Japanese quince (or henomeles) is a heat-loving plant that grows well in areas with mild climatic conditions.
In the northern regions, if the culture tolerates a cold winter (below -30 ºС), buds and shoots froze over the snow, and quince does not give a lush color.
In the spring may bloom that part of the bush, which was hidden under the snow cover.
Japanese quince: choice of variety and care
Chaenomeles is the object of close attention of breeders, thanks to which numerous varieties and hybrids were bred. Plant cultivation is aimed primarily at obtaining high-quality and abundant harvest. Previously, Japanese quince met quite often. Today, growing plants is becoming increasingly popular, so seedlings are on sale everywhere.
The genus of the Japanese quince combines three natural species and several interspecific hybrids. On the basis of this, various fruit and ornamental varieties have been developed, which differ in the size of shrubs and fruits, the shape of flowers, etc.
In total, there are over 500 varieties of henomeles, however, due to the low frost resistance in Russia only of them have taken root.
The following species and varieties are most adapted to Russian environmental conditions:
• Quince ordinary
This is the most common type. It is divided into five subgroups, which differ in the shape of the fruit and other biological characteristics. This species includes ornamental shrubs (marble quince and pyramidal).
Among garden crops emit a quince pear-shaped, Portuguese and apple-shaped. The fruits of the first two resemble a pear shape, the last - closer to the apple.
• Quince decorative
Decorative quince has a high level of drought resistance. At the same time, it tolerates Russian winters well and is not demanding on the composition of the soil. Shrubs grow well in conditions of high gas pollution and dust.
The plant easily tolerates crown formation and pruning; this can be done before winter. Shrub blooms for almost a month. In the fall, quince leaves acquire a rich red color; the shrub is decorated with bright yellow fruits.
• Garden quince
The plant is grown as a fruit, it combines about four hundred varieties. In Russia, only forty of them are adapted for winter. The difference between them is in the degree of frost resistance, yield and resistance to diseases. Differ and taste of the fruit, as well as the duration of their size and shelf life.
• Pear Quince
Depending on the time of ripening, they emit early, middle and late quinces. Fruits are pear-shaped and apple-shaped. The latter ripen faster, but pear quince is considered more juicy and sweet.
• Quince low
This variety tolerates cold winters well and bears fruit early. The tree does not exceed one meter in height, has sharp leaves and bright orange-red flowers. The flesh of the fruit is dense, the fruits themselves are small in size, but fragrant and tasty.
• Quince high
In Russia, it is planted only in the southern regions, because the frost resistance of the plant is low. Includes many varieties of different colors. Pink varieties include Diana, Pink Queen, red - Port Eliot, white - Snow.
Planting Japanese quince, care
Quince likes well-lit, sunny areas. In shady terrain, it grows poorly, resulting in poor flowering. Despite the fact that it is a drought-resistant plant, at a young age and after planting, it needs a sufficient amount of moisture. But excessive soil moisture should not be tolerated.
All species of quince grow well on sandy, loamy and soddy soils enriched with humus with non-acidic medium. Peat soil is worse. Planting in an alkaline environment threatens to chlorosis foliage.
When choosing a place, preference should be given to the south side of the building, protected from wind and frost. If the site is located on a hill, it is better to choose the southern or south-western slope.
Under the spring planting land to cook in the autumn. The weeds are completely pulled out, the plot is kept in a loose and cleaned state until the planting itself.
Sand and leaf earth are added to poor and heavy soil (proportions 1 to 2). In addition, the soil is enriched with peat-compost (10 kg / m2), as well as phosphate and potash fertilizers (about 45 g / m2). These components are introduced to a depth of 15 cm, which contributes to the formation of a loose and breathable soil surface.
Plants with open roots are best planted in the spring - after the soil has been frozen and before budding begins. Planting in the fall is less favorable because the bushes are thermophilic and may die without adopting.
Two-year-old shrubs transplanted from a container root well. For single specimens at the age of four to five years, they dig a hole up to half a meter in diameter and up to 0.8 m in depth. It is filled with humus (two buckets) with the addition of superphosphate (300 g), potassium nitrate (30 g) and ash (0.5 kg).
Shrubs can be planted in small groups along the edges of the garden path, forming a hedge. The distance between the trees in a row should be at least half a meter, between bushes in a group - about a meter.
During planting root collar is placed at ground level. Roots can not be bare - it is a sign of improper planting when the root neck is located above ground level. It is not necessary to deepen the root neck strongly - it slows down the growth of the plant.
Japanese quince does not like transplantation, so once again it does not need to disturb her. It is important to initially find a suitable place for permanent cultivation and plant it there as soon as possible. Quince can grow in one place up to 60 years.
Care for Japanese quince: features
To make the plant bloom better in the summer, the soil around the bushes should be loosened by 9-10 cm. Loosening is usually combined with weeding. Good results are obtained by mulching the soil: mulch is poured in a layer up to 5 cm in thickness. For these purposes, suitable peat, pine nuts, sawdust, chopped bark.
The optimal time for mulching is May, when the earth is sufficiently moistened and heated. In the autumn, mulching is carried out after a time of steady frosts. The area of mulch covering corresponds to the plant crown projection or exceeds it by 15-20 cm.
To protect the quince from frost, in the late autumn it is sprinkled with fallen leaves or covered with spruce branches. This is required both for young and adult plants, especially for the blooming varieties. Young saplings and cuttings are covered with protective material (for example, spunbond). For low shrubs fit wooden boxes cardboard boxes.
Care for Japanese quince: dressing
The application of top dressing favorably affects flowering and yield. It is carried out three times per season. In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied, a mullein infusion or scatter up to 12 g of urea per 1 m2. The following dressing is carried out after flowering and the last time - after harvesting. Potash and phosphate fertilizers are applied in the second and third times: 15 g of potassium chloride and 15 g of superphosphate per m2.
In the first year after planting, a liquid top dressing is not introduced, so as not to burn the root system. Organic and mineral fertilizers are used 2-3 years after planting. In the summer, a liquid feed in the form of ammonium nitrate (up to 20 g per shrub) and bird droppings (three liters of a 10% solution) are useful.
Care for Japanese quince: diseases and pests
One of the prerequisites for the care of the Japanese quince is pest and disease control.
Japanese quince is practically not affected by pests. When the weather is damp, wet and cool, optimal conditions are created for the appearance of various stains on the foliage and fruits. Sometimes necrosis develops. Fungal disease leads to deformation and drying of the leaves.
Another disease is ramulariasis. With him, the plant is covered with brown spots. When chalcosporosis occurs brown spots, which eventually become pale.
The most effective way to control pests and diseases is spraying. To do this, use a 0.2% solution of fundosol or copper-soap liquid (100 g of copper sulphate per ten liters of water). Spraying is carried out before foliage deployment.
You can also use onion bulb infusion: 350 g of scales (or 200 g of husk) are kept for ten days in ten liters of water. Filtered infusion is used throughout the summer with a frequency of five days.
Planting and care of henomeles (in short)
- Bloom: profuse, in May-June for three weeks.
- Landing: in the spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, during the leaf fall.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: humus-rich, light - sandy, loamy or sod-podzolic, slightly acidic - pH 6.5.
- Watering: after planting - frequent and abundant, especially in a dry time. Further regular, but moderate.
- Top dressing: after planting, fertilizing will be needed only one year later: in the spring, a compost bucket, 100 g of potash fertilizer and 300 g of superphosphate are applied to the tree trunk. In summer, quince is fertilized with ammonium nitrate or mullein.
- Trimming: Sanitary cleaning and formative pruning is carried out in early spring, until sap flow begins. When the bush reaches the age of eight, carry out its rejuvenating pruning.
- Reproduction: seeds, root suckers, grafting and cuttings.
- Pests: shchitovki and spider mites.
- Diseases: cytosporosis and ramulariasis.
Japanese quince (henomeles) - description
Japanese quince henomeles is a densely leafy shrub up to 3 m high with a dense crown of the same diameter. Young shoots of plants are green, scaly-felt, then they become bare and black-brown. The leaves of the Japanese quince are spatulate or obovate, narrowed to the base, with obtuse serrated edges, 3 to 5 cm long and 2 to 3 cm wide. At a young age they are bronze, but the adult leaves are dark green. Pink, scarlet-red or orange flowers with a diameter up to 5 cm are collected on 2-6 pieces in corymbose inflorescences. Rounded forms of yellow-green edible fruits of Japanese quince with a diameter of up to 6 cm ripen by mid-autumn.
In the culture of the plant since 1874. Japanese quince bush grows very slowly. The plant is distinguished by its thermophilicity, but despite this it can withstand temperatures down to -30 ºC, although at this temperature it will freeze annual shoots and flower buds that turn out to be above the level of snow. Therefore, Japanese quince in Siberia may not bloom as luxuriously as the Japanese quince in the Moscow region or the Japanese quince in the Urals. However, this crop is grown even in places with a harsh climate.
When to plant a Japanese quince in the ground.
Planting Japanese quince and care for it follows the general rules of growing garden bushes. In open ground it is better to plant henomeles in spring, before sap flow begins. Autumn planting is also possible; however, it is less desirable, since the thermophilous henomeles may not have time to settle down in a new place before the start of frost. The best planting material is two-year-old seedlings of the Japanese quince with a closed root system, which are watered abundantly before planting. For seedlings with an open root system, you should carefully examine the roots, if necessary, soak them for several hours in water, and then remove the rotten, dry and damaged roots.
How to plant a Japanese quince in the garden.
Chaenomeles are planted in well-lit areas, because in the shade it develops worse and does not bloom so abundantly. The soil of the plant prefers rich in humus, but light - sod-podzolic, loamy or sandy loam with a slightly acidic reaction (pH 6.5). Japanese quince tolerates peat soils worse. It is advisable to allocate for it a place protected from winds and drafts from the south or south-west side of the house. Keep in mind that the Japanese quince tolerates the transplant very poorly, and it will grow 50-60 years at the place of your choice.
The soil for spring planting should be prepared in the fall: clean from weeds, dig with the addition of leaf earth and sand. Perekhovanny compost is also used for digging at the rate of 10 kg per m² and 40 g of phosphate and potash fertilizers per the same area unit. For a single planting, they dig a hole 50 cm in diameter and 50-80 cm deep, and also prepare a soil mixture by adding 1-2 buckets of humus, 500 g of ash, 300 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium nitrate to the fertile soil from the upper layer that was excavated. . In a group planting, plants are placed at a distance of 80-150 cm from each other, and when planting a hedge there is a sufficient interval of 50-60 cm. If you intend to get a harvest of fruits by autumn, then plant 2-3 different varieties nearby. One bush of the Japanese quince gives an average of about 2 kg of fruit, but there are also fruitful years when you can collect up to 5 kg from one plant.
On the day of planting, a mound of soil mixture is poured into the center of the pit and a seedling is placed on it in such a way that the root collar is flush with the surface. The remaining space of the pit filled with fertile soil mixture. After planting, the surface is compacted and watered abundantly. The shoots of the seedlings are shortened to 15-20 cm.
Cultivation conditions of Japanese quince.
Growing and caring for the Japanese quince is unlikely to seem like a daunting task. During the first time after planting, the quince needs regular watering, this is especially important in a dry season. After watering, the soil around the plant is carefully loosened to a depth of 8-10 cm. At the same time, weeds should be removed. To keep the moisture in the soil as long as possible, the stem of a Japanese quince the size of a crown projection is mulched with a layer of peat, pine nut shells, crushed bark or sawdust 3-5 cm thick.
Once you have planted fertilizer when planting in a hole, the plant will not need them for at least a year. From the second or third year of life, the Japanese quince in spring is fed with mineral and organic fertilizers: put a compost bucket, 300 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potash fertilizer in the trunk circle of each bush. During the summer, liquid fertilizing with a solution of ammonium nitrate (20 g of fertilizer per bush) or mullein (3 l of a 10% solution for each plant) will not become superfluous.
In late autumn you need to prepare a Japanese quince for winter. Pristvolny circle securely cover with a thick layer of dry foliage or fir spruce branches. Saplings or rooted cuttings are covered with spanbond or lutrasil, and low-growing compact bushes are covered with wooden boxes or cardboard boxes.
Diseases of the Japanese quince and pests.
The Japanese quince is ill in exceptional cases, when there is practically no care of it or under the influence of natural disasters, for example, in cool rainy weather, which provokes the activity of fungal infections, the development of necrosis and spotting. At this time, the plant can infect cytosporosis or Ramularia: the leaves of the plant turn brown, dry, the color of the henomeles bark changes. Copper-based antifungal chemicals should be used to combat these diseases, but before treatment, the diseased branches and shoots must be removed and burned.
Of pests for quinces of the Japanese danger are scale insects and spider mites, whose appearance is easier to prevent than to get rid of them for a long time.The first prophylactic spraying with an acaricidal drug (Aktar, Aktellik, Karbofos and the like) is carried out before bud break, and then re-treatment may not be necessary.
Pruning of Japanese Quince
Pruning shrub Japanese quince shrubs well, and this makes it a valuable plant for ornamental gardening. In order not to get hurt, cut in thick garden gloves.
In the spring, they carry out sanitary cleaning of the shrub: they remove frozen, dry, damaged and improperly growing shoots in winter. Places slices thicker than 7 mm are treated with garden pitch. Formative pruning is also carried out in spring, before sap flow begins, but they begin to form the plant crown at the age of 4-5 years old: so that the bush does not grow in breadth and thickens, a part of the root shoots are cut out annually, leaving only 2-3 young saplings. The most valuable shoots are considered to be located horizontally at a height of 20-40 cm from the ground. Vertically growing or creeping along the ground shoots to be removed.
When the bush reaches eight-ten years of age and the annual growth of shoots will decrease to 10 cm, it is necessary to carry out rejuvenating pruning. First, the bush is thinned, leaving only 10-15 strong shoots. Since the main fruiting occurs on three-four-year branches, you need to gradually cut the branches, which turned five or more years old, replacing them with young shoots from the root shoots.
Reproduction of Japanese quince root suckers.
Chaenomeles gives abundant root shoots, due to which the bush gradually grows wide and at about twenty years old occupies an area of about 2 m². It is possible to dig out and plant root scions with a length of 10–15 cm and a thickness of about 5 mm with well developed roots. One plant can give 5-6 such siblings. The planted seedlings are regularly watered, mulching the surface of the soil around the offsprings with shavings, chips, or humus. The disadvantage of this breeding method is that the offspring that grows from the taproot root is still underdeveloped, and they have to be grown.
Reproduction of Japanese quince seeds.
The generative method of breeding henomeles is the most reliable. Fresh seeds of the Japanese quince, which germinate about 80%, are sown in the ground before winter, and in spring they give amicable shoots. Biennial seedlings form long taproot roots, so their permanent place should be planted as early as possible.
If you could not sow the seeds before winter, put them on a stratification in the refrigerator, where they will be in a bag of wet sand for 2-3 months. In the spring, as soon as they naklyutsya, they can be sown in the ground.
Reproduction of Japanese quince cuttings.
The advantage of breeding quince Japanese cuttings that this method retains the varietal properties of the plant. Green cuttings are cut in dry hot weather in early June. Each cutting must have 1-2 internodes, and on the lower cut - heel (last year’s piece of wood) up to 1 cm long. For successful rooting of the cuttings it is necessary to use growth stimulants - indolylbutyric acid or Kornevin. The cuttings are immersed in the bottom cut of the substrate, consisting of three parts of sand and one part of peat, at an angle of 45 º according to the scheme of 7x5 cm and kept under a transparent cap at a temperature of 20-25 ºС. The roots of the cuttings grow in 35-40 days, then the cuttings are planted in a permanent place.
Description of ornamental shrubs, use in landscape design
Japanese quince - undersized ornamental shrub. She will decorate any garden in springwhen a lot of huge (for its small growth) orange-red flowers with a diameter up to 4 cm, with which all the branches are covered, are blooming on it.
In the summer, the plant attracts the eye with its glossy foliage with flowing fruits. In the autumn it is covered with small yellow fruits.resembling small apples.
May shrub bloom and, due to the uneven opening of the buds, bright blooms stretch for 2-3 weeks.
Spirea, forsythia and magonia will be her worthy partners in garden compositions.
Quince has the ability to grow in breadth due to abundant root shoots, and this is its quality very often used to strengthen the slopes (it holds the soil).
With shrubs need to be careful, as in some varieties there are sharp spines.
Henomeles (Japanese quince) due to its frost tolerance (it can withstand temperatures as cold as -25 ° C) suitable for cultivation in the Moscow region. When frosts below - 30 ° C can freeze the kidneys, but the bush does not die.
With proper cultivation, shrubs grow to 40 years.
Japanese quince, or henomeles:
Planting and maintenance
Quince is not demanding for growing conditions, but there are several conditions that must be considered when planting a seedling:
- the planting place should be sunny, because in shading the shrub grows and blooms poorly,
- in order to avoid freezing of bushes in harsh winters, landings should be carried out in places protected from northern winds,
- soil acidity should not exceed 6.5pH (slightly acid),
- having a taproot deep in the soil, the plant transports from place to place poorly, we plant immediately and forever,
- the distance between the bushes is 1–1.5 m, while the formation of a hedge is 0.8–1 m.
- in the excavated planting pit (60 * 60 * 50cm) we pour out about a bucket of humus with wood ash added in it (0.5 kg) and superphosphate (0.3 kg), mix it with a spade with a small amount of earth,
- we have a seedling in the hole in such a way that the root neck is at the level of the soil,
- we fall asleep the roots of the plant with earth and water well,
- the soil around the bushes is desirable to mulch (sawdust, chopped wood bark, peat).
Further care of the young seedling consists in watering.However, soil overmoistening cannot be allowed to avoid rotting of the roots, regular loosening of the soil around the bushes.
Since during the landing all the necessary batteries were introduced, no need to feed the plant for two years after planting.
Adult plants in the spring, after the snow melts, feed about 20 g of ammonium nitrate per bush. In the summer they give liquid fertilizing with organic matter (diluted mullein or bird droppings). In the autumn make superphosphate.
To do this, you can use a spruce fir branches or cover small plants with a covering material (spandbond or lutrasil) and put wooden or plastic boxes on top and sprinkle them with the fallen leaves.
Fruiting quinces annual, starting from the third year after planting.
Henomeles plant cross-pollinatedtherefore, for better pollination and higher yields, 2-3 shrubs should be planted nearby.
Features landing chaenomeles:
Japanese Quince Breeding Methods for Transplanting
There are several ways of breeding Japanese quince.
Due to the fact that during seed reproduction, varietal qualities are not preserved, it is used in the cultivation of rootstocks with further re-grafting.
Seeds collected from fruits are stored in wet sand at a temperature of about 0 ° C all winter (so they undergo stratification).
Seeds are sown in planting tanks in February - March, after 1.5 months they are swooping into separate containers and in late May and early June, seedlings are ready for planting in open ground.
Until the autumn, conduct regular watering and fertilizing., for the winter, the seedlings are still not completely cured and insulated with fallen leaves.
Germination of such seeds is excellentsince they have undergone natural stratification, in spring the dense shoots need to be thinned out, leaving the strongest ones. By autumn, seedlings are ready for transplanting to a permanent place of growth.
It is best to collect the seeds in the fall and immediately plant in the beds, covered with polyethylene
Green cutting is carried out in early June.. Annual cuttings with a “heel” (a piece of last year's wood) are cut. Sections are processed "Kornevina" for better rooting and planted in shkalku tilted.
To maintain moisture cover planting plastic wrap. By autumn, seedlings are ready for transplanting to a permanent place, but it is better to do this in spring.
You can cut up the ripe cuttings in the fall, prikopat under the bush at a depth of 20-30 cm, be sure to mark the place.
During the winter, callus forms at the ends of the cuttings, and since the onset of spring, the cuttings are planted immediately to a permanent place.
In quince often creeping shoots grow, prikopat that you can get seedlings for later reproduction.
You can bend down and prikopat horizontal layers of Japanese quince
Henomeles pruning rules
The shrub tolerates pruning very well, but most gardeners do not make it in vain because of the thorniness of the plant. Quince pruning needed to improve the growth and shaping of the crown for decorative purposes.
There are three types of pruning:
- Sanitary - dry, frozen and broken branches are removed in early spring.
- Formative - it begins to do from the age of 4, when the branches begin to branch. Shoots growing inside the bush and thickening it are cut, remove excess root shoots, leaving no more than 2-3 young shoots per year to avoid a strong expansion of the bush in breadth. Creeping shoots are also removed, they take food on themselves and thicken the bush.
- Rejuvenating - it is produced from the age of 8 when the annual growth becomes less than 10 cm. Thin and elongated shoots are removed, leaving the strongest 10-12 in the bush. When thinning, you need to remember that the most productive shoots are 3-4 years old, older branches should be removed.
In order to avoid the penetration of diseases into the plant, all cuts should be treated with garden pitch.
Aive pruning is necessary to improve the growth and shaping of the crown for decorative purposes.
Pests and diseases
Chaenomeles is not damaged by pests and is highly resistant to diseases, but in a cool and rainy summer, diseases such as are possible:
- leaf necrosis - the appearance of a gray plaque on the edge of the leaf with a further spread over the entire surface of the leaf, the leaves dry up
- cercosporiosis - manifested as dark brown round spots lightening with time,
- ramulariasis - the formation of brown spots on the leaves.
Varieties for cultivation in the Moscow region
In central Russia, stunted varieties are grown to a height of 1 m, with arcuate branches and spreading crown.
Of the domestic varieties the most common are:
- Fragrant - shrub up to 1.2 m, winter-hardy, fruit weight 50-60 g, with a pleasant aroma,
- Nikitskaya - early ripening, medium growth, winter-hardy,
- Vitamin - winter-hardy, compact bush, bright yellow fruits weighing up to 100g,
- Muscat - large-fruited variety (fruits up to 200 g), self-pollinating, winter-hardy,
- Teplovskaya - variety of late ripening and long storage of fruits.
The most famous foreign varieties:
- Gayardi - variety with large orange flowers,
- Malardi - magnificent pink flowers with a white border,
- Papel - An interesting variety with yellow flowers and pink border around the edge of the petal.
Harvesting in the fall, fruit storage
Quince fruits are small, firm and sour in taste, but very fragrant. and with a high content of vitamin C. They are collected in September - October, before the onset of frost.
They are stored at air temperature of 1-2 ° С for 2-3 months. As a result of maturation, they become softer, sweet flavor increases.
Another of the fruits of henomelis prepare jams, jams, added to stewed fruit.Due to their high iron content, chopped fruits darken rapidly.
Japanese quince. Northern lemon:
Features and description of the shrub
The shrub of Japanese quince or henomeles is decorative throughout the year. In the spring, bright orange flowers fragrant in the garden, beautiful glossy leaves shade the surrounding plants in the summer, yellow fruits stand out in the fall, and in winter its branches create a peculiar cascade of snow-covered falling shoots.
Chaenomeles is a heat-loving plant, therefore it feels better in the southern regions. In cold areas in snowless winters can partially or completely freeze.
To plant a Japanese quince should be in a sunny place. In a shady place, it grows well, but it blooms very little. Under normal conditions, the life span of a plant is 50-60 years.
Attention! Bushes chaenomeles poorly tolerate transplant. Therefore, it is better to immediately plant the plant in a permanent place.
- The shoots are thin, drooping, occasionally covered with prickles.
- The width of an adult, overgrown shrubs can reach 1.5 m.
- The flowers, depending on the variety, are white, red, pink, orange, rather large (2-3 cm in diameter), with a delicate aroma. Almost completely cover shoots in early May.
- The fruits look like small apples (diameter 2-5 cm). At first they are green, at the time of ripening turn yellow.
- The aroma of the fruit is strong, pleasant.
- The taste is sour, tart. The flesh is very dense.
- Boll takes a significant part of the fruit. Divided by partitions into 4 parts.
- Sunflower seeds are dark brown. Very similar to the apple.
How to propagate the chaenomeles by cuttings
The advantage of this method is the complete preservation of the varietal qualities of quince. Cuttings prepared in early summer. To do this, use strong shoots and cut them into areas with two or three internodes. The cut parts are immersed for a day in a solution of root growth stimulator. The second option - the lower cut dipped in powder of the same root.
The prepared material is tilted planted in boxes filled with a mixture of sand and peat (3: 1, respectively). Above arrange greenhouse made of transparent material (polyethylene, glass, etc.). After the germination of cuttings, which will indicate the appearance of new leaves, shelter removed.
At the beginning of autumn, strong and well-established plants can be planted in the garden.
The advantages of this quince breeding method are obvious:
- ease of implementation,
- high productivity - seed germination 85%,
Seeds taken from fully ripened fruits are sown in the late fall in the grooves at the planned location. The next spring appear shoots. By the summer young plants can be planted in a suitable place in the garden.
Japanese quince can be sown in spring, in early March, but it will be more troublesome.
- Seeds are soaked in water for swelling for 24 hours.
- Stratified in the refrigerator for a week.
- Sow one by one in prepared containers.
- In late summer, young plants are planted in the garden.
- In winter, planting is covered with leaves or spruce branches.
How to propagate by layering
In the spring, the long fallen shoots pin down to the ground and sprinkled with earth. During the summer, these places are often watered and additionally spud. The following spring, plants germinated in this way can be sown. To do this, they are cut off from the parent bush with a shovel or garden shears.
In the prepared hole, corresponding to the size of the roots, fall asleep soil mixed with humus and mineral fertilizers. Immerse the seedling, straighten the roots and gently sprinkle them on the ground. Condense and water. In the future, take care of other garden plants.
Is it possible to divide the bush
Actually the bush itself can not be separated, but the henomeles tend to germination of root shoots. Due to this, the bush is spreading. From one quince can be planted about 5-6 shoots. Choose the strongest seedlings and separate them from the bush.
Council It is best to plant root shoots in spring.In the warm season, they take root in a new place.
Despite the simplicity, the method has significant drawbacks:
- Many offspring poorly developed root system, which does not allow them to quickly take root.
- At the first crops on the bushes grown by this method, the fruits are smaller than usual.
Japanese quince is a universal plant. It is good both in single landings, and in group, and as a low hedge. Unusually aromatic jams and compotes are prepared from its fruits, they are used as aromatic additives of hot drinks and as a seasoning for meat dishes. Given all the advantages, in the garden it is desirable to breed more than one bush. And multiply the shrub under the force of any, even an inexperienced gardener.
Reproduction of henomelis inoculation.
Japanese quince is grafted in May by an improved copulation method. As a graft, a varietal stalk is taken, and a seedling of the main species or other rosaceous crops is used as a stock. The eye is inoculated in July-August, during the second sap flow: with a sharp knife from the middle part of the varietal shoot, a kidney (eye) with a piece of bark (shield) is cut off. Then, on the bark of the rootstock, they make a T-shaped incision of the bark, bend its edges and insert a shield with an eye under them. Then the bent edges of the bark of the T-shaped incision are pressed against the shield and the scion is tightly tied in this place so that the peephole itself is not covered with a bandage. After 3-4 weeks, if you did everything correctly, the eye should take root. If next spring a new bud escapes, the bandage is removed.
Japanese Quince varieties
There are so many varieties of Japanese quince that you can write a separate article about them, so we will only introduce you to the most popular ones:
- – Nikolai - a low-growing and not-thorny variety of Ukrainian breeding with a spreading crown, orange-red flowers and slightly uneven, rounded yellow fruits weighing 50-80 g,
- – Gayardi - ornamental plant with salmon orange flowers,
- – Malardi - decorative bush with pink flowers with a white border on the petals,
- – Lichtar - also a Ukrainian non-populous variety up to 1 m high, characterized by winter hardiness. The flowers are orange-red, fruits yellow-green, slightly nodding, round, weighing up to 100 g,
- – Papel - an ornamental plant with yellow flowers with a pink border,
- – Fascination - Dutch variety up to 1 m high with thorny branches, large red flowers, round or ovoid green fruits weighing 50-60 g,
- – Merlozi - Belgian cultivar up to 2 m high with relatively prickly upright branches, large white flowers in pink stripes and irregular pear-shaped green fruits weighing 60-80 g,
- – Umbikikata - Japanese variety up to 2 m high with erect, relatively thorny branches, pink-red flowers and spherical fruits weighing up to 90 g,
- – Crimson End Gold - a variety of American breeding up to 1 m in height with spiny spreading branches, medium-sized dark red flowers and greenish-yellow ovate fruits weighing from 40 to 80 g with a blush and thin skin,
- – Simoni - French variety, 1-1.5 m high, with spiny spreading branches, large dark red flowers and small, greenish-yellow ovate fruits weighing 40-50 g,
- – Nivali - French variety up to 2 m high with dense thorny branches, of medium size with white flowers and yellow round fruits weighing up to 80 g
In addition to those described, such varieties of chaenomeles as Toyo Nishiki, the Snow Queen, Rubra, Vitaminny, Elly Mossel, Pomaranchevy, Karavaevsky, Kalif, Nika, Tsitrinovy, Aromatic, Krasnoplodny and others are popular.
Japanese quince in landscape design
Chaenomeles is rightfully considered to be one of the most beautiful ornamental shrubs: iridescent green leaves, iridescent in the rays of the sun, massive bright flowers of various colors, amazing yellow-orange or greenish-yellow fruits that simultaneously resemble apples and pears.The main advantage of the plant is that it remains attractive throughout the growing season, from spring to late autumn. And since the plant's life expectancy is several decades, decorative Japanese quince will decorate your garden for almost your entire life.
In landscape design they use not only tall varieties of henomeles: a low Japanese quince, reaching a height of not more than 1 m, with arcuate branches covered with a spring mass of flowers, is also incredibly attractive.
Chaenomeles Japanese is widely used for the formation of stony gardens and hedges. Grow it as a solo plant in rock gardens or on a spacious lawn, and in groups that form artistic or geometric compositions. A popular method of growing Japanese quince on a high trunk, performed by grafting its cuttings on a wild pear or mountain ash.
The plant is well combined with dwarf spruce, slate pine and varietal thuja. A flowering Japanese quince looks spectacular next to daffodils and Carpathian bells.
Useful properties of Japanese quince.
The fruits of the Japanese quince, as well as the products obtained as a result of their processing, contain a large amount of useful substances: vitamin C, vitamins B1, B2, and pectins, which help remove heavy metal salts, trace elements potassium, calcium and phosphorus from the human body.
Juice of mature fruits of Japanese quince has a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating effect, cleanses the walls of blood vessels from sclerotic plaques. Because of the sour taste, due to the high content of vitamin C in the fruit, the plant is called the northern lemon. Japanese quince fruits are several times larger than pears and apples, so their use is indicated for anemia and exhaustion.
Chhenomeles fruits are used as an effective fixing, hemostatic, antioxidant, choleretic, diuretic and antiemetic agent, and decoctions, alcoholic tinctures and water infusions of Japanese quince have a tonic, antibacterial, anti-ulcer, astringent and diuretic action. Water decoctions of seeds of Japanese quince are used in folk medicine as a laxative, enveloping and expectorant.
The fruit of the Japanese quince fruit is rich in fiber, constipation is cured with their regular use, the work of the digestive organs is improved, with heart and kidney failure, excess water is eliminated from the body, symptoms of toxicosis are eliminated during pregnancy.
Japanese quince - contraindications.
Along with a huge number of advantages, Japanese quince has some contraindications. Chinese doctors say that quince fruit is the strongest allergen, so only one fourth of this fruit can be eaten at a time. Quince fruits, tinctures, tinctures and decoctions of them are contraindicated in case of enterocolitis, pleurisy, gastric and duodenal ulcers, a tendency to allergic reactions and individual intolerance to the product. After eating the fruits of quince or its preparations because of the high content of ascorbic acid in them, corroding the tooth enamel, it is necessary to thoroughly rinse the oral cavity. Fluff from the peel of the fetus is harmful to the vocal cords and causes sore throat and cough, and toxic seeds must be removed together with the bolls before consuming the fruit.
Japanese quince - growing and care of all the rules + video
The fruits of quince in combination with wine, honey and spices were considered one of the most favorite delicacies in ancient Rome. This plant had a sacred significance - a symbol of fertility, beauty and love.
Today it is grown not only for fruits, but also for decorative purposes.
One of such striking examples is the Japanese quince, which was brought from Europe to the land of the rising sun in the 17th century.
Japanese quince (Chaenomeles) can breed by cuttings, division and seeds.For the first variant of cultivation we prepare mature shoots in late autumn.
We store them in a cool dry place, and in the spring we plant the cuttings in open ground. It is best to do this in April or early May, when the earth is already warm a little.
The second, no less simple option is to grow by the method of division, that is, planting seedlings in small groups (3-5 pieces) at a comfortable distance of 1–1.5 m from each other.
Make sure that the root system fits freely in the pit for planting, making a slight indentation of about 3-5 cm for this. The ideal time for this breeding method is the end of spring-mid-autumn.
Cuttings of Japanese Quince
However, seed cultivation will still be the most common and reliable method. To do this, prepare a nutritious soil and plant seeds in it. We do this in late February and early March.
After about 6 weeks, the seeds will give the first shoots. Then we transplant them into a separate container with fertilized soil.
In this case, it is advisable to use paper or peat cups to ensure maximum airflow to the young roots.
By sprouting seedlings in early spring, in May-June you will receive fully prepared planting material. Repot it in open ground. In the future, do not forget about the care, covering the saplings in the first winter with lutrasil from frost.
How to prepare the soil, and what holes to dig for planting?
The cultivation of the Japanese quince usually takes place on light loamy or sandy soils. Although it is not so important, the main thing is that the ground should be well drained and loose.
The only whim is that in the alkaline soil the seedlings drastically change their color and also slow down considerably in growth. The soil for planting Japanese quince prepares in advance.
First, remove the weeds and carefully dig the ground.
If the soil you have chosen is infertile or too heavy, it is better to add sand to it, use peat compost, at the rate of 10 kg per 1 m2, and also potassium phosphate fertilizers - 40 g per 1 m2.
Japanese quince on the site
Such a nutritional composition will make the soil as loose as possible, which is extremely important when growing and caring for this ornamental plant.
As for the optimal landing site, it is best to choose well-lit areas with high access to sunlight.
The plant tolerates drought calmly, but the northern winds are very dangerous for it, so give preference to the southern and southwestern parts of the garden.
The period after the snow melt and before the start of budding on the trees is considered the most favorable for planting Chaenomeles. Of course, cultivation and planting in open ground can be carried out in the fall, but due to the increased thermophilicity of the plant and the onset frost, seedlings with a weak root system and weak immunity can die without having time to settle down.
Planting single plants, we dig out landing pits with a depth of 0.5 to 0.8 m and a width of 0.5-0.6 m.
We fill the space with fresh earth, 1–2 buckets of humus, and also add mineral fertilizers, about 300 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium nitrate and half a kilo of wood ash.
In case of planting in groups, we do not forget to maintain a comfortable distance between plants of 1–1.5 m, as well as between 0.5 m between rows. Moreover, Chaenomeles groups can be landed on the edge of the garden path or a low fence that will look very impressive.
The main rule that should be remembered during the departure and planting - the root neck should be located at ground level. It should not be exposed, otherwise it may threaten the growth of the plant.
Also remember that the Japanese quince does not like transplants. Therefore, it is necessary to immediately determine the optimal place, so as not to disturb this lush shrub once again.
Unlike vegetable crops, such an ornamental plant feels perfectly in one place for 50-60 years.
Simple care - prepare nutritional mixtures and mulch
The preparation of the Japanese quince for active flowering in spring begins with weeding and loosening the soil to a depth of 8-10 cm. And so that the weeds are as small as possible, and the moisture is retained longer in the soil, we mulch, lining the protective layer around the shrub 3-5 cm in height.
Absolutely any available drainage means can be used as mulch - peat, nutshell, crushed bark of trees, sawdust, small pebbles or crushed stone are perfect.
We recommend mulching in late spring, when the soil is already sufficiently moist and heated.
However, a similar procedure is also done in the fall, when the first cold weather sets in, which will further facilitate your preparation of Chaunomeles for spring flowering. As for the liquid dressings, they are better not to make in the first year after planting.
It will be quite enough nutrient mixture embedded in the planting pit. Otherwise, such excessive care may harm the young roots of the plant.
But for 2-3 years of growth, in the spring, after the snow has melted, we bring in organic and mineral supplements familiar to us under the bushes. A single compost bucket, 100 g of potash fertilizer and 300 g of superphosphate will be enough per bush.
We add liquid top dressings in the summer - we take ammonium nitrate, at the rate of 20 g per bush, and 3 liters of a 10% solution of bird droppings.
For the winter, the plant needs another important care - shelter protective material. It is better to use lutrasil or spruce branches. This will protect young saplings from frost and preserve their wild flowering in spring.
And when they become a little older, cover them with a thick layer of snow. His Japanese quince is absolutely not afraid, it will even benefit her.
For undersized bushes can be advised as a shelter for the winter wooden or cardboard boxes.
What does quince look like
This ornamental shrub still, as well as two hundred years ago, is decorated with house adjoining sites. Characteristics of the Japanese quince:
- The height of the bush reaches two meters. The bush itself is sprawling, with branches that bend into arcs.
- On the quince branches there is a small amount of thorns. And although the breeders managed to achieve their reduction, the branches still, like the wild quince, have remained prickly.
- It blooms with pink, orange and white flowers with a diameter of about four centimeters. Flowers terry and large.
- Her leaves are small and glossy.
- The fruits of the Japanese quince are yellow, smaller than an apple.
Quince Japanese planting and care in the suburbs
Shrub tolerates frost well, reaching thirty degrees of frost. Thanks to what they love to use it in the landscapes of Moscow region and central Russia. For a more severe winter, the quince should be covered with fir branches with a film. The same applies to young plants.
As a decorative ornament planted low bushes of three or four pieces. Not bad Japanese quince looks alpine slide or just a flower bed.
Often they plant it in a composition with magnolia or spirea. You can plant with evergreen plantings, and around the shrubs to create a clearing of grassy plants and violets.
Flowering Chaenomeles begins in May and lasts for twenty days. Flowers bloom unevenly.
Also, this plant is used to strengthen the slopes, as the quince root system is able to grow in breadth, forming an extensive growth.
The average lifespan of a bush is about forty years.
It belongs to the family of Pink. The homeland of this plant, as you might guess, is China and Japan. It was from there that the quince spread around the world, so it is not surprising that the quince is thermophilic and prefers a temperate climate without winter frosts. But she has no preferences for soil for planting. It feels equally well on many soils and even in arid climates.
Planting Japanese quince in the ground
There are some rules that should be followed when planting a Japanese quince in open ground:
- The shrub should be planted in early spring, before sap flow begins in the body of the plant.
- Soak up the roots of planting material so that they wake up and strengthen. If there are slightly rotted processes on the root system, they are removed.
- In order to quince well settled, use for planting seedlings that are at least two years old.
- Planting quince in the fall is undesirable due to the fact that the plant may not have time to harden.
- Pick a landing site with good natural light. In the shade a quince will not give the desired abundance of flowers. It may be south or southwest on your site.
- And also make sure that the place was not exposed to winds and drafts, otherwise the plant can cause irreparable harm.
- The soil is best suited loamy or sandy, but the soil should be rich in humus with weak acidity.
If you care for quince properly, then its life can be increased to sixty years. Replanting quinces from place to place is not recommended, so try once and for all decide on a place for quinces.
How to land
Since the fall of preparing the ground for spring planting. The place where the quince will grow is cleared of weeds and dug up along with the sand and leaves. Be sure to make fertilizer: compost from peat and potassium. It will take about ten kilograms of potash fertilizer per pit with the following dimensions: fifty centimeters in diameter and sixty depth.
If the shrubs are planted in a group, then the distance between them should be at least eighty centimeters. If you want to have a hedge from a Japanese quince, then maintain a distance of at least fifty centimeters.
The yield of one bush is 2-3 kg, and with very large ones you can collect up to five.
Sapling is planted in such a way that the root neck is level with the surface. The plant is planted in the ground with a soil mixer and compacted. Be sure to shorten the shoots of seedlings. They should be no more than fifteen centimeters.
Care and cultivation
Growing henomeles will not be difficult. The plant can be considered unpretentious.
Quince tolerates frost well and is able to grow and bear fruit in climates with winter temperatures of thirty degrees. The plant, as a rule, takes root in all soils, although preference is given to soft with medium acidity.
And also one of the features of the Japanese quince is its excellent drought tolerance.
Water the quince moderately, it does not tolerate excess moisture. In order for the bush to look aesthetically attractive and well fruited, trim the shrub. Approximately twenty branches per plant are considered permissible. Dry branches are pruned in the spring as soon as the plant awakens.
The bush is covered in winter only if the frost exceeds the temperature of thirty degrees. Otherwise, shelter is not required. The exception may be only young seedlings. They are usually covered with spruce branches and thermo-cloth. In winter, sprinkle the bushes with snow.
The first fruits can be obtained two years after planting. The quince is harvested in the fall until the very frost, and if in your area they come early, then the unripe fruits ripen perfectly in the house. Keep the harvest until the New Year.
Watering and feeding
Japanese quince does not like excessive moisture, so watering it should be rare and moderate. It is believed that watering it is enough once every thirty days.
With dry summer, the amount can be increased, but not by much. The fact is that the root of the quince is in the form of a rod and it easily reaches the moist soil.
Plant nutrition begins with the second year of life.
They start to it, as a rule, in the spring with the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The next feeding will be during flowering in mid-May and also with the help of nitrogen fertilizers. Potassium fertilizers are applied in the fall.
Japanese Quince Varieties
Japanese quince have long been engaged in breeders and cultivated a lot of varieties. The most popular among gardeners are as follows:
- Gayardi has beautiful flowers the color of salmon.
- Product of Ukraine breeders - grade Nikolay. It flowers in a bright orange color, and the fruits are of medium size and slightly bumpy. The bush itself is wide with long branches.
- Beautiful yellow flowers with a red border has Papel variety.
- Umbilikat Japanese variety grows up to two meters tall. Blooms in pink. Its branches are extremely prickly.
- The variety comes from Holland - Fascination. A low shrub, barely one meter tall, blooms with red flowers.
- American variety Crimson and Gold also low. Blooms burgundy flowers. The fruits are small, but with a thin skin.
- Belgian variety Merlozi It is distinguished by its high growth and erect prickly branches. The flowers are white.
- Winterhardy grade Lichtar - Another result of the efforts of Ukrainian breeders, has large fruits, reaching one hundred grams each. Growth bush up to one meter, and the flowers are bright red.
- French varieties Simoni and Nivali have tall stature and sprawling branches. In Simoni, the flowers are small and red in color, while in Nivali they are white.
Japanese quince: the benefits and harm
Chhenomeles has all the vitamins and microelements necessary for human activity. In addition, it has a beneficial effect on the digestive system. Its nutrients will help to cope with any inflammatory processes.
That is why I recommend using quince jam along with raspberry jam during colds.
It was noted that with constant use of quince or the products of its alteration, a person's sleep is restored and the mental state noticeably improves. Increased performance and passes depression.
As well as the fruits are recommended to use for pregnant women during attacks of toxicosis. In short, the benefits of henomeles is undeniable.
The best period for planting a Japanese quince is spring, when the earth has already thawed, and the buds have not yet blossomed. A two-year-old plant planted out of a container with closed roots is well established. It is not desirable to plant a quince in the fall, she loves warmth and can die before she really takes root. The plant also does not like frequent transplants, so it is better to immediately find a permanent place for it.
Choosing a place
The heat-loving Japanese quince, when grown, prefers sunlit places, closed from the wind. It is better to choose for her a corner on the south side, well lit by the sun, because in the shade the plant blooms poorly and develops poorly.
Preparing the soil for planting
Growing a Japanese quince is easy, it grows well on almost any soil, except for peaty soils. The main requirement for the composition of the soil is the absence of salinity and lime deposits. Best of all henomeles develops on the ground, which has good drainage, fertilizer and moderate humidity. Beware of planting the plant on alkaline soil - chlorosis leaves appear. The plant is resistant to dry periods, although at an early age, after planting, it needs to be moisturized, but without stagnant moisture. Before planting a Japanese quince, you need to clear the soil of weeds, poor and heavy soil must be “diluted” with leafy soil and sand, fertilized with peat-dung composition, and also with phosphorus additives.
Preparing shrubs for winter
The older the quince tree, the more resistant it is. Young plants of the Japanese quince require more care and protection, especially in the winter. The soil under the young bushes must be well mulched, cover with spruce leaves so that the roots are not frozen.Do not worry if by spring you find frozen branches, they just need to be removed. If you have tall species of henomeles, bend down to the ground the flexible branches of the plant - this will be an additional protection for its roots. An adult well-grown plant, covered with snow, suffers even cold. Chaenomeles bark is a dessert for hares, so think over how to cover the quince stem from rodents.
Reproduction of henomeles in different ways
The simplicity of henomeles applies to its reproduction. You do not need to have special knowledge and suffer the question: how to propagate the henomeles, when the plant reproduces well and without human help. For example, a branch sprinkled with earth by a gust of wind will take root and grow, and after a bush is transplanted to a new place, shoots will appear on the old one for a while. The plant multiplies in many ways, consider each.
The easiest way of reproduction is planting quince seeds in the fall. After collecting the fruits, during harvesting as supplies, quince seeds are harvested, dried and planted in the soil. They give good strong shoots. If you do not have time before winter, lay the seeds on the stratification, and plant in the spring.
In the spring, the grown seedlings are transplanted to a permanently prepared place, transplanting quince in the fall is not desirable.
In the warm days of June, in the early morning, green quince cuttings are cut. Perfectly rooted cuttings that have about a centimeter of the old branch. They land in mixed soil of sand and peat (mixture: 3 x 1). Between the cuttings make the distance so that they do not interfere with the development of each other, and stimulate the growth of fertilizer "Kornevin". In warm weather, rooting will occur in 40 days. Chaenomeles is well accustomed, the yield of rooted seedlings will be about 50%.
Quince vaccination is carried out in May. Varietal grafts for inoculation by the eye are harvested in advance (at the end of July - beginning of August), in the middle part of the germ the kidney with part of the cortex is cut. Then on the stock they make an incision in the shape of the letter “T”, bending the edges of the incision, and implant a peephole-bud. The site of the scion is squeezed, wrapped and smeared with garden pitch. The following year in the spring, when the scion gives way to escape, the bandage is removed. You can “plant” several eyes on low-growing plants. It is advisable to place grafts closer to the ground to protect against winter frosts. To improve the culture, take stock of pears, hawthorn and ashberries. In winter, grafted plants need to be covered with spruce leaves, you can build wooden shields from the wind and to hold the snow.
The root system of henomeles develops rather quickly and spreads over a large area. This allows the plant to propagate root suckers. For this purpose, well-developed shoots about 15 cm long are taken from the rhizomes. The shoots are planted vertically, watered, observing the moderate humidity of the soil. It is necessary to mulch around the sprout with humus or wood chips. This is not the best way to breed quinces, because at first the plant does not bear fruit well.
For 1 kg of quince you need: 2 kg of sugar and 1.5 cups of water. Quince wash, dry, remove seeds and hard white partitions, cut into small slices.
Put slices into boiling syrup, boil over low heat for 10 minutes, remove the froth, then remove from heat and leave for 12 hours. Boil the jam again for 10 minutes, etc. until the quince slices become transparent.
We put the prepared jam in sterilized jars, leave it until winter. In winter, fragrant jam will remind you of the beauty of flowering shrubs and the approaching warm summer.
Japanese quince is unpretentious in growing, it is undemanding in attention and it is easy to care for it, but at the same time it is beautiful in bloom and useful in application.
Features of the cultivation of Japanese quince in the garden (20 photos)
The exact name of this heat-loving plant is Japanese henomeles, the shrub successfully takes root in regions characterized by a mild climate.
Plants in areas with a harsh winter, when the temperature drops below -30 °, experience a negative impact.
They have one-year shoots and buds, most likely, will freeze slightly, and the quince will bloom in the spring not so magnificently as expected, but the branches that spent the cold months under the cover of snow will actively develop with the onset of heat.
Consider the Japanese quince in detail
This plant, also called Henomeles (Chaenomeles japonica) is a shrub, low, up to 1 meter, but very sprawling, some varieties are trees with large branches of the crown. There are species that are characterized by the presence of sharp hard spikes, which are often 2 centimeters in length. Since this culture belongs to flowering plants, it is widely used to create landscape design. Characteristic features - dense small leaves, dark green, with a glossy surface and a pubescent lower part. Also Henomeles can easily be recognized by large flowers, which, depending on the type and variety, have a pink or white color.
Shrub "Chaenomeles japonica"
For the first time this culture was found in wild form in the mountainous regions of Japan, which is why it got its name. There is a similar plant growing on the slopes of several spurs of Tibet in China and named Chinese quince at the place of its distribution. The main difference of the latter is very narrow leaves, almost without hairs beneath. Further, domesticated Chaenomeles from Japan spread almost throughout the world. The most famous hybrids of this plant are Henomeles Superb and Vilmorena. It was not for nothing that we mentioned the Chinese quince above, because it was the Japanese that was crossed with it for obtaining new forms.
Harvesting and storage
In late September, and in some regions in October, there comes a period when you can collect a quince. If you carefully and timely cared for the plant, you can collect up to 3 kg of fruit from one tree.
Possibilities of accommodation in the garden area
Japanese quince needs to be located on the most illuminated area, all varieties are extremely light-requiring and little bloom in the shade. It is resistant to drought, while taking care of the Japanese quince at a young age involves regular moderate moisture, you should avoid stagnant moisture.
For most varieties and species of chhenomeles, humus-rich soils exhibiting a weakly acid reaction are suitable: light sandy, sod-podzolic, loamy, with caution it is necessary to treat peaty areas. If you plant a Japanese quince in the alkaline zone, the likelihood of chlorosis leaves.
Japanese quince in landscape design can be used taking into account several factors:
- optimal southern sides of houses
- corners on the site, protected from frost and strong winds, will do
- if the garden is set up on a hill, southwest and southern slopes should be chosen for the henomeles.
Varieties of Chaenomeles japonica and their features
Consider what domestic and European varieties of Henomeles Japanese available to you for planting in the area located in the middle lane. But let's start with the parental forms, from which all hybrids originate. You should be aware that in China at least 2 of the most common wild-growing forms were growing: Chaenomeles Beautiful and Katayansky. From the crossing of the first with the Japanese, there was a superb view, a shrub up to 1.5 meters tall. Katayansky and Chaenomeles japonica gave the world a fairly well-known hybrid, Henomeles Vilmoren, which grows up to 2.5 meters and every season is covered with a large number of white or pale pink flowers.
On the basis of these parental forms and some other species of Chaenomeles throughout the world, more than 500 different varieties were eaten, both by crossing and selection.
Crossbreeding Chaenomeles Species
At the same time, winter-hardy is practically non-existent, since the plant has been bred since the 18th century in Europe and its colonies, which are characterized by a hot climate, and only in the 20th century came to Russia. Domestic breeders were engaged in breeding not so much decorative as large-fruited varieties. In particular, the Volgogradsky-1 variety, which is not distinguished by its large size, turned out to be quite high-yielding - it grows only up to 1 meter in height. At the same time, this plant is also quite decorative - in 3 or 4 years large, up to 3.5 centimeters, flowers of orange-red color appear. A week later formed the ovary. The fruits of the Japanese quince reach 4.5–5 centimeters in diameter.
As for the European varieties, Sargentii, Red Joy and Rising Sun stand out among their decorative properties. All of them can be attributed rather to the medium type, since the highest of them, Sargent with red-orange flowers, sometimes reaches only 1.8 and very rarely 2 meters with an identical width of the spherical crown. Red Joy usually grows even lower, only up to 1.6 meters, while small leaves do not contribute to the density of the crown. This variety blooms with large dark red flowers that abundantly cover the bushes. And, finally, the smallest of these. Rising Sun with light cream flowers is rarely pulled up more than a meter, but it has a very thick crown, so this variety is very good at landscaping the site.
Much less studied is the adaptability to climate of various regions of the middle lane in other varieties, such as Gailli, Cameo, Clementine, Malardi, and Nep Scarlet. All of them are derived from Chaenomeles the Excellent. But other hybrids obtained from this parental form, quite successfully grown in the latitude of Moscow and even north. In particular, it is Vesuvius, which reaches 1 meter in height, blooming with large red inflorescences. Also, the variety Holland turned out to be quite viable, with a very dense crown up to 1.5 meters and large, up to 5 centimeters, flowers of a pale red color scheme. For gardeners, a hybrid named Karl Ramke may be of interest, its magnificent crown reaches 2 meters, and red flowers 3 centimeters in diameter are cast in mother-of-pearl.
Where to plant a quince - choose a place under the plot
This culture is thermophilic, and even those varieties that have received resistance to winter resistance are preferred by sunny areas. Therefore, on your land plot for Chaenomeles japonica try to allocate open areas where other garden trees do not cast a shadow. In shaded places, the quince will grow much slower, and, quite possibly, it will bloom a few years later, and it will be far from abundant. Fruiting in this case will be appropriate.
Growing Japanese Quince on the plot
It should be noted rather high drought resistance of the Japanese quince, that is, staying during the daylight hours in the hot sun will not affect it at all. Those who live in an area with harsh winters, it is recommended to plant a quince under the protection of the wall, shielding from the northern winds. If the terrain on the site is highly intersected, it is best to choose the slopes of the elevation facing south, or, in extreme cases, south-west. Among other things, it is necessary to take into account the composition of the soil, since even if the wild-growing initial forms of this plant grew on rather poor stony soil, the cultivated hybrids are more demanding in terms of planting conditions.
Therefore, it is better to choose a plot with sod-podzolic soil or sandy loam, also loamy will do, for the last two you will need a small addition of organic matter during planting. But the peat soil for quince is unsuitable, because in such a fertile layer can be highly acidic reactions. The most preferred Ph level for Chaenomeles japonica is not more than 6.5. Alkaline soils are not suitable.Therefore, first use any method of measuring Ph and, if possible, ensure its neutral value.
Nuances of planting Chaenomeles Japanese and its hybrids
The ideal time for rooting of saplings is spring, since this culture is thermophilic, it does not make sense to plant it in winter, young trees will most likely die. However, you need to prepare the soil in the fall, and even if it is suitable for Japanese quince, you should at least carry out thorough weeding simultaneously with loosening and leave it under the black steam until next season. If there is enough organic matter, it is possible to limit the cultivation of the land to the addition of only mineral elements, namely, phosphate and potash fertilizers, within 40 grams per square meter.
Fertilizers for feeding quince bushes
If the soil is not very suitable, sheet humus and a small amount of sand for loams will also be needed; they must be mixed in a 2: 1 ratio. Compost, which is applied in the amount of 10 kilograms per square, will not interfere either. Since it is best to plant in the spring, there is no need to buy seedlings in the fall in order to keep them cool throughout the winter and wonder if the temperature conditions are right. Therefore, we buy planting material at the beginning of the season, and the best option would be two-year-old seedlings in containers.
Putting them in pre-dug pits with a diameter of 0.5 meters is necessary so that the root collar is exactly flush with the soil surface, not higher and not lower. The distance between plantings is taken based on the width of the crown of the variety you have chosen, but on average it is about 2 meters for fruit forms and 1 meter for ornamental gardening plants. It is recommended that 2 buckets of humus, 0.3 kilo of superphosphate and no more than 30 grams of potash fertilizer be pre-laid in the pit during rooting.
How to care for shrubs?
As long as the plant is young, that is, in the first year of its development, it does not need additional fertilizing, enough fertilizer planted during planting. But in the summer it is necessary to carry out weeding with a shallow loosening, which will help to extract the roots of weeds. Also, during the hot period, it is desirable to mulch the soil around the seedlings to avoid drying out, since drought resistance is characteristic only of adult plants. As mulch, you can use nutshells, as well as ordinary sawdust or even peat.
It is better to cover the soil at the beginning of summer, the layer should be at least 3 centimeters and not more than 5. Watering should be done in such a way that the soil is constantly moistened, but without stagnation of water, it should be completely absorbed. With regard to fertilizing, it is recommended to start applying for the 2nd year, and if organic was introduced during planting, then postpone the use of fertilizer for the 3rd season. The best time for this is early spring, when meltwater is absorbed into the ground. Loosening the moist earth, add 0.3 kilograms of superphosphate and 100 grams of potassium when it is processed. Also in the summer it will be useful to water the bushes with ammonium nitrate, which will need relatively little, no more than 20 grams per plant.
This fertilizer can be replaced with bird droppings diluted in water (in the proportion of 1 kilogram per 10 liters), and up to 3 liters of solution should be poured under each bush. It is imperative that timely treatment is carried out against pests and diseases, especially since the Japanese quince is most often affected by aphids, the most common enemy of gardens and gardens. You can use commercial chemicals to combat it, such as Actofit or Intavir. If only some branches are affected, they should be cut and burned. Also help with the first signs of the appearance of aphids infusions of tobacco or onion peels, as well as garlic or pharmaceutical chamomile.
Divorced in water bird droppings
With a large number of pests use ash decoction, taking it 300 grams and sifting, mix with a small amount of boiling water and cook over low heat, constantly adding water to the previous level. Next, by treating, dilute the resulting concentrate so as to obtain 10 liters of spray liquid. Perhaps only fungal diseases are to be feared, the appearance of foci of which can be judged by shrinking leaves, which, in addition, can be severely deformed. Especially often fungi occur on the Japanese quince with a long time keeping wet warm weather. Most often, this culture is affected by ramulariasis and cercospora. In the first case, brown spots appear on the leaves, and in the second - brown, gradually lightening.
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At the first sign, it is recommended to use fundozol, its 0.2% solution. You can apply a mixture of 100 grams of copper sulfate with 10 liters of soap solution. Both of these drugs are better to use before the young leaves fully unfold. For thick green crown useful onion infusion: 150 grams of husk per 10 liters of water, and strain. And, of course, tree pruning is very important in the process of leaving. The first is carried out in the spring. At the beginning of the vegetative season, a sanitary pruning of the crown is carried out, during which all frozen and dried shoots are removed “under the circle”, that is, before the stem trunnion.
Sections are covered with a garden pitch or at least an aqueous clay solution. To form the crown of a tree, it is necessary to wait up to 5 years from the moment of planting and only then begin removing excess shoots, paying particular attention to the root ones - leave only 3-4 of them, the strongest ones. Of the stem processes, preference should be given horizontal, appearing at a height of 30-40 centimeters from the ground. In order for the plant to overwinter well, you need to use fir twigs or special material for hiding. Suit and large boxes for stunted varieties. Young saplings, among other things, powdered with sawdust.
Preliminary preparation and disembarkation
Because of how properly and how fully the soil was prepared, most aspects of shrub cultivation depend.
From autumn, the plot is cleared of weeds, immediately before planting (until spring) they keep it under black steam.
Heavy and poor land is diluted with sand and leaf soil, potash and phosphorus fertilizers, peat-manure compost are actively introduced.
Planting and care for the Japanese quince in the open field begins in early spring, when the soil has thawed, but the soil has not started to dissolve. Autumn planting of quinces during abundant leaf fall is permissible, but not always advisable, as henomeles likes warmth, he may die.
Experts insist that the transplantation of the Japanese quince should be done only 1 time - when it is placed in a permanent "place of residence", where it can stably blossom and bear fruit for 50-60 years.
The plant does not tolerate any such manipulations, excessive intervention in its growing season can cause a decrease in the number of flowers.
This should be taken into account when designing the landscape, it is worthwhile to think in advance where the shrub with reddish, rarely white and pink buds will look most advantageous.
Rules for the care of young plants
In order for the blooming quince to be lush in summer, the soil around it needs to be loosened carefully, removing weeds at the same time.
Around, you can pour a 3-inch layer of pine nut shell, chopped bark, peat, sawdust.
Mulching is best done in the spring, when the soil is heated and sufficiently moist, and the autumn procedure should be started after the onset of freezing temperatures.
In the first 12 months, the planted plant does not need to be treated with a liquid top dressing (the risk of damage to the roots is great), initially laid in the spring in the hole of nutrients will be enough.
For 2-3 years after transplantation, when the snow has already gone, the process of leaving is reduced to the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers: potash and superphosphate compounds and compost are laid in the tree circle, and in the summer they inject a solution of bird droppings, ammonium nitrate.
When deciding how and how to feed henomeles, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the soil and the region of growth.
In the fall, the Japanese quince shelters with spruce leaves, covered with fallen leaves - these measures will help it survive the winter cold.
Wintering cuttings and young saplings can be covered with a spanbond or lutrasil, low-growing shrubs can even be “booked” with the help of dimensional wooden boxes, large cardboard boxes.
Chaenomeles pruning rules
All varieties perfectly tolerate a haircut, which is very appreciated among gardeners.
The question of how to trim a shrub comes down to solving the following tasks: sanitizing, shaping a bush, rejuvenation.
To work you need to pick up long thick gloves that can protect against sharp spines.
In order to sanitation cut dry shoots, which died during frosts. Here you will need a garden file and a pruner, the treatment points should be abundantly treated with garden pitch. After this procedure, the bush comes to life, grows faster.
Pruning for the formation of the bush is carried out at the very beginning of the spring period, when henomeles will be 4-5 years old.
The annual removal of part of the root growth allows to slow down the increase in the size of the bushes and their density, for a harmonious growth only 2 root offsprings will be enough.
Moreover, it is better to leave the shoots growing horizontally in 20-40 cm from the ground. Vertical and creeping processes should be cut.
Anti-aging pruning is relevant when the Japanese quince reaches 8-10 years of age.
Bush thinned, depriving elongated, thin and weak branches, leaving no more than 15 strong shoots.
Only the branches of 3–4 years old bear fruit, so the crown is formed in such a way that only processes not older than 5 years always remain.
Preventing the onset of disease
Decorative fruiting Japanese quince is not afraid of most pests.
However, in conditions of high humidity and stagnation of water, necrosis and mottling may occur, the fungus can lead to drying out and deformation of the leaves.
Cercosporosis is expressed in the form of round brown, and ramilariasis in the form of brown spots. Treatment is reduced to spraying with a soap-copper liquid or fundozol. A safer method is to use onion infusion.
A little bit about pleasant: fruit picking
The fruits ripen in September-October, each bush can produce up to 2-3 kg of crop, it all depends on the intensity of flowering plants in the spring.
The crop is pollinated in a cross way, so if you need fruit, you need to plant several seedlings nearby or 2-3 varieties at once.
In the middle lane, the harvest will remain green for a long time, you need to have time to harvest it before frost, otherwise its taste qualities will be broken.
Chaenomeles matures perfectly in room conditions, gradually becoming yellow - it can be recycled in any way.
If a fruit that looks like a small apple is wrinkled, it can be used for food - this is a natural process.
Fragrant Japanese quince can be stored at home until the end of December.
Quince grown in the garden, can be used for the preparation of pastes, syrup, jelly, jam, liquor.
The organoleptic qualities of fruits noticeably improve and refresh the taste of compotes and jams made from black chokeberry, peaches, apples, and apricots.
Dried cloves can be used in the compote of dried fruit mixes.
Growing Japanese quince. Nursery of ornamental plants
on landscape design Growing Japanese quince
All about growing Japanese quince. Site selection and planting, reproduction of Japanese quince, shrub care throughout the year, pruning and crown formation.Breeding types
Japonica - low-growing ornamental and fruit shrub of the Rosaceae family (botanical name henomeles is Japanese).
It grows wild in the islands of Japan, has long been cultivated and is known under the name: Mistleus henomeles, low quince, dwarf mountain quince and alpine henomeles.
Japanese quince decorative from early spring to late autumn.
Long before flowering against the background of emerald-green foliage effectively look reddish-pink buds.
In the flowering period For 3 weeks, the henomeles is beautiful due to the abundance of bright flowers (up to 4-5 cm in diameter), closely assembled on the arcuate shoots. Flowers amaze with a variety of their coloring.
On some bushes, they are pale-coral-pink, and on others - pinkish-salmon, ruby, orange or garnet-red. Especially decorative semi-double flowers.
Longer than others, this shrub remains densely autumnal in the fall and attracts the attention of leathery dark green foliage.
In addition, in autumn Japanese quince gives only highly vitamin fruitwhich contain 98-150 mg% of vitamin C.
The fruits are very diverse in shape and color, similar to quinces or pears, most often yellow-green, but there are also yellow-lemon, bright yellow, often with a red barrel, not very large - weighing up to 30-40 grams.
The raw fruit is tasteless, but their persistent aroma, reminiscent of pineapple, creates a specific bouquet in jam, jam, jelly and syrup
it cross-pollinated plant is a good honey plant and pollinated by bees. The shrub has a strong root system and reliably fixes the soil, is drought tolerant and is not damaged by diseases and pests.
A well-lit plot with chernozem, loamy or sandy loam soil is suitable for planting. This heat-loving plant tolerates harsh winters better in places protected from northern winds. On uneven terrain, southern and southwestern slopes are preferred.
Landing scheme and bush area
Dimensions of landing holes, m
Before landing the ground is loosened and weeds are removed. Organic fertilizer is applied on “poor” (clay and sandy) soils: manure or peat compost (5 kg / m2). Landings are carried out in spring or autumn.
It is better to plant the henomeles in small groups of 3-5 plants at a distance of 1-1.5 meters from each other, so that the adult plants, closing themselves together by the roots, do not crowd each other.
When planting, a slight recess of the root collar is allowed by 3-5 cm. It is necessary to follow. That the root system freely was located in a landing hole.
Japanese Quince Shrub Care
In the first year after planting and in the dry season, the plant needs watering. During the summer, loosen the soil under a bush and remove weeds. The soil around the shrub is mulched (with peat or sawdust) in a layer of 3-5 cm.
Mulch retains moisture well, improves soil structure and inhibits weed growth.
In the first two years after planting the plant feed up organic and mineral fertilizers.
In the spring - slurry, nitrogen fertilizers, in the fall - phosphate and potash fertilizers.
From 4-5 years old shrub begins to bloom and bear fruit every year. It is possible to collect an average of two and a half kilograms from one bush, and with careful care, in particularly productive years up to 4-6 kg. Rafts ripen in late September - early October.
If immature fruit to gather before frost, they ripen in a bed and produce viable seeds. Fruits are wrapped in paper and stored in a dark room at a temperature of 6-10 ° C, they acquire a characteristic persistent aroma.
In young plants and in the year of transplantation of adult bushes, the growth of shoots is delayed until late autumn.
Not having time to woody and prepare for winter, plantings can be damaged by autumn frosts and frosts.
To avoid this, the erect branches of the henomeles bend down to the ground and cover with a layer of fallen leaves or spruce branches.The shoots located under the snow are reliably protected from freezing in severe winters.
Vaccination on shtamb. The decorative qualities of the Japanese quince are greatly enhanced if the plant is cultivated on a high trunk, but the standard form does not suffer from frost only in the southern regions of Russia and Ukraine.
The best stock is mountain ash at the age of 3 to 1-2 meters.
In July, spend inoculation by budding method (eye grafting). 6-10 days prior to vaccination, strong annual shoots are cut and stored in a cool room in a plastic film.
On the day of vaccination, a flap with a kidney is cut off with a sharp cutting knife (there should be no wood on it). After that, on the stock, a T-shaped incision is made in the trunk at a height of 1-1.8 meters from the soil level and a shield is inserted into it.
Place budding tightly wrapped with plastic film, tied and covered with garden pitch.
For a powerful crown, 2 buds are grafted at once - one above the other 5 cm from opposite sides.
Cropping and crown formation
Up to 3 years of age, the shrub almost does not branch. If in subsequent years there is a weak branching, the shoots are shortened by 1/3 or cut them "on the stump."
When the crown is thickened from 3-4 years of age, it is advisable to start thinning pruning, to remove underdeveloped and thickened shoots.
Krona thinned out for more than 2-3 years.
Annually spend sanitary cleaning. Pruned old and dried branches, remove all drying ends of the shoots and those shoots that are not able to bear fruit.
Adult bushes have a erect or semi creeping crown with long prostrate shoots. Under these sprawling, creeping shoots, you can substitute metal supports, so that bright, brightly colored flowers can be better seen during flowering.
Henomeles (Japanese quince)
Japonica (Japanese henomeles, northern lemon) - a perennial deciduous shrub / small tree of the Rosaceae family, originally from Japan and China.
The young foliage of a stylish bronze color, large, beautiful orange-red buds and lemon-like fruits make this plant permanently beautiful almost all year round: henomeles looks advantageous both as a detached shrub and in group compositions (mixborders, alpine slides, hedges ) with other plants.
Japanese quince is extremely rich in vitamins - C, P, B1, B2, B6, PP, E and microelements - Mg, Zn, Cu, K, and fragrant fruits due to their sour-astringent taste in the northern countries have long replaced lemon. In our time, the fruits of henomeles are used in the preparation of compotes, liqueurs, wines, pastilles, jams and confitures, which have an unusual taste palette.
Long flowering, good survival rate, unpretentiousness and the annual harvest of healthy fruits are quite enough reasons to plant this long-lived plant, isn't it? And if you are for, read on to learn how to properly grow a Japanese quince in the open field.
Conditions of detention
Traditionally, a place for a southerner-henomeles is better to pick up a sunny and windless one, then its flowering and fruiting will be as bright and intense as possible.
But the Japanese quince grows well in the penumbra, and in a fully shaded place: in this case, it is most often used as an element of landscape design or a hedge.
Since henomeles needs pollination in spring, it will be great if relatives - pears and apple trees - settle in 5-6 meters from it. Such a neighborhood ensures their reliable inter-pollinating.
It is curious that on one plant of the Japanese quince there can be found both exclusively male and exclusively female flowers, so make sure to plant and plant at least one more henomeles alongside so that flowering and fragrant quince fruits will not pass you. Also, do not plant a Japanese quince near krupnomerov, because, being in partial shade, it will not bloom. And, of course, consider the factor of the presence of bees.
Soil for japanese quince
Chenomeles prefers light, slightly wet, fertilized and drained soil with an acidity index of pH = 6.0-6.3, i.e.
loamy, sandy loamy soils are best suited for it.
Try not to plant the Japanese quince in peat ground (pH 6.5, which is fraught with plant diseases and weakening of its immunity.
If you decide to prepare a suitable soil mixture for henomeles yourself, take sand and leaf soil in a 1: 2 ratio and add to them 2-year compost and manure (5 kg / m2), as well as potash and phosphate fertilizers (40 g / sq. .m) Or simply purchase PETER PEAT “Garden” PRO line ready-to-use nutrient primer.
Planting and transplanting a Japanese quince seedling into open ground
Since the sprigs of the Japanese quince are very delicate and often freeze over, planting the plant in the open ground is better in spring, but it is advisable to prepare the soil for planting in the fall.
To do this, in October, dig the intended area on the spade bayonet and get rid of weeds and stones. Mix with the ground 20 g of potassium salt, 50 g of superphosphate, 5 kg of 2-year compost and 5 kg of manure - all per 1 sq.m.
Pour water (1 bucket per square meter) and leave for 3-4 days. Then dig the required number of holes 50 cm deep and 60 cm in diameter.
At the bottom of each drainage pit (loamy / clay soil), lay 15 cm of fine crushed stone or 15 cm of softened clay for water retention (sandy / sandy loamy soil).
Cover 2/3 of the fertilized soil with the fertilized soil, and fertilize the remaining 1/3 of the soil with 50 g of wood ash and 150 g of superphosphate. The minimum distance between the pits is 1-1.5 m. Mark the holes for the pits before winter.
In the spring, in the middle - the end of April, dig up the soil from the prepared pits, after 20 minutes of spilling the pots with the henomeles seedlings with warm, settled water for their easy removal.
Next, remove the seedlings with clods of earth and immerse them in the pits. Carefully pour around the soil, while it is assumed that the root of the cervix will deepen by 2-4 cm.
Spill with water, wait 5 minutes and, if necessary, add soil, observing the level of immersion of root necks.
Zamulchuyte planting quince Japanese peat neutralized PETER PEAT line AGRO, crushed bark or shell pine nut PETER PEAT line DECO in a radius of 0.6 m around each plant with a layer of 2-3 cm.
Transplantation of the Japanese quince is carried out similarly to planting, but it must be borne in mind that the plant does not like to move from place to place and can grow in one place 40-60 years.
Characteristics of Japanese Quince
Among the representatives of the quince there is a compact exotic plant with several names: henomeles, cydonia, northern lemon, Japanese quince or Chinese. This native of the southern countries belongs to the fruit and ornamental crops.
Chaenomeles is adapted to the cold, lives well and bears fruit in many parts of Russia. When growing does not require special skills and knowledge of agricultural technology. For the small size and structure of the crown refers to the bushes.
Beautiful composition with Chinese quince
During the flowering period it takes on an amazingly colorful look. The buds, depending on the variety, have a different color:
Active flowering lasts three to four weeks.
The color of the buds depends on the variety of quince.
Until the beginning of the twentieth century, henomeles was used exclusively to decorate the landscape. Thanks to the selection today, the fruits of the Japanese quince are used in food, and the plant has become popular in gardening.
The branches of many varieties are falling and covered with spikes. The fruits resemble a ribbed slightly flattened apple, do not exceed 5 cm in diameter, weigh 40-50 g
One third of the middle of the fruit is occupied by seeds collected in the testicle with numerous seeds. For the yellow color and sour taste of the plant is called "northern lemon".
Flowers cover some branches completely
Japanese quince: benefits
Not much fruit shrubs have so many advantages, like Japanese quince. I will name the most significant:
- Frost resistance. At -25 ° C frostbite never occurs. Under the snow can withstand extremely low temperatures.
- Fruiting. Small frostbite of the tips of the shoots do not affect the condition of the kidneys and fruiting.
- Recovery. There is an active recovery after pruning or injury.
- High immunity. For garden diseases and infections, the plant is very stable, practically does not get sick and is not affected by pests.
- Unpretentiousness. The bush is not picky about water - no watering is needed.
- Long-liver. At one place it will be great to bear fruit for 50 years.
- Grows on any soil. Quince shrub is not picky about soil composition.
- Fruits are well transported and stored.. In the cellar / refrigerator remain unchanged until February-March.
Japanese quince contains a high level of vitamin “C” - twice as much as in an ordinary lemon. The composition of the pulp contains important macro-and micronutrients, the entire vitamin kit, including the "B" group, organic acids.
In September, the fruits turn yellow and ready to collect
In the fruits of chhenomeles there is a lot of iron: 100 g - 70 mg, which is 7 daily norms required for an adult man. In the pulp is:
- biologically active compounds
- fruit acids,
Useful properties consist in high concentration of potassium. This fact makes quince fruits popular for treating heart problems. In folk medicine, they are used to normalize pressure. A good balance of pectins and vitamin "C" has a positive effect with a weakened immunity.
Northern lemon is recommended to include in the food for the removal of heavy metals / radionuclides, use in poor ecology. Ointments and infusions of seeds and leaves help with burns and skin problems. Juice henomeles treat diseases of the lungs.
Quince seeds used in medicine
In terms of culinary qualities, Chinese quince is inferior to large-fruited quince varieties, and surpasses them in useful properties.
In its raw form, cydonia fruits are too hard, astringent, sour, but after cooking they become fragrant and tasty, occupy a worthy place among fruit delicacies.
Northern lemon is used for cooking:
It is brewed with tea, tinctures, liqueurs are made with them, jelly is boiled. Any quince dish is healthy and has an unsurpassed taste.
Small fruits can be boiled whole, and then wipe through a sieve
Types of Japanese Quince: 8 varieties
I offer a brief overview of the varieties of Japanese quince, which are planted on home gardens. Based on the descriptions, you can choose the appropriate grade:
In common "quince gorgeous." The plant is low, the adult bush rises to 1.2 m.
Does not require pruning, the crown is thick, can be used to create a hedge.
It has interesting flowers of rich red color, close to burgundy tone. Large stamens bright yellow.
A dwarf not exceeding a meter. Abundantly fruiting and blooming. Propagated by layering, branches covered with spikes.
Many use it to create hedges, insurmountable for small dogs and cats.
The fruit of the French selection. It has a reduced frost resistance barrier, at the temperature of -20 ° C the ends of the branches are frozen.
The plant is different decorative: lodging shoots holding a spherical shape. Shrub does not need a haircut.
Flowering is long and abundant. Crimson inflorescences completely cover the branches. Ripened fruit Simoni green.
It has a distinctive feature - there are no spines on the branches. During the flowering period is covered with white and cream buds.
The branches are arcuate, the ends of which are leaning towards the ground. The fruit has a lemon color.
It has a spreading crown with a diameter of 1.3–1.5 m, the height is not more than a meter.
Abundant flowering, red buds, lemon-colored fruits.
It grows in the form of a flat ball, not exceeding a height of 1.5 m.
Massive plant: height and width of about 2 meters.
Flowering takes place in white, small fruits - 2-3 cm.
It has dark green leaves with a spectacular gloss.
When flowering, the crown turns into an orange-red ball. In August, the second wave of flowering occurs.
Crimson bloom Chaenomeles Simoni
Japanese quince on a country site
Due to its decorativeness, undersized quince is used for landscape decoration It is planted along the tracks on the lawn, included in group compositions with spruce, juniper, thuja, pine.
Quince bushes perfectly complement rock gardens, recreation areas, artificial ponds. Planted in the ceremonial area, next to the gazebo, they distinguish zones of the territory.
Quince bushes in May
Gardeners call quince bushes the most unpretentious. They do not freeze, do not get sick, do not require watering, are not capricious to the soil.
How to grow a Japanese quince
For planting quince bushes place is chosen any. To increase fruiting, plant a shrub in a lighted area, as there will be less fruit in the shade.
Cultivation of this culture can occur on any soil:
The only soil quality to which the plant reacts negatively is salinity or high lime content.
To obtain the maximum number of fruits, it is better to plant a quince on the sunny side of the plot.
Larger fruits can be obtained by planting quince bushes on the south side of the house. A good place would be the sunny side of the fence.
Almost all varieties of henomeles are frost-resistant and do not require shelter. At frosts above -25 ° C, annual shoots and flower buds can freeze slightly. In regions with fierce winters, young plants should preferably be covered with a layer of fallen leaves in autumn.
Transplant Chinese quince is possible only at a young age. The five-year plant has a developed root, extending to great depths. When digging, you will surely damage it, and the bush will not fit well.
A permanent planting place is carried out by two-year-old seedlings with a developed root system. Planting material can be the newly-grown shoots or the rooted branch that you have buried for breeding - this is the best way of breeding.
The interval between the bushes is kept within 1–1.5 m - this is the optimal distance for the quince. Obligatory moment - root penetration of the neck, it should go underground for 3-5 cm.
Root offspring, having several shoots, are pruned before planting, leaving 1-2 branches
Japanese quince is an unpretentious and actively fruiting plant. Two or three bushes planted on the plot will provide your family with useful fruits and decorate the plot.