sandy soils with an acidity level of pH 5.6 - 6.0 are well suited for apple trees. Groundwater should lie at least two meters from the ground surface.

If the groundwater is close to the roots, the apple tree may die.

Northern synapse planted in September or October or in the spring.

15-30 days before landing you need to prepare the landing hole:

  • The width of the pit - 80 cm, depth - 100 cm.
  • Remove the sod.
  • Remove the humus layer - put aside.
  • Remove the infertile reservoir - put aside.
  • Loosen the bottom of the pit.
  • At the bottom lay drainage.
  • Lay a layer of sod up roots.
  • Mix the humus layer with ash, rotted manure, compost and mineral fertilizers (potassium sulfate - 40 grams, superphosphate - 80 grams).
  • Fill the pit with the resulting mixture by 30%.
  • Add the remaining fertile layer so that a mound of 20 centimeters is formed.

When you perform simple recommendations on the technology of planting seedlings, the apple Northern Synaph will take root well:

  1. Cut off the damaged ends of the roots of the seedling.
  2. Soak the roots in water for two or three hours, if the roots are very dry, soak for 24 hours in water.
  3. Dig a hole in the hole, the size of the corresponding root system of an apple tree.
  4. To form a small mound in the hole.
  5. Drive a peg 80 centimeters high above the ground.
  6. Install an apple tree on a hillock on the north side of the peg so that the root neck rises 6 centimeters above the ground.
  7. Straighten the roots.
  8. Cover roots with soil, slightly compacting the soil.
  9. Snap a tree to a peg with a cloth.
  10. Water with water until the water goes into the soil.
  11. Ground around the apple tree to humus humus or peat.
  12. The optimal scheme of planting the Northern Synaph apple variety is 7 x 7 m.

Apple care

Apple Northern synapse requires regular maintenance. For a good harvest you need to follow the rules of pruning, watering and feeding. It is necessary to water the Northern synapse once a week, 30-40 liters per tree.

During the formation of the kidneys and the ripening of fruits, sufficient watering is extremely important. You can dig grooves around the tree and water it through them. In hot weather for an apple is recommended to arrange a shower.

Wet soil needs to be loosened and weeds removed.

The apple tree Northern Synaph is a fast-growing tree, therefore, in order to get a good harvest, it is necessary to carry out the trimming procedure in a timely manner:

  • Pruning done in the spring.
  • Since the Northern synapse is a late variety, the first pruning is carried out during planting - the shoots should be shortened by a third.
  • In the two-year-old Northern synapse pruning is done so that 3 tiers of shoots remain. At each tier you need to choose the strongest shoots, remove the rest.
  • In the first year, the shoots are cut to about 40 centimeters, then to 20 centimeters.
  • Be sure to remove the dry, weak and diseased shoots and monitor then that the apple tree had one guide. In order to avoid the disease of the tree, handle the cutting sites.

If the apple tree Northern synapse is grown on fertile soil, it practically does not require additional feeding: it is enough to apply humus and mineral fertilizers once a season, containing in their composition nitrate, nitrogen, phosphorus, boron. To protect against frost, 14 days after flowering, add a 5% urea solution to the soil, and again after seven days, add potassium chloride.

In order to keep the harvest longer, the Northern Synaph should be regularly fed with calcium salts throughout the season with a gap of half a month.

Although the Northern Synaph is a frost-resistant variety, the protection does not interfere: for the winter, warm the near-stem circle with a layer of peat and humus. This will help avoid soil freezing. Wrapping a tree with spruce branches will help scare off rodents.

Diseases and pests

Apple Northern synapse is characterized by moderate resistance to diseases and pests. Therefore, it is important to carry out prevention in order to prevent damage by insects and fungi:

  • In the spring, remove all weak, dry and diseased shoots.
  • The cut areas must be treated with special means (for example, garden bar).
  • Carry out the treatment of wood and the stalk zone with pest preparations.

Most of the fungal diseases of fruit trees can be successfully cured with the use of the drug Strobe, which is used in combination with other means.

More information can be found in the video.

Northern synapse (apple): description of the variety, especially the cultivation and reviews

It so happened that the fruitful apple tree has long been considered the subject of special pride and love of a gardener in temperate latitudes.

Special maturity of late ripening, characterized by excellent keeping quality of fruits and retaining all the beneficial properties throughout the long winter months.

It is to such fruit trees that the apple tree species Northern Synaph, successfully cultivated in almost all Russian regions for nearly a hundred years, belongs. About him and tell this publication.

Apple Northern Synapse: variety description

The late-ripening culture and the product of Russian selection is a strong-growing fruit tree with a wide pyramidal crown.

Absolutely corresponding to the name, this apple tree is grown in difficult climatic zones, famous for difficult conditions, in particular, such regions as the Volga region, the Central Black Soil Region, Eastern Siberia, although at first the apples of this variety were grown in traditionally southern regions.

A characteristic feature of this variety is considered to be the large main branches with a large number of fruit bearing shoots extending from them - lateral, thin, articulated and strong, covered with gray-brown bark.

Medium-sized dark green leaves have a traditional grayish tint and are noticeably pubescent. The flowers are very large, with delicate pink petals. The harvest falls on late autumn, the fruits ripen completely for the winter.

The variety is partly samoplodny, its yield increases in mixed plantings.

An amazing feature of this fruit crop is the excellent keeping quality of apples. They retain all tastes and do not lose their attractiveness for 7-8 months from the time they are stored in a cool basement or refrigerator.

The taste and appearance of the Northern Synaph apples is remarkable. Apple tree (reviews of gardeners confirm this) gives fruits of medium size, reaching 120-130 g, round, slightly conical or cup-shaped.

The skin is smooth, smooth, with long storage is covered with natural wax that protects the fruit from moisture loss.

Pouring apples are painted in greenish or yellowish tones, at the time of final ripening are covered with a muted red blush, the first to appear on the sides exposed to the sun's rays. Numerous bright subcutaneous spots on the fruit are clearly visible.

Fine-grained juicy flesh of average density of snow-white shades sometimes gets slightly greenish tones. It is impossible not to note the excellent taste of apples of this variety: refreshing, bright, sour-sweet with subtle spicy notes and traditional apple flavor.

It is noticed that especially beautiful fruits are obtained when the summer is warm and the autumn - with very significant temperature differences, high daytime and almost zero overnight.

Therefore, an experienced gardener never in a hurry with the harvest, knowing that unfinished apples taken from the tree will not only not please the taste, but will not be stored, will quickly fade.

Northern synapse is an apple tree, the fruits of which are universal: they are equally successfully eaten fresh and processed into all sorts of desserts, drinks and canned food.

Winter apples give a special flavor to home-made wine, and cabbage fermented with them is a wonderful fortifying vitamin salad.

Characteristics of apple varieties Northern synapse: advantages

Derived for a long time, the culture does not lose its relevance today, having a number of unconditional advantages. In addition to the already mentioned ability to be stored for quite a long time, this northern apple has such qualities as:

• Skoroplodnost. Planted young plant develops so intensively that the first apples can start within 5-6 years. Apple trees grafted on dwarf rootstock, marked improvement in the taste of fruits and their formation as early as 2-3 years after planting,

• High winter hardiness.

• Medium resistance to scab and other traditional diseases.

• High yield. From a 15-year-old tree they harvest up to 170 kg. Apple trees, crossed the 20-year milestone, reduce yields. The variety is not susceptible to fruit falling.

• Excellent taste of fragrant graceful apples.

Not only gardeners appreciate this variety.

The Northern Synaph is an apple tree that provides breeders with unique opportunities to use it as a basis for the emergence of new varieties of apple trees.

Northern synapse - the ancestor of Sinap Orlovsky, Moscow winter, late Moscow and other species.

Lack of variety

Cons of this fruit tree are few and very conditional. Among them are:

• Reduced marketability when yields are as high as possible.

• Late ripening of apples.

If you change the time of fruiting varieties beyond the power of a person, then you can prevent the two other factors listed.

The fact is that the Northern Sinap is an apple tree that needs careful care - compulsory pruning, providing regular controlled fruit formation, as well as the ability to keep the crown of the tree in good condition, allowing the growing fruits to get enough sun heat. Thus, it will be possible to avoid chopping the fruits and loss of commercial qualities. The basis of good and, importantly, quick harvests - the correct fit and reasonable care for the young plant. We will tell about the necessary agrotechnical techniques that stimulate good tree growth.

Seat preparation

The harvest depends on many conditions. Despite the fact that the Northern Synaph is an apple tree that is considered undemanding, it responds vigorously to all unfavorable moments.

Therefore, it is important to take into account all its preferences: maximum protection from penetrating through-winds and the absence of close proximity of groundwater. Light and medium loamy soils with a neutral reaction are the most suitable soils for a crop such as the Northern Synapse.

Apple tree (gardeners confirm) does not make heavy wet soils, significantly slows growth and refuses to tie fruit.

Planted trees with an interval of 4-5 m. The dimensions of the planting pits depend on the size of the seedling, but usually they are not less than 0.6 * 0.7.

In the center of the pit, a strong count of a young plant is slaughtered and filled with an earthen mixture from the upper fertile layer, humus and 50 g each.

superphosphate and potassium sulfate.

Before planting, the seedling is carefully inspected, removing rotten fragments of roots. The plant is located in the pit from the north of the driven stake. Roots straighten and, pouring the soil, gradually fill the pit.

The root neck of the seedling should be 4-5 cm from the ground, it should not fall asleep. The soil in the near-stem circle is compacted, a small roller is arranged around the tree to retain water during irrigation.

After planting, the tree is well watered, and the near-barred circle is mulched with humus, wood chips or plant residues. Sapling loosely tied to a cola with soft twine.

Fruiting every culture depends on proper care. No exception and Northern synapse. Apple tree, the description of which is proposed, should be provided with necessary dressings, water, etc.

The soil pristvolnyh circles periodically loosen and weed. During the years, especially with a generous harvest, they take care of protecting the trees from breaking the branches under the weight of the growing apples.

For this purpose, use strong slingshot.

Shaping and trimming

The crown of an apple tree needs to be shaped. This compulsory operation is carried out annually and has the following objectives:

• eliminate the thickening of the crown, leading to lower yields and shredding of fruits,

• prevent branch breaks,

• rejuvenate the tree, increasing the return of fruits.

Most often, apple trees are given a classic sparse-tiered form, traditional for bottom crops.Also form the Northern synapse.

The apple tree, described in the publication, is formed by tiers consisting of several skeletal branches located 0.3-0.5 m apart.

Begin these works from the first spring after landing.

Excellent fruit flavor, yield and precociousness are characteristic of such a culture as the apple tree Northern Synapse. Buy seedlings today can be from many manufacturers.

History of apple varieties

The appearance of the “Northern Synapse” was due to the desire of breeders to create something like the famous elite apple variety “Crimean Synap”, the fruits of which were brought specifically for the pre-revolutionary beau monde. There was a great taste of these apples, but the costly and long transportation caused resentment. Therefore, employees of the Michurin All-Union Research Institute of Horticulture volunteered to create something new and necessarily with the frost resistance gene.

As a result of lengthy trials and experiments, the student and follower of Michurin Sergey Isaev produced the Northern Synapse grade. It was obtained by free pollination of apple seed “Chinese Kandil” and perfectly combined the highest taste qualities with endurance to the harsh weather conditions. The author dreamed of such a tandem.

Later the variety was zoned for other regions, taking into account the peculiarities of climate and soil. Therefore, these trees can be found nowadays both in household plots and in the gardens of processing enterprises in Russia. In addition, the genes of the "Northern Synapse" are fundamental in subsequent varieties - "Orlovsky Synapse", "Moscow Winter", "Moscow Later". The variety is recommended to breeders for use in the cultivation of early apple trees.

Description of the characteristics of the apple tree "Northern synapse"

The basic qualities of the variety are early ripeness, endurance to frost and the ability to fully develop in a shortened growing season, as well as excellent taste characteristics of the fruit. Consider the features of the “Northern Synapse” in more detail.

Tree description

Externally, apple trees are distinguished by a highly branched cone-shaped crown and tall trunk, reaching a height of 6-7 meters. On powerful skeletal branches, a multitude of thin, side-mounted shoots are formed. Bark gray-cherry color. The leaves are elongate, ovate, with a glossy surface and a pubescent inner side, dark gray-green color. Inflorescences on short legs, flowers are large, with scarlet petals. Fruits are tied on the growths of skeletal branches and lateral shoots.

The Northern Synaph apple trees are moderately resistant to dry weather, powdery mildew and scab, therefore they require appropriate care and preventive measures from diseases.

Fruit Description

Ripening apples of this variety begins in October. And full maturity comes only in 2-3 months, closer to the New Year. Fruits have a pleasant aroma, medium size, conical or stacanoid shape and a yellow-green color. One apple weighs approximately from 100 to 150 g. During storage, a rich red blush appears on the fruits. Under a thick smooth skin, covered with a waxy bloom, white specks are clearly visible. The flesh is fine-grained, juicy, snow-white in color, sometimes with a slight greenish tint. The fruit tastes sweet and sour, with a slight spicy aftertaste.

The peculiarity of the fruit lies in extreme keeping quality with absolute preservation of appearance and useful substances. Subject to the rules of storage and proper preparation of the cellar, apples of this variety can last until July. Excellent quality is the versatility of apples: they are suitable for both raw consumption, and for home canning and cooking desserts. Siberian gardeners especially appreciate the variety for the unique flavor that winter fruits confer on home-made wine.

Pros and cons varieties

Although the breeders managed to translate all their dreams into reality when creating the variety “Northern Synapse”, it turned out to be not perfect either. Gardeners have found both positive and negative sides. In the responses, the trees of this breed are often called "kings of the garden" and explain it with such qualities:

  • fruit maturity,
  • excellent winter hardiness of apple trees
  • the ability to fruition on short rootstocks for the 2nd year,
  • keeping quality of fruits for 7–8 months,
  • the ability of adult apples of the Northern Synapa to high yields. Under the conditions of the right agrotechnology, up to 170 kg of apples can be harvested from a single tree.
With all the listed advantages, a fly in the ointment was found. In the process of cultivation it turned out that apple trees require constant maintenance. And, if there is not enough time or other resources to create the necessary conditions for the variety, the harvest rapidly falls and becomes shallow in size.

In order for apples to reach full ripening, warm weather throughout the summer is imperative. In addition, if it is also rainy autumn with stable weather without sudden changes in temperature, there will be no blush on the fruit. With abundant fruiting, the taste qualities of apples are reduced.

Indignation causes and tallness of the trunk. With such a branched and tall giant, it is difficult to get winter apples, protecting them from blows and abrasions. Yes, and the tree creates a lot of shade in the yard or in the garden. It is also bad that the fruits ripen too late for harvesting, and for consumption they must lie down for another two months.

Timing and selection of a site for planting an apple tree

The Northern Synaph apple variety will develop well when planting a seedling in a well-lit, spacious area, where nothing will block its access to the sun.

Particular comfort to the tree will provide loose, breathable light soils. Sugar and black soil with neutral acidity will do. When choosing a place, it is important to consider the location of groundwater. Ideally, they should be at a distance of 2–2.5 m, otherwise the roots will begin to rot from an excess of moisture, and the tree will die.

When you have decided on a place and acquired a high-quality planting material, which is of no small importance, you can start landing.

Some gardeners prefer spring rooting of saplings, because such trees have time to adapt, grow strong, and grow strong roots and branches for winter. In this case, it is recommended to land in the last weeks of April and early May. It is important that the earth is not cold, so, given the climatic features of a particular region, wait until the ground warms up sufficiently. The relative disadvantages of spring time is the need to constantly moisten the root system. Other specialists for winter-hardy varieties prefer autumn planting, emphasizing the ability of such seedlings to strengthen roots, which is facilitated by damp autumn soil, and quickly get up to speed with the onset of heat. Such rooting is better to plan for a few weeks before the start of frost. Optimal terms are considered the beginning of October.

According to agronomists, young trees that are no more than 2 years old should be planted in the spring, and all other specimens, except the old ones, should be planted in the autumn. In case of the need to transplant 10-year-old apple trees, it is better to plan the planting for the winter time in order to injure the plant as little as possible.

Preparatory work before landing

To prepare for planting Apple should be a month. During this period, it is important to decide on the site where this variety will grow, and prepare a pit 70 cm deep and about 1 m wide.

In windy areas, it is recommended to install a peg in the middle of the groove for further attachment to it of the branches of a young tree.The base of the wood is better to burn, to prevent the appearance of rot during decomposition of the material. Then the upper ground is mixed with equal parts of humus, peat, sand and compost. The bottom of the pit is drained, then it is filled to the top with the prepared mixture. This is done to ensure that as a result of the subsequent sedimentation of the soil, the apple tree does not turn out to be in the middle of a deep funnel, where the collected water will destroy the roots. In conclusion, the pit is covered with plastic wrap and secure its edges. During 3-4 weeks a microclimate favorable for the root system of apple trees is formed there.

Do not forget a day before planting dip the roots of a seedling in a container of water. The tree should be well saturated with moisture.

Rules for planting apple seedlings

Correct planting apple seedlings Any variety is such important for the tree stages:

  1. Inspection of seedlings for rot, dried up areas and mechanical damage to the root system, as well as the presence of dry shoots. In cases of suspicious brown edges on the rhizome, they must be cut to live wood.
  2. Treating the roots of clay mash.
  3. Planting in a prepared pit with a careful straightening of the root system (the said peg should be located on the south side of the trunk, to prevent sunburn).
  4. Watering seedlings (if planting is carried out in the spring, water should be poured until the earth ceases to absorb moisture).
  5. Dusting the roots with the substrate from the top layer of the earth and carefully sticking it (the trunk should be shaken intensively several times so that the voids formed underground and the roots do not dry out).
  6. Inspection of the root collar. It should rise 4–5 cm above the ground. Deepening this place is fraught with a meager harvest of small sizes, excessive elevation is dangerous dehydration and death of the plant. It is better to pour a small mound of soil on the transition of the root to the trunk so that the water flows during irrigation and precipitation.
  7. Mulching pristvolnogo circle. It is important to retreat from the tree 15 cm, to reduce the risk of infection by pathogenic microbes formed during the decomposition of mulch.
  8. Garter branches to the installed peg (it is better to use a cloth tape for this).

Rules for seasonal care of an apple tree

Poor care for the representatives of this winter-hardy variety will affect the development of the plant and its yield. Therefore, in this case, it is of particular importance to timely watering, feeding, loosening the soil, mulching pristvolnyh circles and prevention of diseases, rodents and pests. We will understand in order, where to start gratifying the apple trees of the “Northern Synapse”.

Pollination of the apple tree

This aspect should be bothered while planting a tree, picking up the right neighbors for it. The fact is that the variety is only partially self-fertile. This means that other pollinators are needed to increase yields by about 40%. According to botanists who calculate the ratio of phlorizin in the bases of the columns of pollinated trees and pollen pollinators, a good percentage of ovary formation in cases of neighborhood with apple varieties: Slavyanka, Pomon Chinese, Antonovka ordinary, Pepin saffron.

Scientists believe that summer varieties are not effective next to winter ones, therefore, they recommend grouping trees in the garden according to this feature.

Pest and disease treatment

To prevent fungi and bacteria from attacking your apple trees, take care of the spring cleaning of the plants by removing all damaged and dead areas in the spring. In the autumn, do not forget to rake the soil, freeing from fallen leaves, where harmful insects overwinter and pathogens multiply.

In the spring before bud break, foliar disinfection of fruit trees is mandatory with copper sulphate or Skor. After flowering, the crown is treated with copper oxychloride.And when the fruits are removed from the tree, you need to spray the branches and the trunk with copper sulphate, or with a liquid solution of soap. But the best prevention is competent care.

At the first detection of signs of scab, powdery mildew or cytosporosis, treatment is carried out urgently with the use of the preparations “Khom”, “Topaz”, “Sulfur colloid”, “Strobe”.

How to conduct watering

Apple trees, regardless of the variety, need 3-5 irrigations for the entire season of development and fruiting. Weather conditions can adjust this amount, adding to the garden owners more hassle and age of trees. For the first time all the plants need to be watered before buds begin to blossom. If it is too hot outside, then young saplings up to 5 years of age should be additionally fed with moisture every week, observing the norms of water consumption (we will dwell on them below).

The rest of the fruit crops in the garden will be organized a second watering after they have faded and the ovary begins to form. Hot weather forces additional watering during the growth of greenfinches, otherwise they may stop growing and crumble. Last moistening is done 3 weeks before the fruits are removed. The stable heat in October again makes it necessary to water trees additionally in order to imbue moisture and protect it from freezing in winter.

The amount of water needed for each tree is calculated based on the age of the culture. So, for young saplings up to 1 year, the recommended rate is 20–30 liters of liquid per 1 square meter. Every year, apple trees should be added to a bucket of water until they reach 6 years. Older specimens need about 6–10 buckets of water per square meter of the wheel circle.

Fertilization

Top dressing of apple trees “Northern synapse” is determined by their vegetative periods. The plant feels an acute shortage of useful substances in the spring during an intensive build-up of shoots. It is compensated by nitrogen-containing fertilizers or a solution of nitroammofoski and ammonium nitrate. For the active development of the crown, you can water the tree with chicken manure (3 times before the formation of fruits).

The next fertilizer is carried out when the fruiting period begins, that is, the ovary is formed on the tree. You can make mineral complex substances or a mixture of 1 bucket of compost, 50 g of potassium chloride, 140 g of superphosphate, 30 g of nitroammofoski.

At the end of the summer, apple trees are fed with humus or purchased fertilizers labeled “autumn” to prepare for wintering. And also feed the frost-resistant properties of the “Northern Synapse”, processing the crown with superphosphate (30 g: 1 l of water).

To neutralize the oxidized substrate, liming is carried out at 3-4 years at the rate of 150 g of dolomite flour per 1 square meter of the garden.

Cropping and crown formation

Each pruning of apple trees involves cleaning the plants from areas affected by the disease or pests, frostbitten and old branches. This is done for a better turnover, which prevents plant diseases.

Considering the peculiarity of the “Northern Synapse” branches to develop without thickening the crown, there is no need to form it. Every spring should be sanitary trim, after disinfecting shears. Be sure to close up sections on large areas with a garden pitch. In the fall, remove weak growths, so that the tree can safely survive the winter.

Wintering apple trees

The increased resistance of the Northern Synapse variety caused gardeners to call the tree “armor-piercing” among themselves. The winter-hardiness genes grafted by breeders allow the tree to tolerate even 40-degree frosts comfortably. Therefore, the breed is popular with residents of the Central Black Earth region of the Russian Federation.

Protect from harsh winters should be only young plants that have not yet become stronger, which have not reached the fifth anniversary. For this purpose, a 20-centimeter layer of mulch pristvolny circles.

Harvesting and storage

It is time for harvesting from the Northern Synaph apple trees in October. The fruits, since they have not yet reached full-fledged ripeness, are not showered from the branches. In dry weather, they should be carefully removed with special equipment that can be easily built at home with a long stick and a piece of a plastic bottle. Apple picking starts from the lower branches, gradually rising to the top. You can not shake the barrel, allowing the stress of the fruit.

In the vault bring only whole fruit, without scratches, bumps and dents. To prevent the apples from spoiling, each should be wrapped in clean paper and carefully laid in one layer, rather than in bulk, in wooden or cardboard boxes.

At the forums, the hostesses share their experience in treating the fruit with a weak manganese solution. But experts on this matter have their own opinion: with such disinfection, apples should be wiped dry from moisture, and the protective wax deposits will be destroyed. Therefore, this method is ideal for autumn fruits.

Keep in mind that in the cellar the temperature fluctuated within 1-3 degrees of heat, and the humidity of the air did not exceed 90%. In cases where this figure is below 85%, you need to soak the wrap with vegetable oil. Provide high-quality ventilation in the room and warm the walls so that fruits and vegetables do not suffer from extreme temperature jumps in winter.

Other storage methods offer to fall asleep apples wet river sand or sawdust. You can save them in tied plastic bags.

What kind is it?

"Northern Synapse" is a late winter variety. It is adapted for such regions as Central Black Earth, Lower Volga, Middle Volga and East Siberian. Fruit ripeness begins in early October.

Harvested apples ripen two or three months in storage, picking up the taste and acquiring a beautiful look. Fruits are characterized by long-term storage and can retain their taste until the end of spring and even longer.

However, the preservation of winter varieties of apples depends on the conditions provided. It may be any suitable room with the ability to maintain a constant temperature from 0 to 1 ° C and air humidity of about 80%. Fruits peppered with shavings of deciduous trees or wrapped in paper are stored in cardboard or wooden containers.

"Northern synapse" is partially self-fertile. To increase yields It is recommended to plant it next to such apple varieties as Antonovka ordinary, Slavyanka, Saffron-Pepin, Pomon-Chinese.

Description varieties Northern Sinap

It is a strong-growing apple tree with a wide pyramidal and not too thick crown.

The photo depicts an apple tree of the Northern Synapse variety, and for a more precise designation, a detailed description of the tree is given below.

Bark on skeletal branches and trunk gray color. Brown shoots slightly articulated, slightly pubescent and covered with small rare lentils. Medium sized leaves are colored dark green. The edges of the oblong leaves are serrate-ciliated and slightly raised. Pink flowers of an apple-tree of a large size.

Fruits weighing from 90 to 150 g differ in elongated barrel-shaped form.. The peel of apples is smooth and eventually becomes oily. At the time of collection, the coloring of the fruit is greenish-yellow. Ripening in storage, apples get brownish-red barrels (blush).

White with a greenish tinge pulp of apples juicy and fine-grained. "Northern Synapse" has a sweet and sour and slightly spicy taste.

Breeding history

Sort Bred in the middle of the 20th century by the famous breeder S.I. Isaev at the Moscow Biological Station. Back in 1927, I. V. Michurin sent the scientist seeds of the variety Kandil-Kitayku to create a winter-hardy variety with apples for long-term storage.

By free pollination of the apple tree, the breeder received a new variety, which after 20 years of testing and hard work was called the “Northern Synapse”.

Natural growth region

"Northern synapse" is a winter-hardy varietyHowever, it is not recommended for cultivation in areas north of the southern borders of the Moscow region.

This is because the ripening of apples requires a lot of summer heat, which in the northern regions with a short summer may not be enough. At the same time, apples that have not yet reached the desired ripeness, and ripening in the cellar, will not be able to achieve the proper taste and correct appearance. And even two or three months of ripening in the storage will not correct the situation.

Sort recommended for Moscow, Kaluga, Smolensk, Oryol, Saratov, Bryansk, Tula, Volgograd, Oryol, Ryazan regions. In Eastern Siberia, stanzale forms of the Northern Synapse are grown, which are successfully protected from snowy and frosty winters.

Yield

"Northern synapse" is remarkable for its high yield. Only one tree gives up to 170 kg of apples.

Fruits are ready for removal in early or mid-October. Fruiting of a tree comes rather early.

The first apples appear in the fourth year, and even in the second year of life on a dwarf rootstock. With age, the apple tree quickly increases the volume of fruiting. but at too abundant yields apples shrink. This is considered a grade flaw.

Planting and care

The Northern Synaph apple tree is actively growing and is rapidly acquiring a wide crown. Therefore, it needs a well-lit and open space away from tall trees. Land for planting should be moisture-absorbing, breathable and fertile with a pH from 5.6 to 6.0. Best loamy or sandy soil.

Fruit tree does not tolerate stagnant water in the soil. If the landing site is low enough, you need to take care of good drainage. It is important that the groundwater level is at a depth of at least 2 meters from the surface of the earth.

The Northern Synapse lands in spring or autumn no later than October 20. However, the most favorable time for planting all trees and shrubs is the period from mid-September to mid-October. If the apple tree is bought before this time, you can temporarily stick it in the garden.

To plant a sapling by all the rules, you must adhere to the following algorithm of actions:

    We dig out the landing pit two weeks or even a month before the landing works. First, carefully remove the turf, and then the top layer of earth, which is the most fertile. Both layers are set aside. Next, choose from the pit another layer of earth (about 30 cm thick) and lay it in the other direction.

The optimal size of the pit is about 80 cm deep and about 1 m wide and long. The distance between vigorous representatives of the variety should be from 6 to 7 meters. Loosen a hole with a sharp shovel. We throw to the bottom of the drainage in the form of expanded clay or broken brick. Also at the bottom lay out a layer of sod vegetation down. We mix a fertile layer with rotten manure, wood ash and sheet compost, 80 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium sulfateI.

Fill the pit one third of this mixture. The rest of the pit is filled with fertile soil in such a way that a hill is formed up to 20 cm high.

  • After two or four weeks, we begin planting an apple tree. Before this, we cut off the damaged tips of the roots of the seedling and for several hours soak the entire root system in the water so that the tree is saturated with moisture.
  • We dig a hole at the site of the planting hole corresponding to the size of the roots of the seedling. We form a mound in the center. We drive a peg into it, towering 70-80 cm above the ground.
  • Set the apple tree on a mound and evenly straighten its roots. Keeping the seedling on weight, we fill the ground with voids between the roots, and then the hole itself. We place the seedling in such a way that its root neck is on 5-6 cm above ground level.
  • Lightly tamp the ground around the tree and use a loop of eight to tie it to a peg. Water the seedling using three or four buckets of water.We mulch the surface of the soil around the trunk with humus or peat.
  • The Northern Synapse, like any apple of an intense type, needs careful maintenance. In order to get excellent harvest of fruits, it is necessary to water properly, trim in time and fertilize the tree well.

    1. Watering. With the onset of warm days, it is recommended to water an apple tree at the rate of 2-3 buckets per tree at least 4 times a month. During the period of fruiting and planting flower buds, good watering is especially important. It is carried out through the grooves dug around the trunk, or by sprinkling. After watering or rain, the soil must be loosened and free from weeds.
    2. Pruning. The Northern Synaph is growing very quickly, so only with the help of pruning it is possible to restrain its growth within reasonable limits. This procedure makes fruiting regular and does not allow the fruit to become shallow. Already when planting, the branches of the apple are cut to a third.

    In the second year of life, shoots should be cut in such a way that the tree has three tiers of branches. When pruning an adult plant, it is important to ensure that it has only one main conductor. In the first years, shoots are cut off by about 40 cm, and in subsequent years - by 20 cm.

    In addition, dry, weak and broken branches are removed. Works on pruning are carried out in the spring.

  • Fertilizer. In the spring you need to feed the apple rotted manure or humus. Also, to stimulate growth and fruit formation, it is recommended to apply fertilizers containing phosphorus, boron, nitrogen and nitrate to the soil. A couple of weeks after the end of flowering, it is desirable to fertilize the apple tree with urea (0.5%), and another week with urea in combination with calcium chloride. Winter varieties of apple trees are useful every two weeks to fertilize with calcium salts.
  • Wintering. "Northern synapse" withstand the winter. Nevertheless, to protect the tree from too much frost, it is necessary to warm the near-stem circle with a sufficient layer of peat or humus. Spruce spruce branches or a special mesh will protect the trunk of an apple tree from hares and rodents.
  • Apple Sinap: variety description with photos, reviews, planting and care

    Apple trees are among the most popular fruit crops in many countries around the world. One of the famous varieties of this crop is Sinap. In the 19th century, the Crimean Sinap variety was known, which had excellent taste, but poor frost resistance.

    On its basis a large number of varieties of this variety were created, for example, Sinap Orlovsky, Northern Sinap and others. All varieties of varieties are popular and won the love of gardeners.

    Characteristic, description of varieties

    The trees at the apple tree Sinap tall, large. The height of an adult apple reaches 5 meters. When dwarf rootstock apple reaches 3 meters.

    The crown is pyramidal or acutely pyramidal, moderately dense. Skeletal branches a little, lateral shoots, on the contrary, a large number. Sprawling branches, from a trunk grow at a right angle.

    The ends of the branches rush upwards.

    Shoots are dark brown, medium thickness, cranked and pubescent.
    The branches of a young tree are painted in a grayish-cherry color. In an adult tree, the bark on the shtambe and the main branches are gray. Chechevichki white, small.

    Leaves are rarely located. They are gray-green, wide, elongated-egg-shaped. Scales are short with respect to the leaves are located at an acute angle.

    Type of fruiting in apple trees Sinap mixed. Fruits are formed on last year's shoots, thin rods, simple and complex ringworms. Foliage has a dark green or green color. They are small, wide, elongated, their lower part is heavily pubescent. The lamina along the edges is raised.

    Flowers pink, large and fragrant. Apples of medium or large size, regardless of the variety of the variety, they are tasty, juicy.

    Varieties of varieties

    The apples of Sinapa Orlovsky are larger than the fruits of Sinapa Severny

    In addition to Orlovsky and Northern Sinapa, such varieties of Sinapa are known as: Kandil, Gorny, Bogatyrsky, Belorussky, Almaty, Khakassky, Minusinsky.

    • Kandil has excellent yields. An adult apple tree gives up to 300 kilograms of apples.
    • Mountain Sinap skoroplodny. Fruit weight reaches 300 grams.
    • Bogatyrsky Sinap high-yielding. The weight of apples does not exceed 200 grams. Fruits are stored for 7 months.
    • Belarusian Sinap vigorous. Weight reaches 120 grams. Apples ripen by the end of September. When stored fruits are stored until the end of May.
    • Almaty Sinap srednerosly. The weight of apples does not exceed 150 grams. Fruit harvesting occurs in the last decade of September.
    • Khakassky Sinap in adulthood gives 50-60 kilograms. The average fruit weight is 170 grams. When ripe, they do not crumble. The shelf life of apples is 7-8 months.
    • Minusinsky Sinap srednerosly. The average weight of apples is 50 grams.

    All these varieties of Sinap apple trees have their advantages and disadvantages, but their common characteristic is excellent taste and similar characteristics.

    Sinap Orlovsky

    The Oryol Sinap was bred in 1955 during the cross-pollination of apple trees Northern Sinap and Michurin's Memory. In 1989, the apple tree was registered and zoned for the Central Black Earth, Central, Middle Volga, North-Western regions of Russia, and 6 regions of Belarus.

    For a good harvest of apple trees, a neighborhood with a pollinator is required. For its pollination, such varieties are taken: Pepin saffron, Antonovka ordinary, and Welsey.

    The first crop is harvested in 4-5 years. Apples can be removed in the third decade of September or early October.

    About 70 kilograms of apples are removed annually from 1 tree.

    Fruits are large or medium, weight 110-220 grams. The shape of the apples is rounded-conical, the ribs are obtuse, the upper part is slightly oblique. The fruit leg is small, the cup is completely closed, the apple saucer is deep. The seeds are brown. Seed chambers ajar or closed.

    The skin is smooth, glossy, oily. Under it visible noticeable whitish hypodermic points.

    When removing the fruit yellow-green, when stored, they become brighter, golden-yellow. One side is decorated with a blurry scarlet blush.

    The flesh of the fruit is juicy, tasty, light green, creamy when fully ripe. The fragrance is weak.

    The merits of the variety

    The apple trees of the “Northern Sinap” variety have indisputable advantages, which favorably distinguish them from the majority of the varieties that are zoned in central Russia.

    The main advantages of the varieties described are represented by good winter hardiness, precociousness, abundant tree yield, excellent taste qualities of ripened apples and outstanding keeping capacity of the crop harvested at the right time.

    Gardeners should be aware that the fruits of the Northern Synapse variety may be non-one-dimensional. In addition, the variety is characterized by a decrease in the commercial quality of fruits during the formation of a very abundant harvest, as well as a rather late onset of the removable ripeness of fruits.

    Close acquaintance with a variety is all that a novice gardener should know.

    In central Russia and in areas close to the north, the consumption of vitamins during the warm season plays a significant role in order to prevent colds in the winter. And the apple trees in your garden is one of the ways to provide yourself with healthy fruits, including for the future. Where the growing season is short, planting the Northern Signal will be the best option. This variety has excellent winter hardiness and high yield, which is important for gardeners. In addition, these apple trees grow very quickly, so they begin to bear fruit soon after the growth of the crown and root system.

    Variety Northern Signal

    The history of their occurrence is quite interesting. Earlier, during tsarist Russia, apples were very popular and popular. Crimean Sinap, extremely sweet, tasty, juicy, but not cold. Michurin, a well-known biologist and breeder, decided to bring a new variety with similar taste, but with high winter hardiness, for cultivation in central Russia. As a result, taking seed varieties as a basis Kandil Chinese, breeder S.I. Isaev received the Northern Sinap. Moreover, they were bred as a strong-growing, so stanantsovaya form, the latter has widely spread throughout the East-Siberian region.

    Growing to a considerable height, the trees eject to the side a large number of skeletal branches, which form a conical crown, noticeably tapering towards the top. At the same time a lot of shoots grow, which, however, do not give a particularly dense shadow due to the insignificant branching. The bark of the apple tree is Northern Signal gray, the processes are slightly articulated. Fruits that are formed from large pink flowers, as a rule, arise not only on the fruits, but also on annual shoots and spears. Leaf plates are dark green, smooth, shiny, fairly wide, but not large.

    As for the apples themselves, their size is small, and the weight on average slightly exceeds 100 grams, although it can reach 150 grams during thinning of the ovaries. The fruit is very recognizable, uneven color. They may be green with small red spots, or, conversely, gradually acquire a bright red color with small green areas. The shape is slightly elongated, tapering towards the bottom. The juiciness of the dense granular flesh is very high, there is a slightly spicy flavor mixed with sourness. Sugar content is about 11%, acidity reaches the same level. The skin is quite thin and easily digested when eating apples for food. At the same time, the fruits differ from other varieties by extremely long-term keeping quality, in particular, due to extended ripening, which continues after harvesting.

    Why is Northern Sinap so popular - its advantages and disadvantages

    Many owners of suburban areas in central Russia, as well as to the north of it, would like to harvest large yields of sweet apples, but are severely limited in the choice of varieties. In this case, the Northern Sinap in most cases leads, since it has all the properties that gardeners need. Here are a number of advantages that this apple tree possesses.

    • Early onset after planting, the onset of fruiting, in tall trees, the first crop can be harvested after 5 years, and in the elfin form - after 2 years.
    • Very rich harvests, from each adult tree that has been developing for about 15 years, if you do not overload it, you can collect about 170 kilograms of large apples.
    • The shoots ripen by autumn completely, so that they do not freeze in winter, and in general, this variety has a very high frost resistance.
    • Fruits have extremely good keeping quality, they can be stored after harvesting until June of the next year inclusive.

    Advantages of the North Signal variety

    However, the Northern Sinapa has certain disadvantages, which are not without any form derived by the breeders.

    • Tall forms grow very much, and therefore require a lot of space in the garden.
    • Fruits are spiced only by the end of September - the beginning of October, but at the same time their taste is not yet fully formed.
    • It is necessary for the apples to lie down for about 2 months so that their taste becomes saturated.
    • Trees need regular pruning, treatment from pests and diseases, without leaving, the yield drops very quickly.

    Breeding methods - expanding apple orchard

    Professionals know that any variety of apple trees, and especially northern varieties, develop strictly vegetatively, that is, by rooting cuttings or grafting eyes on a tree-stock. As the latter, it is customary to use winter-hard hybrids. In particular, since the parent form is Chinese, her two-year-old seedlings can also be used as a stock for the Northern Synapse.The latter is also suitable for crossing, moreover, on the basis of this variety, new hybrids have already been created precisely by vaccinations. These are the Orlovsky Sinap, the Moscow Late, and also the Moscow Winter.

    Since the Northern Sinap gives a rather late harvest, August is considered the ideal time for budding. It is possible and later, but only until the young bark remains sufficiently soft and elastic for incision. Approximately a week before the operation, carefully loosen the soil around the rootstocks, simultaneously cut off all the young skeletal branches. In no case can not cut the kidney directly from the tree-donor, you must first cut down the escape on the cutting. Then the leaves are cut off without stalks, and only then can a kidney be cut with a small portion of the bark, the total length of which should be about 2.5 centimeters. Budding of the apple tree is performed on the stock stem, which is previously wiped with a damp sponge before making a cut on the bark.

    In order to propagate the apple leaves, you do not need seedlings of other winter-hardy varieties. It is enough to choose the strongest process of the branches of the lower tier, directed towards the ground, clean the leaves from almost the entire length (leave them only at the end) and, bending down, press it to the ground with a bracket. Be sure to make a few small cuts in this area, which will later become the site of the roots. Next, on a pinned shoot with a top tied to a peg, pour in the soil, which you regularly moisturize in the future, until an independent root system is formed on the cuttings. After a few months, the branch is separated from the trunk and transplanted, sometimes to reduce the stress of the plant, into the pot, and only then into the soil.

    It is highly undesirable to try to root the cuttings during the flowering of the tree, because at this time all the nutrients of the apple should be directed to the ovary, and not the formation of new roots.

    Another option is reproduction by lateral processes from the maternal root system. Usually their gardeners are removed, because they greatly weaken the fruit-bearing plant, which significantly affects the yield. However, the reproduction of the dwarf form of the Northern Synapse is possible, as in many shrubs. If in the winter time to cut the trunk of an old tree, it will throw a few shoots. Next, you need to cut off the weakest, and leave 2–3, sprinkling the trunk with soil. The processes will begin to form their own root systems, and in the spring they can be carefully separated along with young roots. In this case, the mother tree will grow back, updating the skeletal branches.

    Landing the Northern Sinapa - doing everything right

    So, with the help of germinating slips or from the appendix, you received a seedling. Or maybe they purchased it in a nursery (which should definitely have good reviews so as not to buy another type of apple). In any case, landing is now ahead, and first of all, you should determine the place on your site. Preferred is an open, spacious plot, near which there should not be tall trees. Northern Sinap is self-fertile, so the neighborhood of other varieties for cross-pollination is not necessary, and even undesirable, so as not to spoil the original form. It is best to choose a site on a hill, where there is more sun during daylight hours.

    Next you need to take care of the soil. The level of its pH should be no higher than 5.8 units. It is imperative that the soil loosens well, since the aeration of its deep layers plays a significant role in the development of the root system of the Northern Synapa. In particular, soil types such as loamy and sandy loam with some admixture of organic matter, which can be replenished artificially or by planting green manure plants, are preferred. It is highly desirable that the aquifer ground layer is located not less than 2 meters from the surface of the earth.If your site is located in a valley or under it there are layers of water pipe, be sure to drain when landing. The optimum planting time is autumn, until mid-October, inclusive, or spring, starting in March, when the soil is warm enough.

    To begin with, we prepare seedlings, which must first be stored in a cool place, sprinkled with sand, under sacking or wrapped with perforated polyethylene. When the planting time is right, 2 days before it, make sure that the roots are not dried, flexible enough, without dried ends (if you notice any, you should immediately cut them off). Put the dried root ball for 2 days in warm water, and, regardless of whether it is in good condition or not, be sure to submerge the mullein with clay before placing it in the pit. The seedling itself must be 2 years old or at least 1.5 years old.

    Cooking pit, after removing the sod. Dig to a depth of more than 50 centimeters, better from 65 to 80, the width should be about 70 centimeters. The upper, fertile layer of soil is reclined to one side of the pit, and we will use it in the future. A deeper infertile soil poured in the other direction, it will be needed later. The bottom of the pit is carefully loosened to a depth of about 15-20 centimeters, then we pour the middle rubble on top, which will serve as a drainage cushion. Then we put the fertile layer to a third of the depth, adding a little organic matter to it, if necessary, and some mineral fertilizers: no more than 80 grams of superphosphate, up to 40 grams of potassium sulfate. The pit for planting is ready, the gap to the next must be at least 6 meters.

    It remains only to root a sapling, for which, as mentioned above, you need to ensure the integrity of the roots and their good condition. Next, cut off the tips of the roots and hold them for about 10 minutes in a mixture of mullein with clay, lower the underground part of the plant into the pit, but do not place it, but hold it above the bottom. Now, having installed and slightly driving in a number of a peg of 1.5 meters in length, begin to throw a root ball with infertile soil, all processes of which must be carefully distributed in the ground for free development. Try to have the seedling's neck rise no less than 6 centimeters above the ground. It remains only to pour the soil, 2 buckets to each tree, wait until the ground settles, and form a tree trunk.

    Careful care of the apple tree is a guarantee of great harvests.

    We have already said that without proper care, the yield of the Northern Sinapa falls already for the next season, and this is one of the significant drawbacks - the variety is very picky about the conditions created for it. The basis of everything is regular watering, since this form is not drought-resistant and very moisture-loving. Every week, it is necessary to pour out at least 30 buckets of water, but no more than 40, into the tree trunk circle of each adult tree so that the root system does not rot. However, there are exceptions: during the formation of buds and after the start of flowering, such abundant irrigation will only harm, therefore we recommend connecting the tree trunks with grooves and running water over them so that the soil is moistened and the excess water flows out of the garden.

    Since the Northern Sinap very poorly tolerates heat, on hot days, experienced gardeners recommend arranging irrigation of skeletal branches and stem.

    Further, periodic pruning of branches and processes is very important, since the crown of this variety grows very quickly. Shoots are thinned only in spring, while the trees are at rest, so that the cuts are tightened without stress for the bud-forming plant. Already during planting, shorten by a third all the processes on the seedling. In the next season, a two-year tree should be pruned so that 3 tiers of skeletal branches are formed, with the shortest processes being prioritized, while the rest are cut.A year later, as in the future, it is enough to shorten the shoots by 20 centimeters. And, of course, regular cutting “under the circle” of dry branches is necessary, at the same time, do not allow the branching of the top-conductor. Slices must be lubricated with garden pitch.

    Apple care

    As for fertilizers, it all depends on the soil on which the cultivated apple variety is grown, since the Northern Sinap of any form usually does not need frequent feeding. Often, it is enough to apply organic matter (humus) and a complex of mineral fertilizers into the soil to the roots each season, and in small quantities. The only exception can be made for calcium salts, if you want the fruits collected in the fall to be stored for up to six months. To do this, every 15 days, we recommend adding calcium chloride to water, bringing its concentration to 4%. It is also necessary to spray the leaves with a 1% solution (10 grams per 1 liter of water). Experienced gardeners recommend picking up apples in a 4% solution of calcium chloride and thoroughly drying the fruit before harvesting.

    The complex of mineral fertilizers for the Northern Sinap should include such elements as boron, phosphorus, and nitrogen. It is also useful that the number of components was nitrate. After half a month after flowering, it is desirable to water the trees with 5% urea solution. Repeated watering with the same supplement is done in a week, but it is recommended to add potassium chloride. Such measures will help the apple tree to more easily tolerate the frosty winter. As an additional measure, necessary for deep freezing of soil in your climate, the near-barrel circle is covered in the fall with a thick layer of peat, which will serve as insulation and foliar feeding during the rainy season. The trunk itself for the winter time is better to wrap with spruce branches to avoid damage to the bark of rodents.

    Garden protection - resistance to diseases and pests

    Unfortunately, the Northern Sinap is resistant only to severe frosts, but the usual diseases for apple trees can hit it with a high probability. So, gardeners who have long been engaged in this variety, noticed that the resistance to powdery mildew and scab in trees is average, that is, there is a vulnerability. A Germanic drug usually helps against fungal diseases. Strobedesigned for spraying. For prevention, take Nitrafen (10 grams per 300 milliliters) or a weak 1% solution of copper sulfate, which also helps from many pests.

    Pest control

    As for the damage of apple trees by insects, the greatest danger is aphid, moth, bud weevil. They help such biologics (the main advantage is the selectivity of action with the crawling of beneficial insects), such as Lepidocid, Actofit and Fitoverm. Weevil is good Metarizin. Processing should be carried out in the spring when the pests begin to wake up from hibernation. As a preventive measure, remove the affected leaves, fruits and branches, as well as remove the flaky bark, under which insects can hide for the winter.

    Description of the variety: Northern and Orlovsky Sinap

    Northern I. Sinap was obtained by S. I. Isaev at the biological station of young naturalists named after KA Timiryazev by free pollination from seeds of the variety Kandil-Kitayka in 1927. The variety grows safely in the territories of the Central Black Soil and Lower Volga regions, as well as in stanzale form in areas of Eastern Siberia. It is popular not only in private gardens, but also in industrial gardens.

    The Oryol Sinap is a direct descendant of the Northern Sinap and is not inferior to it in the yield and taste of fruits. Bred in 1955 in the All-Russian Research Institute of Breeding of Fruit Crops and the All-Union Research Institute of Horticulture. I.V. Michurin by crossing the Northern Sinap and the variety of Memory of Michurin. On state test Sinap Orlovsky was adopted in 1979, and in 1989zoned in the Central, Central Black Earth, Middle Volga and North-West regions of Russia, as well as in six regions of Belarus.

    The trees of both varieties are vigorous, large-sized varieties, with a pyramidal crown and sprawling branches, so before planting them in the summer cottage it is worth taking care of the allocation of sufficient area for the seedlings. Only in this way will the young tree grow and develop in a comfortable environment, receive the necessary amount of sunshine and bring rich harvests. The height of an adult tree reaches 5 meters, and when grown on a dwarf rootstock - 3 m.

    Despite the massiveness, the main branches of the tree are rarely located, so the crown does not become thick. This facilitates both care and subsequent harvesting.

    Shoots of dark brown, medium thickness, pubescent, cranked, with rarely located leaves. Type of fruiting mixed: on simple and complex kolchatka, twigs and annual shoots. The leaves are green or dark green, of medium size, wide, elongated, strongly pubescent. The edge of the leaf blade is raised.

    In spring, the trees become a real decoration of the garden thanks to large fragrant flowers of delicate light pink color.

    Sinap's apple tree tasting will not leave indifferent any gardener

    Apples at Sinapa Orlovsky average size, usually weigh up to 150 g During the period of removal, the color of the fruit is yellow-green, and after a short storage it becomes golden-yellow. On the sunny side, a pale pink blush may appear. The skin is dense, the surface is smooth with an oily sheen. Fruits of the same size, round shape with a sweet-sour taste and juicy fine-grained pulp..

    On the sunny side, Orlovsky Sinapa apples can be covered with a gentle uniform blush, which gives them a special decorative effect.

    The Northern Sinap does not differ in the uniformity of the shape of the fruit, their maximum weight usually does not exceed 120 g. The skin is smooth, during storage becomes oily. Coloring is yellow-green with a dark red blush. The flesh is juicy, friable, taste sweet and sour.

    At the stage of ripening, the peel of the fruits of the Northern Sinap has a yellow-green color with a one-sided brown brown blush, and after removal from the tree the fruits turn yellow

    The flesh of apples has an excellent taste due to the harmonious combination of acid and sweetness, juiciness and delicate aroma.

    Fruit maturity comes after a month of storage after harvest.

    These apples contain a lower percentage of sugars compared to, for example, Granny Smith. The total sugar content is less than 9.5%. After the final maturation in the lodge, the ratio of sugars and acids becomes more balanced and the fruits acquire a rich taste with a light acidity. Caloric content of 100 g of apples does not exceed 50 kcal.

    The apples of Sinapa Orlovsky are slightly larger than the fruits of Sinapa Severny

    Apples are very useful for the human body, as they contain a large amount of vitamins and trace elements. Late-winter varieties, which include Sinap, are especially valued, as they are stored for a long time and do not lose their properties..

    These apples are great for making jam, stewed fruit, jams. They can be baked in the oven and consumed fresh. Also, Orlovsky and Northern Sinap fruits are used to make hypoallergenic children's juices and purees.

    These apples make a delicious homemade compote.

    Advantages and disadvantages

    This variety is unpretentious in the care, so the advantages it can provide a lot more than the minuses. Among the advantages of Sinapa, it is necessary to note the precociousness, high yield, long-term storage of fruits and their excellent consumer qualities.

    The Oryol Sinap is more adapted to the Siberian frosts, while the Northern Sinap, despite the name and the stated winter hardiness, is not recommended to be subjected to low temperatures and grown in the territories of the northern regions of our country. However, stantase molding, taking into account the protection and shelter of trees from the cold, still allows you to grow the Northern Sinap and in areas of Eastern Siberia.

    Apple Sinap has an average resistance to scab, but, like many other varieties, they need timely prevention and protection from pests and diseases. The disadvantages can also be attributed to the massive size of the tree, which will be inconvenient for growing in private gardens with a small area..

    In order for apple trees to produce high-quality and regular crops, it is important to provide care, which includes pruning, watering, fertilization, treatment from pests and diseases. Then your apple orchard will delight you with tasty and healthy fruits for many years.

    The most favorable time for planting seedlings Orlovsky and Northern Sinapa is the period from mid-September to mid-October. Planting in the spring is also possible. In this case, it is carried out in the first decade of April, after the threat of return frost is completely passed.

    As the trees grow large, the distance between them should be 5–7 m.

    The depth of each landing pit must be at least 80 cm, and the length and width - at least 1 m. Pits should be prepared 2 weeks before planting. A broken brick or expanded clay is laid on the previously loosened bottom to provide the tree with good drainage. The fertile soil from the pit is mixed with rotted manure and wood ash at the rate of ¼ fertilizer on of the earth. To this mixture is added 40 g of potassium sulfate and 80 g of superphosphate. A third of the pit is filled with the resulting mixture, after which more soil is added to the center until a hill 20 cm high is formed.

    Before planting the seedling in the ground, you should carefully inspect the roots, remove dry or damaged, and then place them in water for 4–5 hours to soak up moisture.

    The seedling is placed in the hole so that the distance of the root collar to the ground is 5–6 cm. Next, they drive a peg 60–80 cm high to which the young tree should be tied. Roots should be gently straightened, covered with soil and lightly stamped. For watering on each seedling at planting takes 3-4 buckets of water.

    A seedling tied to a stake in one or two places.

    For planting seedlings suitable loamy or sandy soil with good air and moisture permeability. An important indicator will be the remoteness of planting from the flow of groundwater for at least 2 m, as apple trees do not tolerate water stasis.

    The soil for planting Orlovsky Sinapa must also contain a sufficient level of calcium in its composition, otherwise in the future its deficiency will adversely affect the taste of the fruit.

    Sinap Orlovsky and Sinap Severny are unpretentious, but require some attention. With proper care, the health of trees and fruits is preserved, and the quantity and quality of each crop increases.

    Intensive growth of these apples implies periodic pruning of the branches. In the first year after planting a branch of a young tree on the third part to be pruned. The following year, in spring, the tree is pruned so that three tiers of branches remain. In the future, trees are pruned so that only one main conductor remains.

    Branches of young trees are cut to 20–25 cm, adults - 45–50 cm. Dry and damaged branches should also be removed.

    Thanks to pruning trees regularly bear fruit, and the size of the fruit increases.

    Video: how to prune apple trees

    In spring and summer, apple trees need watering about 4–5 times a month. One young tree needs 2–3 buckets of water. After each watering or rain should loosen the soil to supply moisture to the root system.

    Watering is especially important when budding and fruiting.

    Watering is carried out in a tree trunk circle, and then loosen the soil.

    Both apple varieties should be fertilized four times a year:

    • after wintering
    • after the formation of the kidneys,
    • after flowering,
    • after harvest.

    The first fertilizer with rotted manure (500–700 g per 1 tree) is applied next spring after planting the seedling.

    After the formation of buds, 500 g of urea are poured into the tree trunk circle of each tree and the hole is dug.

    After flowering, trees are fertilized with a solution of 100 g of superphosphate, 60 g of urea and 40 g of calcium chloride per 10 liters of water. A valuable fertilizer is a mixture of 1 kg of liquid mullein or 0.5 kg of bird droppings per 10 liters of water with the addition of 40–50 g of superphosphate.

    After harvesting, superphosphate is added (30–50 g per 10 l of water).

    Radical dressings need to be made in the tree trunk circle

    Pest and disease protection

    For such common diseases as scab and powdery mildew, Sinap has a moderate resistance. The main work on the prevention of apple diseases is carried out in the fall. It is necessary to monitor the condition of the branches and the integrity of the bark of the trunk, produce pruning of dry and damaged areas and whitewashing the trunks of young apple trees with chalk, and mature ones with lime. After harvesting, it is necessary to sprinkle the crown with a 3-5% solution of copper sulfate, and in early spring before budding, Fitosporin M or 1% Bordeaux liquid.

    Fitosporin M - an environmentally safe fungicide

    In case of a lack of calcium in the soil, the Sinapa Orlovsky fruits are affected by bitter pitting. To saturate the soil during the period of ripening and ripening of fruits, it is recommended to use the liquid preparation Calbit C (6–8 ml per 10 l of water). It is necessary to spray trees in the evening, starting from the top of the crown. At the end of spraying, all leaves should be well moistened with a solution.

    Kalbit C is designed to prevent and treat many diseases of fruit trees, and it also improves the structure of fruits.

    To protect against the plant moth, apple trees are carefully sprayed with a wormwood solution (25 ml of tincture per 10 liters of water), 2 times with a break of 7 days 4-5 weeks before the harvest begins.

    Video: how to properly care for fruit trees

    Before the onset of stable frosts to protect against rodents, trees are tied with fir branches. Lapnik need to impose on the trunk with needles down. Also, it does not hurt to pile it with earth, slightly diving below the level of the soil.

    Tying trunks and low skeletal branches with fir branches will protect the apple tree from rodents and hares

    Northern Sinap partially self-fertile. To increase the yield, it is recommended to plant pollinators such as Antonovka, Pepin saffron, Slavyanka in the garden plot.

    Without pollinators, the productivity of the Northern Sinap will decrease. When self-pollinating, this apple tree provides only about 40% of the possible yield.

    For Orlovsky Sinapa, Antonovka and Welsey are the best pollinators.

    Other varieties of variety

    In addition to Orlovsky and Northern, there are other varieties of the Sinap variety, which should also be noted.

    Apples Sinap Kandil autumn ripening. Harvesting takes place at the end of August - beginning of September. Fruits weighing up to 140 g, elongated. The surface is smooth, yellow-green color with a light blush. The flesh is juicy and sweet. Trees are resistant to common diseases. In adulthood, fruitful abundant, from 200 to 300 kg per tree.

    Fruits of a grade of Sinap Kandil of an oblong and cylindrical form with a smooth surface

    Mountain Sinap is skoroplod, considered late autumn. Medium resistant to frost, rarely affected by scab. Fruit weight ranges from 180 to 300 g. The shape of the apples is round, the color of the skin is golden with a pink tint on one side. The flesh is sweet and juicy. The shelf life of the fruit is 5-6 months.

    The fruits of the Mountain Synapa have an attractive appearance and a delicate aroma.

    Heroic

    Fast-growing, frost-resistant, high-yielding version of Sinapa. Resistance to powdery mildew and scab is average. The weight of fruits is from 130 to 200 g, differ in good tastes and a trade dress. Apples are white-green with a slight blush. Harvesting is carried out in late September. Under the right conditions, apples are stored until April.

    Bogatyr Sinap apples are stored for up to 7 months and are distinguished by good transportability.

    Belorussian

    This is a vigorous, skoroplodna variety Sinap. High frost resistance, scab is rarely affected. Mature trees have a dense, wide pyramidal crown. The weight of apples is from 90 to 120 g, the skin is dense, yellowish-green with a pink blush. The flesh of the fruit is juicy, with a sour, greenish-white color. Apples ripen in late September. When stored in the refrigerator do not lose commercial quality until May - June.

    Belarusian Sinap - skoroplodny, fruitful, scab-resistant variety

    Sary Sinap (Crimean Sinap)

    Late-winter version, resistant to scab and powdery mildew. The tree is medium. Fruits are small (up to 120 g), with a smooth yellow-green skin and a pink blush. The flesh is white, juicy, with a sweet-sour taste and a dense consistency. The harvest is stored until April-May.

    Fruits of the Sary Sinap variety acquire on the sunny side an appetizing blush.

    Almaty

    Variety of Sinapa autumn ripening, resistant to scab and powdery mildew. Tree srednerosly, with dark pink flowers during flowering. Fruit weight from 110 to 150 g. The color of apples before ripening is yellow-green, and when ripening becomes dark red. The flesh is white, sweet and juicy, the texture is soft and loose. Harvesting takes place in the third decade of September.

    Fruits of Almaty Sinapa are large, oval in shape, with shiny skin

    Khakassky Sinap obtained by crossing varieties of Northern Sinap and Rossoshanskoe striped. The adult tree has a height of 4–4.5 m. The crown is narrow pyramidal, the branches are directed upwards. The weight of the harvest from one tree is 50-60 kg. The variety is resistant to frost and drought. Fruits are oval, yellow-green shade with crimson stains. The flesh is thick and sweet. The average weight of an apple is 170 g. When ripe, the apples do not crumble. In suitable conditions lie until May.

    Khakassky Sinap resistant to frost, winter drying and vypryvaniyu

    Minusinsky

    This is a mid-season autumn ripening tree. Minusinsk Sinap enters fructification for 5 year after planting. The average weight of the fruit is 40–50 g. The peel is yellow-green in color with a pink-purple blurred shade. The flesh is sweet and juicy, the texture is loose. The variety is frost resistant, scab rarely affected.

    Fruits Minusinsky Sinapa one-dimensional, yellow-green color with a blurred purple blush on the entire surface

    Synaph on a dwarf stock

    A synaph on a dwarf stock is characterized in that the height of an adult tree is a maximum of 3 m, and fruiting begins 2–3 years after planting. Due to its compact size, it takes up less space on the private plots, which makes it possible to reduce the distance between seedlings when planting up to 2 m from each other.

    The synapse on a dwarf stock bears fruit for 2-3 years after planting

    Video: Apple Gloucester / Malus Northern Sinap / Apple Trees Fouryears / APPLES Gloucester

    In pre-revolutionary times, famous apples of the Crimean Sinap were brought to the table by Russian aristocrats - a variety with excellent taste, but not frost resistant at all. I.V. Michurin set the task to bring out a variety that is not inferior to the Crimean synapa in taste and is able to withstand the frost of central Russia. The result of many years of experiments was the Northern Synapse variety, which is considered to be created by S.I. Isaev.

    Late-winter - apples ripen after 2-3 months of storage. The apple tree variety Northern Synapse is a large, tall-growing tree with a wide, tapering to the apex, crown of medium density.The apple tree has several strong skeletal branches and a large number of thin lateral shoots. The bark of the branches of the first three orders of trunk has a gray color.

    Fruiting at the Northern synapa of the mixed type - from fruit planes to skeletal growths. When grown in a nursery, the branches of seedlings are painted in cherry color with a gray tint; lentils (formed on the shoots and perform the function of gas exchange) are small, white. The leaves are shiny, dark green with a gray tinge, elongated ovate, wide. Short petioles grow at an acute angle to the leaves. The flowers are large with pink leaves.

    Apples of medium size, conical or cup-shaped, yellowish-greenish color with brown-red blush.

    On the peel visible subcutaneous specks of light color. Fruit weight from 95 to 150 grams. The taste of the Northern Synaph is sweet and sour, with a spicy aftertaste, refreshing, juicy apples. The fruit ripening period is the beginning of October and later. The variety is characterized by moderate resistance to drought and diseases such as scab and powdery mildew. It grows well in the Central Black Earth, Lower Volga, Middle Volga regions.

    Variety Northern synapse many gardeners consider the king of the Russian garden. Indeed, despite the demands for care, there are many advantages at the Northern Synapa:

    • The fruits are well preserved: until the beginning of June.
    • The apple tree begins to bear fruit on the 5th - 8th year after planting in open ground, on the dwarf rootstock - even in the second year.
    • High yield: up to 170 kg of fruit can be harvested from a fifteen-year tree.
    • Good winter hardiness.

    The disadvantages of the variety include the following:

    • For a good ripening apples need a very warm summer. For the appearance of a beautiful blush by the warm summer, autumn should also be with night and daytime temperatures.
    • Unripe apples are not recommended to be harvested: their tastes are worse and they are poorly stored.
    • Northern synapse requires constant care, otherwise the yield drops, the fruits become shallow, their taste deteriorates.
    • Trees are large.
    • In especially fruitful years, the quality of the fruit is reduced.
    • Late period of fruit ripening.
    • After harvesting, apples must lie down for 2-3 months to gain flavor.

    The northern synapse loves a large amount of light and space, so it should be planted in open areas away from tall, large trees. Breathable loamy and super-sandy soils with an acidity level of pH 5.6 - 6.0 are well suited for apple trees. Groundwater should lie at least two meters from the ground surface. If the groundwater is close to the roots, the apple tree may die.

    Northern synapse planted in September or October or in the spring.

    15-30 days before landing you need to prepare the landing hole:

    • The width of the pit - 80 cm, depth - 100 cm.
    • Remove the sod.
    • Remove the humus layer - put aside.
    • Remove the infertile reservoir - put aside.
    • Loosen the bottom of the pit.
    • At the bottom lay drainage.
    • Lay a layer of sod up roots.
    • Mix the humus layer with ash, rotted manure, compost and mineral fertilizers (potassium sulfate - 40 grams, superphosphate - 80 grams).
    • Fill the pit with the resulting mixture by 30%.
    • Add the remaining fertile layer so that a mound of 20 centimeters is formed.

    When you perform simple recommendations on the technology of planting seedlings, the apple Northern Synaph will take root well:

    1. Cut off the damaged ends of the roots of the seedling.
    2. Soak the roots in water for two or three hours, if the roots are very dry, soak for 24 hours in water.
    3. Dig a hole in the hole, the size of the corresponding root system of an apple tree.
    4. To form a small mound in the hole.
    5. Drive a peg 80 centimeters high above the ground.
    6. Install an apple tree on a hillock on the north side of the peg so that the root neck rises 6 centimeters above the ground.
    7. Straighten the roots.
    8. Cover roots with soil, slightly compacting the soil.
    9. Snap a tree to a peg with a cloth.
    10. Water with water until the water goes into the soil.
    11. Ground around the apple tree to humus humus or peat.
    12. The optimal scheme of planting the Northern Synaph apple variety is 7 x 7 m.

    Apple Northern synapse requires regular maintenance. For a good harvest you need to follow the rules of pruning, watering and feeding. It is necessary to water the Northern synapse once a week, 30-40 liters per tree. During the formation of the kidneys and the ripening of fruits, sufficient watering is extremely important. You can dig grooves around the tree and water it through them. In hot weather for an apple is recommended to arrange a shower. Wet soil needs to be loosened and weeds removed.

    The apple tree Northern Synaph is a fast-growing tree, therefore, in order to get a good harvest, it is necessary to carry out the trimming procedure in a timely manner:

    • Pruning done in the spring.
    • Since the Northern synapse is a late variety, the first pruning is carried out during planting - the shoots should be shortened by a third.
    • In the two-year-old Northern synapse pruning is done so that 3 tiers of shoots remain. At each tier you need to choose the strongest shoots, remove the rest.
    • In the first year, the shoots are cut to about 40 centimeters, then to 20 centimeters.
    • Be sure to remove the dry, weak and diseased shoots and monitor then that the apple tree had one guide. In order to avoid the disease of the tree, handle the cutting sites.

    If the apple tree Northern synapse is grown on fertile soil, it practically does not require additional feeding: it is enough to apply humus and mineral fertilizers once a season, containing in their composition nitrate, nitrogen, phosphorus, boron. To protect against frost, 14 days after flowering, add a 5% urea solution to the soil, and again after seven days, add potassium chloride.

    In order to keep the harvest longer, the Northern Synaph should be regularly fed with calcium salts throughout the season with a gap of half a month.

    Although the Northern Synaph is a frost-resistant variety, the protection does not interfere: for the winter, warm the near-stem circle with a layer of peat and humus. This will help avoid soil freezing. Wrapping a tree with spruce branches will help scare off rodents.

    Apple Northern synapse is characterized by moderate resistance to diseases and pests. Therefore, it is important to carry out prevention in order to prevent damage by insects and fungi:

    • In the spring, remove all weak, dry and diseased shoots.
    • The cut areas must be treated with special means (for example, garden bar).
    • Carry out the treatment of wood and the stalk zone with pest preparations.

    Most of the fungal diseases of fruit trees can be successfully cured with the use of the drug Strobe, which is used in combination with other means.

    Winter Apple Varieties: Description (video)

    Features of the chemical composition of the fruit "Northern Synapse":

    • sugar content does not exceed 11%,
    • dry matter content reaches 16%
    • the content of ascorbic acid is 11 milligrams per 100 grams of apples,
    • the content of P-active substances slightly exceeds 100 milligrams per 100 grams of apples.

    Flowering and pollination

    Bloom Northern Sinap begins in June. Flowering period is about a week. Flowering - friendly. Flowers bloom almost simultaneously.

    The variety is partially self-propelled, therefore, it requires pollinators, which are:

    • Antonovka,
    • Pepin Saffron,
    • Pomon-Kitayka,
    • Slav.

    History of origin

    In pre-revolutionary Russia, apples were very much appreciated. And if the aristocratic nobility loved to indulge in Antonovka until January, and later ordered Sinap apples from the southern regions of Russia, then later they had to wait for the fruit of the new crop.

    The Crimean Sinap did not take root in the middle lane of our country, and in order to get a variety that was as good as its qualities, I. V. Michurin took up the breeding of a type of fruit crop that could withstand the harsh winter cold.

    He crossed Sinap Kandil with Kitayka and received the cherished seeds, which later fell to S.I. Isaev, who, based on the development of the great breeder, created the North Sinap variety, thereby fulfilling Michurin’s cherished dream.

    Mountain Sinap

    Bred in 1990 in Altai. This species of apple trees was created specifically for growing in Western Siberia. It is frost-resistant, high-yielding and resistant to diseases.

    Apples - large (170 - 300 g), have a rounded flat shape. Color - yellow-green, when stored becomes rich yellow. Tastes are excellent. Stored until April.

    The fruits ripen in September.

    The origin of this variety goes deep in history. No one can say for sure where Sinap Kandil comes from. It was from it that the Northern Sinap was created by Michurin and Isaev.

    Sinap Kandil - very productive. With one tree with good care, they collect from 200 kg of apples. The fruits have a unique elongated shape and excellent taste. They ripen in August, and harvests are harvested in September. Apples are stored until January.

    Sinap Kandil has good resistance to morbidity, but does not tolerate the winter cold. It grows in the Crimea and Krasnodar Territory.

    No flaws will prevent apple lovers from tasting delicious and healthy fruits almost to the new crop. Northern Sinap worthily passed all the tests and firmly settled in the difficult hearts of gardeners and gardeners, forever winning their trust.

    Watch the video: How To Grow An Apple Tree From SEED to FRUIT ! In 3 YEARS!! (March 2020).