Soil for sowing eggplant seedlings can be bought in the store or mix yourself. For this, it is necessary to mix 4 parts of lowland peat, 3 parts of humus or compost, as well as 1 part of river sand. On a bucket of such a mixture you need to add three matchboxes of superphosphate and a glass of wood ash, after which the mixture will need to be mixed thoroughly.
Sowing eggplant seedlings
Refers to the plants of the short day. Therefore, when late growing eggplant seedlings, when the day is more than optimal, we remove the seedlings for several hours from the window sill or leave it until the morning in a dark place.
- . Do not forget to mix everything thoroughly.
- Growing eggplant seedlings
- And pepper. But I have repeatedly asked our readers the question why we do not have detailed recommendations for growing eggplant seedlings, and it became clear that under the heading about eggplants we can’t do 2 or 3 articles, meeting the wishes of our readers, in more detail to highlight the whole range issues related to eggplant. I understand that it is more convenient to get acquainted with the information of interest, without being distracted and do not jump over the links from page to page. I hope that it will be very interesting and comfortable to get acquainted with the information contained in this article.
We fill half-capacity tanks with prepared soil, and make a recess according to the diameter of the cell. Then we need to stretch a little lump of earth in the tablet, then holding it by the stalk, carefully remove the seedling.
The picking is carried out in order to form a more fibrous root system, and at the same time to plant eggplant seedlings in a more spacious container, which of course will have a beneficial effect on their growth.
Watering eggplant seedlings
For those who prefer to dive eggplant, the cultivation of seedlings should be carried out a little differently. Seeds are sown in a box with an interval of 5 cm to a shallow depth in the pre-moistened ground and covered with a film. When shoots appear, the boxes are put on the window. Air temperature and watering should be the same as when grown in pots. In the phase of one real leaflet seedlings can dive, replanting each plant in a separate container with a diameter of 10 cm. For a couple of days, they should be pritenit. When the plants start to grow, the boxes are put on the window. It is important to water the seedlings correctly. The lack of moisture leads to premature lignification of the stalk of eggplant and a significant decrease in yield. Waterlogging can cause seedling diseases. The irrigation scheme for seedlings is approximately the following: 1-2 irrigations (7 liters per m2) and 2-3 irrigations (14-15 liters per m2) are carried out before the first true leaf. If seedlings
Growing eggplant seedlings has its own characteristics. This culture is characterized by a long period of growth. Of all the nightshade they are the most demanding of heat and light. Eggplant seedlings with too thick planting, acidified soil, prolonged cloudy weather, insufficient humidity and other adverse conditions slow down their growth.
Eggplant growing seedlings at home
Boxes or trays filled with two-thirds nutrient soil should be well shed and left for some time, so that the earth is saturated with moisture. Then, you need to push the grooves to a depth of 0.5 cm and spread the seeds at a distance of about 1 cm from each other. Trays with seeds of eggplant should also be covered with glass or film to prevent drying of the soil, and then put in a warm place (the optimum temperature should be about 25 degrees) before germination.
Eggplant seedlings respond well to fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. The first fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizer (urea or solvent) must be carried out in the phase of two true leaves. After two weeks, fertilize with nitrogen fertilizers to repeat. The following two supplements should be carried out with complex mineral fertilizers (Kemira Universal or Kristalon) with the addition of wood ash. Before and after feeding, seedlings need to be watered. Top dressings are carried out under a root, without allowing hit of solution of fertilizers on plants.
Before sowing the seeds, fill the planting tanks with soil mixture so that after compaction the soil does not reach the upper edge of the tank by 2–3 cm (do not forget to place drainage on the bottom of the tank). To disinfect the soil mixture, one day before sowing seeds, spill it with a warm solution of potassium permanganate. When sowing seeds in the soil mixture, the depth of their embedding should be 0.8 - 1.2 cm, after which the soil should be slightly compacted. Sow 2–3 seeds in each container in order to leave the strongest seedling after germination. If the soil is dry, then gently pour with warm settled water, cover with film or glass and place in a warm place (27 - 30 degrees). In winter, this is a warm place, of course, not a windowsill! (before the seedlings emerge, the light is not needed, and only heat, moisture and air access are needed). If necessary, moisten the soil with a hand sprayer. It is important to remember that excessive soil moisture causes seed rotting, and excessive dryness delays the emergence of shoots or leads to drying and death of a peeping germ.
, The weather conditions of your region and the readiness of your greenhouse to ensure optimal conditions for the development of plants in the planned time, calculate the time for sowing seed of eggplants for seedlings.
The main features of growing eggplant seedlings are summarized in
We pulled out our sprout together with a lump and free the lower part of the root system from the ground. Then we pinch the tip of the main root and place it in the prepared container. After the earth is slightly tamped and shed water. And at this stage picking seedlings can be considered complete.
Usually, peppers first dive, then eggplants, and a little later a tomato. For picking seedlings of any culture, you first need to prepare inventory. By the way, what is also very important for eggplants is that when this crop is still in the seedling stage, the soil in the seedling tank will always be wet.
The growing season when grown in open ground due to the unstable climate increases.
Plants should be periodically, once every 2 weeks, fed with urea or Kemira.
Grown in the apartment, you must ensure that the humidity is 60-65%. Perhaps you should use a humidifier or put a bucket of water near the radiator. Also important is regular airing with preliminary shelter of seedlings.
The technical ripeness of even early ripening varieties of eggplants is 85-100 days. Planting eggplant seedlings (mostly early ripening varieties) begins in February or early March, depending on the region.
Growing eggplant seedlings at home
It is believed that the "blue" picking is not well tolerated. Therefore, it is recommended not to dive eggplant. Growing seedlings is immediately in pots with a diameter of 10 centimeters or more. Sow need 2 seeds. When they grow, a weaker plant will have to be removed. In the ground, seeds are buried by 1 cm and well watered. Put the seedlings in a warm place with a temperature of at least 23 degrees. Top covered with foil or transparent covers. Periodically moisten the earth.
Sowing eggplant seedlings
Sowing eggplants on seedlings should be carried out immediately in separate containers, so that they do not have to replant the plants again. Unlike tomatoes, eggplants, like pepper, suffer a transplant painfully, and ineptly performing this technique, you can slow down the development of the plant for 2 - 3 weeks, which is unacceptable in the conditions of our short and cool summer. Therefore, the best option for sowing eggplant seeds will be sowing them in peat tablets Jiffi - 7, followed by transplanting in the phase of 3 - 4 leaves into peat pots with a diameter of 12 -15 cm. should be 65 - 70 days. Therefore, based on their conditions
Growing tomato seedlings
At this point, the eggplant seedlings, along with the seedbed leaves, should have three leaflets each. Before planting, our future new settlers spill water without fail.
Planting eggplant seedlings
Why do you need picking for seedlings?
All that we will continue to talk about eggplants, namely, how to properly prepare the seeds, how to sow them, picking and their further cultivation, can be safely applied to the pepper.
Shoots appear after 6-7 days. When the seeds come up, pots must be put on the light. Air temperature should not be high (no more than 15-18 °). At this temperature, the roots of seedlings develop better. Seedlings watered moderately. When it starts to grow, the temperature can be raised to 20-25 degrees.
There are two ways to grow seedlings - with a dive and without. When sowing with a dive, the seeds are sown to a depth of 1.5-2 cm in seedling boxes. The row spacing should be 6 cm. Crops should be covered with a film or glass so that the air temperature remains within 20-25 ° C. Germinated eggplant seeds will start growing on the fifth day, not germinated - on the 8-10 day. Without picking, seeds (2-3 pieces each) are sown in cups. In the future, weaker sprouts are rejected. This method of cultivation is more acceptable with a small amount of seedlings, since eggplants do not tolerate transplantation. The cups are also covered with glass or plastic film before germination. With the advent of germs, the film is removed and additional lighting is included. The plant needs light 12 hours a day. During the first 3-4 days the air temperature should be 15 ° C during the day and 10 ° C at night. In the future, eggplant seedlings before planting in the ground is grown at 25 ° C during the day and 12 ° C at night.
In addition, if you grow seedlings of eggplant in advance, then by the time it is planted in the greenhouse, it will turn out to be very overgrown and it will be bad to take root. This can affect the quality of eggplant.
Secrets of sowing eggplant seedlings
If you want eggplants to grow strong and enjoy a good harvest, you need to take some measures even at the stage of sowing seeds for seedlings. Learn all the secrets of growing "blue" by studying our step by step instructions.
You are only set to a positive result? We will show you how to avoid typical mistakes when sowing eggplant seeds on seedlings.
Terms of sowing seedlings
Different sources indicate different dates for sowing seeds for seedlings. However, any sensible person understands that these dates must be consistent with the climatic conditions of your region. So, one cannot rely on an equally successful result if one sows seeds at the same time in the North Caucasus and the Far East.
We offer you a small memo on the dates of sowing seeds and planting seedlings in the ground for different districts of Russia. Residents of the Republic of Belarus can be guided by the data of the Volga Federal District.
We prepare seeds and soil
Healthy seeds - the key to quality seedlings. It is better to use eggplant seeds, whose age does not exceed 4 years. Before sowing, the material should be checked for germination.
First reject empty seeds. To do this, dissolve in 1 liter of warm water 1 tbsp. salt and dip the seeds into the liquid. Empty “boxes” will float on the surface of the water, and “promising kids” will sink to the bottom.
Eggplant is a capricious and fastidious plant, and therefore it is better to speed up its development by applying any growth stimulant available (Energen, Immunocytophyte, Ecosil, Heteroauxin, Zircon, Epin, etc.). Here it is better not to improvise and strictly follow the instructions on the package.
As a "popular" growth stimulant, you can use aloe juice. Leaves of a plant place in the refrigerator approximately for 6 hours. Then squeeze the juice through gauze and soak the eggplant seeds in it for 24 hours. After a day, the seeds need to be washed, dried and either sown or another 2 days hold in a damp cloth.
Prepared seed usually germinated. For this, it is kept warm for 3-4 days on a moistened cloth. Instead of cloth, you can use, for example, cotton pads or paper towels. When the seeds swell and start pecking, they can be sown.
The soil for sowing eggplant seeds can be bought in a specialty store, and you can prepare yourself. Suitable composition:
- turf ground - part 1,
- dry peat - 2 parts,
- humus - 2 parts,
- wood ash - just a little bit.
To reduce the likelihood of plant disease, the finished soil mixture is shed with boiling water or a strong warm solution of potassium permanganate.
Containers selected for sowing of seeds should be pre-sanitized, for example, they should be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Sowing seeds by the rules
Containers for growing eggplant seedlings should be approximately 0.25 liters. 3-4 seeds are sown to a depth of about 1 cm into each such container.
Shoots usually appear on the 10-14th day. If the containers are covered with plastic wrap, the process will go faster. Remove the film with the advent of the first shoots.
Grown up seedlings thinned - in a glass or pot leave only 1 of the most healthy and sturdy specimen.
IMPORTANT! In no case do not pull out extra seedlings of eggplant from the ground - this can damage the roots of the plants that you decided to leave. It is best to pinch the stalks of weaker seedlings near the ground.
If everything is done correctly, then soon your seedlings will become strong and healthy eggplant seedlings, and there - not far from the first appetizing fruits.
How to choose a variety and when to sow eggplants for seedlings?
Eggplants are very valuable vegetables, they contain a lot of vitamins, minerals and essential trace elements for the human body. It is impossible to imagine a holiday table without eggplant appetizers, eggplant caviar has long been competing with squash for leadership, and in vegetable ratatouille it is the main ingredient.
Independent cultivation of this violet handsome man is also an economically advantageous occupation, because even during the season, the price per kilogram of eggplants is not less than 200 rubles, and in winter you can eat southern vegetables, you can give the seller up to 600 rubles per kilogram.
Therefore, the independent cultivation of eggplant seedlings will help to significantly reduce the cost of its acquisition in the future.
How to choose a vegetable for planting?
Despite the fact that eggplant is a thermophilic vegetable and quite capricious to change temperatures, breeders managed to bring out a number of weather-resistant varieties, so certain eggplant seedlings at home, even under adverse weather conditions, will feel more than comfortable.
The following types of eggplants are suitable for residents not only southern but also northern areas:
- Japanese dwarf,
- Robin Hood,
- Dwarf Early 921,
- Early maturing 148.
In warm climates, planting eggplants for seedlings is possible of absolutely any variety, the vegetable will feel comfortable in native growing conditions.
If you plan to further their cultivation, you can stock up on seeds for future use.
For those who have experience in growing such a crop as eggplants - planting on the seedlings of this vegetable is a common thing, because the seeds from them can be easily collected independently.
How to get your seeds?
Only first fully ripe fruits are suitable for seed production.After harvesting it is important that vegetables ripen for about a week at home. Then the eggplants are crushed, rubbed and the seeds are washed out in a basin of water. The collected seeds must be carefully dried and wrapped in a cloth bag or paper bag, it is very important that moisture does not get on it during the storage period.
Also obtained seeds can be checked for germination.
It is necessary to put a dozen seeds in a fabric bag and put them in warm water for a day, then the bag is removed and placed on the plate, for five days you need to keep it moist if five days out of ten seeds germinate at least half - they are suitable for planting. Thanks to this simple way, planting eggplant seeds for seedlings in the next season will be without financial costs.
Planting eggplant seedlings in 2018
To determine the optimal time for planting eggplants for seedlings will help the lunar calendar, which indicates the favorable and unfavorable days for this procedure.
It is important to bear in mind that sowing should be carried out in February, so that the seedlings have time to fully strengthen before transplanting into open ground. In the southern regions, sowing can be done in March, and if you plan to grow a crop for long-term storage, the sowing time can be postponed to April.
Favorable for planting are such days:
- In February - the 19th, 20th, 27th and 28th,
- In March - 18, 19, 27 and 28,
- In April - 23 and 24 numbers.
When planning a sowing date, it should be borne in mind that the period of seed germination takes about two weeks, and another 60 days are required for the full development of seedlings. Accordingly, no less than 75 days should pass before landing in open ground.
The timing of planting seeds
There are no clear deadlines for planting seeds for growing seedlings, as they directly depend on the climatic conditions of the region where you live.
Figure 1. The lunar calendar for planting flower and vegetable crops
The term of sowing is determined individually, on the basis that 75 days are needed for the full development of seedlings. If the crop is planted too early, it will outgrow by the time it is transplanted into the open ground, and if it is too late, it will not be sufficiently developed and the optimum moment for transplantation will be missed (Figure 1).
That is why you should decide in advance when you will plant plants in open ground. Next, you need to count 75 days from this point and you will receive the exact date of sowing seeds for growing seedlings.
As mentioned above, eggplant is considered quite a capricious crop, and in the process of growing requires a lot of attention. This applies not only to adult plants, but also seedlings that will be transplanted into the open ground.
The success of growing crops depends not only on how you will take care of the seedlings themselves, but also on how correctly the presowing treatment of the seeds will be carried out.
Next, we look at the main stages of the care of sprouts, so that you can grow it yourself at home.
The key to successful cultivation is the proper presowing treatment of seeds. Without this, young plants may become ill, or shoots will appear too slowly.
Note: Before sowing, it is recommended to carry out a disinfecting treatment, which will eliminate all pathogens and fungi that may be on the surface of the planting material.
It is not necessary to buy a special treatment solution. For this purpose, you can use the tools at hand, for example, the usual hydrogen peroxide (Figure 2). To do this, add 3 ml of peroxide to 100 ml of water and heat the mixture to 40 degrees. Further, seeds are soaked in it for 10 minutes, and this procedure is best carried out immediately before sowing.
Figure 2. Seed treatment before sowing
The treatment can be carried out with a solution of potassium permanganate, or special stimulating preparations can be used for this purpose, which will saturate the seeds with the necessary beneficial substances and ensure the emergence of seedlings quickly.
Culture seeds can be sown immediately in separate containers or cups. In this case, the saplings will not have to dive, as they will have enough space for full growth.
If you are planting in a large box, picking will be one of the essential steps in the care of seedlings. It is carried out when the plants will have 2-3 true leaves. This procedure is necessary so that the seedlings are strengthened and developed a full-fledged root system before transplanting into open ground.
For picking use small pots or cups with drainage holes in the bottom. They should be filled with light nutrient substrate that passes water and air well. Before picking the soil should be watered with water mixed with wood ash or a complex mineral top dressing (a teaspoon of a substance per 10 liters of water). Immediately before the procedure, it is recommended to water the seedlings so that they are easier to remove from the soil without damaging the delicate roots (Figure 3).
Figure 3. The main stages of picking seedlings
It is necessary to take out plants carefully, in order not to accidentally damage the root system and not to destroy the earthen room. They should be planted in special grooves in the substrate for cotyledon leaves. Picked seedlings can only be watered on the sixth day after the procedure, and the seedlings themselves should be protected from the sun's rays.
It should be borne in mind that after picking the seedlings for a while slow down in growth. This is absolutely normal, as they need time to adapt and develop the root system.
Top dressing is also considered a mandatory step in the care of seedlings. As a rule, they are aimed at accelerating the growth of seedlings and stimulating the formation of the root system.
The amount and timing of fertilizer depends on how you plant. For example, for plants planted in separate containers and not requiring picks, fertilizing is carried out on the 7-10 day after germination. If you dive seedlings, fertilizer applied 10-12 days after the procedure. For this purpose it is better to use phosphate fertilizers, which have a beneficial effect on the state of the root system.
Further feeding is carried out with an interval of 7-10 days. For this, it is recommended to use the fertilizer Crystalone Special, which stimulates the growing season of the crop.
In the process of introducing fertilizing plants must be watered so that the nutrients are absorbed into the soil and quickly penetrate to the roots.
Tips on how to grow eggplant seedlings correctly
Growing seedlings of this vegetable culture is difficult, since this crop is very sensitive to growing conditions. But there are practical recommendations that will help grow strong and healthy seedlings.
When caring for eggplants, follow these tips:
- Temperature: The optimum temperature for germination is + 20 + 25 degrees. In these conditions, the first shoots will appear within 5-10 days. If the temperature drops below +13 degrees, the crops will completely stop growing and may die.
- Lighting: Immediately after sowing the seeds, it is advisable to cover the bed with glass or captivity so that the temperature and humidity inside are kept stable. When the first shoots appear, the shelter is removed, and the plants themselves are transferred to a well-lit place and kept at a temperature of +18 degrees. In such conditions, the development of the root system is stimulated. if the temperature is higher, the leaves will actively grow, which is undesirable, since the root system is still too weak and will not be able to properly nourish the aerial parts.
- Shine: These vegetables belong to the plants of short daylight, so with a lack of sunlight they need to be illuminated artificially. In general, there will be enough coverage for 10-12 hours per day. However, it should be borne in mind that repleting should begin no earlier than three weeks after germination.
Planting of seedlings is carried out when its age reaches 65-70 days, but it should be borne in mind that by the time of transplantation into open ground, the threat of night frosts should completely disappear. Crop seedlings are very sensitive to temperature extremes, and can die even with minor frosts.
You will find more useful information about growing strong and healthy eggplant seedlings at home in the video.
Planting seeds for seedlings
The shorter the summer, the colder, the earlier varieties must be chosen in order to have time to get a harvest. For example, the new ultra early hybrids of Milady F1, Fabina F1, Faram F1 begin to mature already 75 days after germination. Mary and the King of the North F1 begin to enjoy the fruits after 95-100 days.
Soil preparation for seedlings
Ground for growing eggplant seedlings should be fertile, but not heavy. There are several options for soil mixes that can be used:
- lowland peat and compost (1: 1),
- lowland peat, turfy ground, sand (5: 4: 1),
- garden soil, humus (2: 1).
Soil needs to be fertilized: for 1 kg of the prepared mixture add 4 g of superphosphate, 4 g of potassium salt and 1 g of ammonium sulphate.
If you buy ready-made soil, then you need to choose slightly acidic or neutral with a pH of 6.0–7.0.
It is best to sow the seeds immediately in peat pots, it will save the seedlings from the stress of picking and transplanting. Possessing a weak root system, eggplants tolerate any manipulations with the roots very painfully, they can stop growing for several weeks.
In the seedling boxes, the seeds are arranged according to the 3x6 cm scheme, deepening by 5 mm, covered with glass or plastic film and put in a warm place (22–26 ° C). The soil should be wet, but not wet, it is better to shed it a day before sowing.
After the emergence of full sprouting, the film is removed and the containers with seedlings are placed in a cool and bright place (18 ° C) for a week, thereby stimulating the development of the roots.
Eggplant seedlings require increased attention, but if you meet all the conditions, you can get a healthy strong seedlings.
- The length of daylight hours is 12 hours, so at the latitude of Moscow, seedlings need to be illuminated until mid-March.
- The temperature for growing is needed high, 25–30 ° C. However, at night the temperature should not fall below 15 ° C, otherwise the roots will rot. It is better not to plant the seedlings directly on the cold window sill, but to use foam substrates to isolate the roots from the action of low temperatures.
- At first, seedlings are watered very carefully, sprinkling out of a spray bottle to avoid scouring the soil. Watering is necessary when the soil dries out a little, not allowing waterlogging or complete drying. Use only water at room temperature.
- After watering, soluble fertilizers are applied every 10 days.
- You must maintain a humidity of at least 60% by putting a bucket of water under the battery or using a humidifier.
After regrowth of two true leaves sprouts are transplanted into separate pots with a diameter of 5 cm or cassettes for seedlings with large and deep cells. 2 hours before picking the plants are watered. The roots try to disturb as little as possible, leaving the tip intact. Stretched seedlings during transplantation are buried to the cotyledons.
Eggplant in the garden
Before you plant the seedlings on the site, the plants need to be hardened, otherwise they will experience severe stress, even death. When the air temperature starts to warm up to + 15 ° С, the seedlings are carried out on the glazed balcony during the day, gradually increasing the residence time, or transferred to the greenhouse 10 days before disembarking, where they are covered with film at night.
Growing in a greenhouse
In Russia, weather conditions make it possible to achieve a good harvest of eggplants only in greenhouses or film greenhouses. The exceptions are the southern regions: Samara, Saratov, Belgorod, Voronezh, Volgograd, Rostov, Kalmykia, Stavropol and Krasnodar Krai. In these regions, normal results can be obtained in open ground. In the middle lane, growing eggplants without shelters is also possible, but the harvest will not be as abundant as that of greenhouse plants.
Planting seedlings in a greenhouse can be no earlier than the air inside it warms to 20 ° C and the soil to 12 ° C. Usually in central Russia this happens in mid-May. On plants should be 6-7 leaves.
The soil must first be prepared. Eggplants love light and fertile soil, sandy loam or light loam. If the soil is too heavy, you need to add river sand, rotted sawdust, fresh manure, dry grass and compost during autumn digging. In the sandy soil make clay soil. If you prepare the soil in the fall, then in the spring you will only have to remove the weeds and apply fertilizer: rotted manure, ash, urea, superphosphate, potassium sulphide.
The pits for planting are shed with a warm solution of a mullein (0.5 l per 10 l of water). The seedlings, together with a lump of earth, are placed in the holes, deepening 3 cm lower than they grew in seedling pots. Then the soil around the plant is compacted and mulched with peat or humus. The distance between eggplants depends on the variety: plants with spreading bushes are planted 60 cm from each other, and 40 cm is enough compact.
- The first 3-4 weeks planted seedlings need to be covered for the night with film, spunbond or other agrofibre. Then it is necessary only at night cooling.
- The soil under the eggplant should not dry out. It is necessary to water with warm water (at least 20 ° C) 2–3 times a week, 1–2 l of water per bush. Water should not get on the leaves, it can cause burns.
- Periodically, the plants need to be fed. The first time 10 days after the planting of calcium nitrate (20 g per 10 l of water), the second - after 20 days of diluted manure, the third time - when fruiting begins, a complex mineral fertilizer, including boron, molybdenum and copper. Before dressing the land is watered in order not to burn the roots. 2–3 times a month foliar dressing is recommended (on leaves).
- In case of poor flowering, eggplants are sprayed with boric acid (1 g per 5 l of water).
- Every week, the soil needs to be loosened and weeds removed. These works can be replaced by mulching: cover the ground with mowed grass, straw, leaves. But the grass must be taken dried so as not to rot.
- The greenhouse must be ventilated regularly, even in cloudy weather, especially after watering. On hot days, the greenhouse is closed only for the night.
- Remove dry bottom leaves, first bud and first 9 stepsons.
With a lack of space, eggplants can be placed in the greenhouse along with the peppers, and care is the same, only they plant peppers a bit more densely.
In open ground, seedlings of eggplants in the Non-Black Earth region can be planted only after the threat of return frost has passed, i.e. starting from the second week of June.
In general, the landing technology is the same as in the greenhouse. When planting, they maintain a distance between rows of 50–60 cm, in a row of 45–50 cm.
Planted seedlings in the evening to avoid exposure to sunlight. In the morning, cover with a grid, creating a shadow, or paper caps. Clean shelter in a week, when the plants take root.
Recommendations for care are almost the same as in the greenhouse.
Starting from mid-July, you need to pinch the tops and remove the flowers, so as not to take away the strength of the plant to form fruits that do not have time to mature. Shoots that do not carry the ovaries, you need to cut.
Eggplants are harvested a month after flowering, when the skin of the fruit becomes shiny. For collecting use pruner or sharp knife. When overripe eggplants become brown, the taste deteriorates.
With the observance of technology in the garden, you can get a good harvest of eggplants, up to 5 kg from one bush.In addition, healthy plants are quite decorative, especially if you combine varieties with fruits of different colors: traditional dark purple (Diamond, Handsome Black, Alekseyevsky), white (Bibo, Swan, Snow, Pelican), striped purple (Matrosik, Striped flight, Quartet , Striped long), yellow (Golden egg), green (Chinese green, Kermit, Emerald, Green).
In order to get enough fruit in the fall, it is important to consider many conditions for proper growing seedlings:
- Priming. For good cultivation, the soil must be loose, have neutral acidity and be clean. It is recommended to add vermiculite, which creates an optimal environment for nourishing the moisture of the roots of the plant. Before sowing eggplant seeds, proper planting on seedlings should be carried out after disinfecting the soil by treating it with boiling water.
- Lighting. Depending on the location of the seedlings, it is additionally highlighted. In order for the seedlings not to stretch much in the first month, it is enough to shine 60 watts of light on them for several hours in the morning and evening. Additionally, for safety net, you can put a foil panel near the seedlings, which will help to direct additional sun rays to the plants.
- Temperature. Eggplants do not tolerate drafts. The temperature drops on the roots are especially negative. To avoid this, a wooden board or foam is placed under the container with the ground.
- Top dressing. When plants look pale or drooping, no additional fertilizer is necessary. The ideal fertilizer is Nitrofoska. 3 g of this substance is diluted in 1 liter of water and watered the soil with the resulting solution. It is recommended to do this in the phase of three leaves, as well as 10 days before transplanting seedlings to a permanent place of growth.
- Watering. Moisturize the soil with slightly warm water, which is poured exclusively under the root, avoiding contact with the leaves.
How to choose a time using the lunar calendar
Eggplant planting schedule for seedlings begins in February and ends in April. The landing period depends on the region of residence. When plants continue to grow in the greenhouse, it is possible to sow seeds in the first month of the year, and when transplanting in open ground it is better to wait until March. When you have decided on the date of planting, it is recommended to find out the most suitable days for this using a special agrarian calendar. It was developed depending on the phase of growth or decrease of the Moon, the location of which affects the growth and development of the entire flora on the planet. However, for each individual plant these days are different.
- February - 10, 12, 23, 26.
- March - 1, 10, 31
- April - 8, 9, 20, 21.
The selection of planting material and care for seedlings
Today, a large number of eggplant varieties are on the market, however, in order to choose the right ones, you need to focus not only on external preferences or producer reliability, but also on other conditions that you can create for the plant. In contrast to the old varieties that were tied to the longitude of the daylight, the modern ones calmly grow at any latitude. When purchasing a hybrid, it is recommended to give preference to the first generation (F1), from such seeds grow more resistant to diseases, pests and temperature drops of the plant.
Terms of planting eggplant seedlings
Eggplant, like many other vegetables, are divided into:
- Early ripening varieties: ripen in three to four months, depending on the particular variety. The countdown is conducted from the emergence of seedlings to the state of technical ripeness of the fruit,
- Mid-season varieties: mid-ripening eggplants take about five months to ripen,
- Late-ripening varieties: varieties ripening in six months or more. Late eggplants are grown mainly in the southern regions - in the Crimea, in the Astrakhan region.
The planting time of eggplants for seedlings is determined by both the selected variety and the climatic conditions.
Therefore, it is hardly possible to talk about uniform landing dates. Imprint and impose climatic conditions in a particular region. As you know, the south is the suburban area, the faster the earth warms up and the earlier the seedlings can be moved to open ground. So that the seedlings are not wilted in the soil, it must warm up to at least fifteen degrees.
Gardeners of central Russia are advised to follow the following deadlines:
- When planting seedlings in the garden should wait for the final care of frost. If your region has a warm temperature in May, plant it in May; if in June, plant it in June. The main thing - to avoid returning cold weather that will threaten the seedlings, accustomed to a comfortable home environment. Considering the fact that seedlings take about three months to get stronger, planting seeds on seedlings should be somewhere in the middle of March,
When planting eggplant in the garden, the seedlings need to be harvested in early spring
North and South regions
As it is easy to guess, Southern gardeners can afford earlier terms of planting seeds. During subsequent transplantation in the garden, seeds are sown on seedlings in February. If the seedlings are planned to be placed in the greenhouse, then the seedlings will be harvested in the middle of January. Southern gardeners can afford all varieties of eggplants, both early and late.
The faster the land is heated in your area, the sooner you can sow seeds for seedlings.
Residents of the northern regions, who do not have the opportunity to boast a stable warm climate, sow seeds for seedlings in March. For the northern regions, the earliest and some of the middle varieties of eggplant are most similar.
Eggplant varieties for greenhouses
As already mentioned, it is possible to transplant seedlings both in open ground and in the greenhouse. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, we have at our disposal special varieties that have been eaten away both under the greenhouse and under the garden. In the tables below we will talk about these varieties, their ripening periods and productivity indicators.
Before purchasing eggplant seeds, examine the conditions for which the variety was bred.
Good time for breeding seedlings
Even experienced gardeners often doubt when sowing eggplants for seedlings, because improperly chosen planting time and unfavorable weather conditions can ruin all the work.
For those who doubt, when planting eggplant for seedlings, breeders have come up with a simple mathematical formula: the lunar calendar advises planting eggplants on May 11, seedlings are planted seventy days after germination, therefore, March 2 is the best time to plant eggplants for seedlings, the best time .
On the timing of planting tomatoes on the lunar calendar can be found in the article "When to plant tomatoes for seedlings: the views of agronomists and astrologers."
Many are interested in when to plant eggplants on seedlings intended for the greenhouse. It is possible to answer with confidence - earlier for three weeks than seedlings intended for open ground, therefore, the optimal date will be February 11.
In any case, these dates are advisory in nature, the time when planting eggplants for seedlings should be chosen from total employment, a few days is not the most terrible deviation from the rules, but the future crop will depend on the correct sowing process.
How to plant eggplant seeds?
In order for planting on eggplant to be successful, you need to pre-stock up separate cups for seedlings or a large box with a lot of cells, this is necessary so that each seed can be planted separately. Details on how to choose the right pots for seedlings can be found here.
The answer to the question of how to plant an eggplant for seedlings is quite simple - you should take a seed and plant it in the soil previously treated with potassium nitrate to a depth of half a centimeter - maximum one centimeter. Then all the obtained seedlings covered with polycarbonate or glass and carried to a pre-prepared warm place with a temperature of 23 degrees above zero.
If you follow all the rules, the first shoots will appear a week later.
The following mistakes of gardeners who do not know how to plant eggplants on seedlings should be avoided:
- You can not plant purchased seeds when there is no confidence in their proper storage and freshness. Beginner gardeners take note - before planting eggplants for seedlings will be carried out, all seeds are first germinated using any growth stimulator (HB-101, sodium humate and others). This is done in order to immediately discard unviable seeds.
- It is impossible to plant seeds deeper than one centimeter.
- Do not use gauze for germination of eggplants, because weak sprouts can become entangled in the threads and break when removed.
- Ready seedlings are not placed on the windowsill, otherwise it will freeze.
- Seedlings should not be watered with cold water, the seeds can rot in wet and cold soil.
So, the question of how to plant eggplants for seedlings is not difficult, but how to grow seedlings of eggplants to make it strong and fruitful, not every experienced gardener will be able to answer this. Growing eggplant seedlings is a laborious process that requires patience and knowledge.
Maintaining the required temperature during cultivation
Before sowing eggplants for seedlings, you need to carefully consider the place in which young eggplants will grow. In the room where the seedlings are located, a constant temperature of 22-25 degrees above zero must be maintained.
As soon as the first shoots appear, you need to remove the glass or polycarbonate, which covered the seeds, and transfer the seedlings to a place with a temperature of +18 degrees. These measures are necessary to ensure that the seedlings stop growing until its root system finally becomes stronger. With the squeezing of the first leaves, eggplants again need increased heat.
It is supposed to support the mode of +24 in the daytime and +19 at night up to the time when it will be possible to plant seedlings of eggplant directly into the ground.
Proper care of seedlings
If planting seedlings of eggplants for seedlings was carried out in February, young eggplants will need additional light after the first three weeks of life. You can put table lamps near the seedlings, but it is recommended to turn them off at night. With the first shoots can be processed eggplant, watering a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
In general, young seedlings should be watered once in the first week of life, gradually increasing the amount of watering to once every two to three days.
Eggplants do not like moist air, therefore, they must be kept in a dry room.
It is undesirable to forget about transplanting seedlings as they grow into more free containers; it is necessary to ensure that eggplants do not interfere with each other and do not touch the leaves.
Before planting into the ground, water the seedlings properly and feed them once (twenty-five grams of any suitable fertilizer per ten liters of water).
Choosing a landing site
For eggplants, the cleared area is selected, windless, on the sunny side, you should pay attention so that garden trees do not create a shadow for them.
Ridges on which potatoes, tomatoes or peppers grew last season are not suitable for this crop; ideally, these crops should grow at a sufficient distance from the future eggplant beds. The forerunners of the southern vegetable may be onions, pumpkins, cucumbers, legumes, carrots and cabbage.
Next time, it will be possible to plant eggplants in the chosen place only in three years. You can find out more about the compatibility of vegetables on the beds here.
The soil for eggplants should retain moisture well, but swampy soil also does not suit them.
Fertilizer should be made for the future bed: a tablespoon of superphosphate and potassium sulphide, a glass of wood ash, a teaspoon of urea per 1 square meter of bed. The soil is dug up half a meter deep. The desired height of the beds - 30 centimeters, width about one meter.
The process of planting the finished seedlings in the ground
Before you embark on planting, the seedlings need to be hardened. First, it is necessary to bring the seedlings to fresh air for only a couple of hours, gradually increasing the time, and by the tenth day of such a procedure the plant can be left for a whole day light and night. Thus, young eggplants should get used to the environment.
Before planting seedlings of eggplant in a greenhouse or open ground, it is necessary to water the seedlings for a day and repeat the procedure immediately before planting, and carefully water every hole in which the seedlings will be planted. Landing takes place in the evening. It is important to observe the correct distance between the plants - on the open ground it should be about 50 centimeters, and in the greenhouse not less than 60 centimeters, a chess order is observed.
Many are wondering how to plant eggplant seedlings - in a greenhouse or in the open field. The answer here can not be unambiguous.
If the warm weather has settled down and there is confidence that there will be no cardinal changes - you can safely sit in the open space, but in the case of changeable weather and the possibility of cooling, it is better to be safe and take advantage of the greenhouse.
At first, after planting, the eggplants will grow very slowly, you need to help them, carrying out loosening (shallow), so that the air reaches the roots, but you should take some time with watering.
The process of growing eggplants is quite time-consuming, but interesting, and with the systematic care of this southern vegetable, it will please a great harvest. Have a great gardening season!
How to and when to plant eggplants for seedlings on the lunar calendar
Vegetable with dark purple sandpaper eggplant belongs to the genus Solanaceae, is a thermophilic plant and does not tolerate frost. That is why in our climate it should be grown seedlings. From the moment of emergence of shoots to the ripening of fruits, 75 to 100 days should pass.
In our article we will tell you how and when to plant eggplants for seedlings, we will describe in detail the care of plants. About when to plant peppers and tomatoes in 2018, we wrote in our previous articles, links to which are here: cucumbers,"Peppers", "tomatoes". Seeds of purple vegetables germinate for about 10-15 days, after which it will take about two months for the seedlings to grow and mature until they are planted in a greenhouse or bed in an open ground. These dates must be borne in mind in order to determine the date of sowing of seeds. Favorable days for planting eggplants for seedlings:
When to plant eggplants for seedlings in 2018
Seeds of purple vegetables germinate for about 10-15 days, after which it will take about two months for the seedlings to grow and mature until they are planted in a greenhouse or bed in an open ground. These dates must be borne in mind in order to determine the date of sowing of seeds.
Favorable days for planting eggplants for seedlings:
According to the lunar calendar, eggplant seeds are sown on seedlings with a growing moon. On the new moon and the full moon, it is not recommended to plant and transplant vegetables, the fruits of which are formed above the ground.
Soil mixture can be purchased at a specialty store or prepared by yourself. Soil options for planting:
- Humus, lowland peat, river sand (3: 4: 1).
- Peat and humus (1: 2).
- Turf ground and humus (1: 2).
- Pereprevshie sawdust and peat (1: 3) mix, sterilize and fertilize mineral complex feeding.
- A rotted mullein, turf ground, humus (1: 2: 8) mix, sterilize and add superphosphate with urea.
The result should be a fertile, light, loose, neutral soil mixture.
Before using the soil is disinfected, for which it can be heated in a water bath or 40 minutes in the oven. After this treatment, the substrate should stand in a warm place for two weeks so that bacteria that are useful for the growth and development of plants will multiply in it.
Sowing eggplant seeds
Seed tanks are filled with moistened soil, in which seeds are placed one centimeter deep and sprinkled with soil. The soil is compacted, sprayed with water from a spray bottle and covered with a film. Crops are placed in a warm place, with an air temperature of about +25 degrees.
It is recommended to plant two or three seeds in each pot, since not everyone can stick. When the seedlings appear and grow, the weak ones will need to be removed, leaving only one strong plant.
The film should be lifted daily and the ground should be aired so that it does not turn sour. As required, moisten the soil with warm water from a spray bottle.
Growing eggplant seedlings
In warm conditions, the first seedlings should appear in 10-14 days. After germination, seedlings are placed in a bright place without direct sunlight. The lighting must be good, otherwise the plants will begin to stretch and will grow weak.
Caring for eggplant seedlings is no different from caring for other vegetable crops:
- Water plants should be only as the soil dries. When the buds begin to appear buds, the humidity of the air and the soil should be increased.
- Top dressing seedlings are not needed, as it was planted in a nutrient soil. If the vegetables were planted in a poor substrate, then during the cultivation of seedlings they should be fed two or three times with special fertilizers. You can use Crystallin solution, after diluting 12 grams of fertilizer in ten liters of water.
- Transfer plants are carried out when two true leaves appear on bushes. Seedlings are transplanted into larger pots with diameters of 10-12 cm. Transplantation should be carried out by transfer, so as not to disturb the roots of eggplants.
When in open ground or greenhouse soil temperature will be at least +18 degrees, plants can be planted in the garden.
Two weeks before the seedlings begin to harden, placing it on warm days on an open balcony or area. In the first days of the seedlings should be in the fresh air for several hours.
By the time the eggplant is planted on a bed in the ground, bushes should have 8-10 leaves and be between 16 and 25 cm high.
You can plant eggplants after legumes, zucchini, garlic, onions, carrots, cucumbers, cabbage. Eggplants, physalis, tomatoes, peppers and potatoes cannot be planted on the site where eggplants grew last year.
Planting eggplants on time, proper care of the seedlings and respect for crop rotation will guarantee a good harvest of tasty vegetables.
When to sow eggplants on seedlings:
- In regions with a warm climate, seed sowing for seedlings is carried out at the end of February and the first decade of March.
- By transplanting into open ground, seedlings will be ready in mid-May to early June.
Depending on the length of the growing season, the planting time for eggplants for seedlings can be shifted by 10-12 days:
- Varieties of early, medium, late ripening can be sown at the same time, but the time of transplantation into open ground will be different.
- The seedlings of early ripe varieties are ready for planting at the age of 45-55 days, middle-ripening - 55-70 days, late - 70-80 days.
- When transplanting in open ground, be guided by the weather conditions in your area.
Under the conditions of the middle and northern stripes, seed sowing for seedlings is started on March 15. The seedling will be ready in 60-70 days. Prefer early and medium grades. You can grow and late, but will require additional conditions (heated greenhouses, artificial lighting, etc.).
How to process seeds
Seed pre-treatment takes place in several stages.
- First of all they need to warm up. Wrap the seeds in cheesecloth and lower for 3-5 minutes in water at a temperature of 45-50 ° C. Long to keep in hot water is not worth it.
- Then disinfect the seeds to protect against disease. Prepare a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, dip the seeds in a gauze bag for 15-20 minutes, rinse under running water. Instead of potassium permanganate, you can use a solution of biofungicides (gamar, alirin, phytosporin). Prepare it according to the instructions on the package. In this case, the seeds do not need to be washed, and dried to a state of flowability.
- Seeds germinate slowly - they need enough nutrients. Additional treatment with growth stimulant (zircon, ideal, epine, etc.) and micronutrient fertilizers (citovit, microvit) will be required. To reduce the number of treatments, you can combine disinfection and this stage by preparing a tank mixture. Prepare a solution of each drug (growth stimulator and biofungicide) separately, following the instructions, then pour it into one container and mix. After warming up, keep the seeds in this mixture for about 10 hours. Do not rinse the seeds - you just need to dry to a state of flowability.
- Hardening - the final stage of processing. Seeds must be dried. 5-6 days before sowing, observe the following temperature regime: in the daytime, keep the seeds at a temperature of 18-22 ° C (cool windowsill), at night - 2-3 ° C (the vegetable section of the refrigerator will do).
- To accelerate the emergence of seedlings at will germinate seeds. After hardening, lay them on a damp cloth in a flat container, cover with a damp cloth on top, and keep in a warm dark place. When they are hatching, gently arrange a toothpick into cups of one or two, and gently sprinkle with a thin layer of soil mixture (the main thing is not to break the tender shoots).
How to prepare the soil for sowing eggplant
The soil for growing seedlings requires a light, water and breathable, moisture-absorbing, neutral reaction.
Soil mixture will be suitable: 2 parts of humus, 1-2 parts of sod land or 1 part of neutral (top) peat, 1 part of sand or 1 part of non-coniferous rotted sawdust. Another combination is possible: 2 parts of peat or 1 part of humus, 2 parts of leaf or sod land, add 0.5-1 part of sand.
Any mixture must be disinfected (warm, calcine, freeze or prosparit). Then it is necessary to add biologics (planriz, trichodermin, etc.). They simultaneously destroy pathogenic organisms and contribute to the formation of healthy microflora.
Then you need to fertilize. On 1 bucket of soil mixture, add: 30-40 g nitrophoska and 1 cup of wood ash. You can use another dressing: 30-40 g of granules of superphosphate, 15-20 g of urea and potassium sulfate, 1 cup of wood ash. Mix all ingredients thoroughly.
How to plant eggplants for seedlings without picking
Fill soil with prepared soil. These can be ordinary or special boxes for seedlings, individual containers (plastic cups, peat pots, cassettes). Moisturize the soil a little - seeds can choke and not ascend from excessive moisture.
- In a single cell of the cassette or cup, place 1-2 seeds, deepen in the soil by 0.5-1 cm.
- When grown in a regular box, you can use a net with sockets according to the scheme 8 * 8 or 6 * 6.
Crops cover with a film, which should be removed when shoots appear. Seeds of early and medium varieties germinate in 7-10 days, late - in 10-14 days.
How to sow eggplant seedlings with picks video:
If you want to grow a large number of seedlings, and there is little space on the windowsill, you can resort to frequent sowing of eggplant for seedlings:
- Plant in large seedling boxes.
- The side of the ruler outlines shallow grooves at a distance of 4-5 cm.
- In the furrow sow seeds at a distance of 05-1 cm.
- Gently sprinkle with earth, moistened from the pulvelliser, covered with film.
- At emergence of shoots the film is removed.
How to grow eggplant seedlings: care properly
An important role is played by the correct temperature regime.
From the time of sowing until the emergence of shoots maintain the air temperature in the range of 22-28 ° C.
In the first week after emergence, keep the day-time air temperature within the range of 14-16 ° C, night-time - 8-10 ° C. This is required so that the sprouts do not stretch. Then the air temperature during the day should be 18-20 ° C, at night - 15-17 ° C. On sunny days it is possible to raise the temperature to 26-27 ° C.
Lighting is required bright, scattered. The first couple of weeks after the emergence of shoots dosachivite extra about 10 hours a day. In case of cloudy weather, increase the time by 1-2 hours.
How to water
Water moderately every 2-3 days. Water should be warm (20-22 ° C), softened (rain, melt or tap water, at least for a day). Twice a month with irrigation make antifungal biologics. For humans, they are completely harmless, and seedlings will protect against disease. To avoid root rot, grind the soil with dry sand.
Transfer eggplant seedlings photo
When the seedlings rise and the cells of the cassette become close to the root system, transfer the eggplant seedlings into larger pots with the root of the neck being 1-2 cm deep.
How to feed
Seedlings should be fed. Add the first dressing at the stage of formation of 2-3 true leaves, the second - in 1.5-2 weeks. Pour nutrient solution under the root.
There are 2 options (proportions to 10 liters of water): dissolve 30-35 g of nitrophoska or a mixture consisting of 30 g of superphosphate and 5-10 g of urea.
7-10 days before transplanting in open ground, feed them with complex mineral fertilizer.
Eggplant picking for seedlings
Picking eggplant seedlings photo
If sowing of eggplants on seedlings was carried out in seedling boxes without observing a sufficient distance between seedlings, it is necessary to pick out the seedlings of eggplants. Dive seedlings at the stage of appearance of 2-3 true leaves. By this time, the seedling age is about 1-1.5 months.
- Sprinkle seedlings well before picking so that the shoots are easier to remove.
- The volume of new capacity should be at least 1 l - the seedlings need to comfortably grow in room conditions for about another 1.5 months.
- Carefully undermine the plant with the back of a fork or spoon, hold the leaves so as not to break the fragile stem.
- If the main root is very long, shorten it by, the root system will recover quickly.
- Do pre-holes in cups to make it easier to deepen the plants with the root.
- Do not let the root bend upwards - plant growth in such a case will slow down significantly.
- In a new container, plant a little deeper than the seedlings grew earlier; press the soil around the stem with your fingers.
- For 2-3 days, provide conditions for adaptation: keep the air temperature within 18-20 ° C, protect from direct sunlight.
Among the early maturing should be noted:
- Fabina (40-50 days)
- Black handsome (60 days)
- Milad (66-75 days)
- Nancy (75-85 days)
- Bibo (87-93 days)
- Valentine, Maksik, Violet miracle, Alekseevsky (90-100 days)
- Hippopotamus, Lilac fog (100-105 days)
- Quartet (107-122 days),
Growing eggplant seedlings: when to plant, what you need to know?
The most capricious and the most thermophilic of all the nightshade is eggplants. They most need a good watering, open space, warmth and sunlight. If you plant the plant near the bushes and trees, if you strongly “thicken”, if cloudy and cool weather pulls, wait for the yield to decrease, as small and low-quality fruits form.
But that's not all. In order for the harvest to be excellent, not only the correct technology of growing vegetables is important, but also high-quality, good seedlings of eggplants, peppers, tomatoes and other vegetables. Colleagues gardeners are well aware that everything is better to do with their own hands.
When to plant eggplants for seedlings and how to do it right? Where to start? We will try to answer all these questions in the article.
How to prepare eggplant seeds for seedlings?
First, we carefully select varieties and hybrids, then high-quality seeds. The first thing to do - check the seeds for germination. Planting eggplant seedlings should begin with a small experiment that is performed 2-3 weeks before sowing.
It is done this way: 10 seeds are soaked in warm water for 20 hours. Then carefully lay each seed on a wet bandage in several layers or a soft cloth. We put all this into heat and moisten it from time to time. It takes about a week and the seeds "hatch".
If more than 50% has sprouted, then the planting material is good and you can safely begin sowing eggplant seeds for seedlings.
Now you need to properly handle the entire seed, that is, disinfect. The easiest way is to dip the seeds in a strong solution of potassium permanganate, and then dry. Do not despair those who do not have manganese powder, because it is now difficult to purchase.
We offer another way to prepare eggplant seeds for sowing for seedlings. To do this, sew a gauze bag, place the seeds there and dip it for 30 minutes in a thermos with hot water (approximately 50 degrees), then cool it in room temperature water.
In the meantime, we are preparing a nutrient solution. In a container with one liter of water pour 1 tsp. sodium humate, infusion of ash or nitrophoska. Remember, the temperature of the solution should be around 25 degrees. Here we put the seeds after disinfection for a day.
To answer the question - how to grow eggplant seedlings at home correctly - we need to recall the treatment of seeds with plant growth stimulants, as they grow very slowly.
To do this, you can buy ready-made tools (Zircon, Energen), or prepare natural plant growth stimulants at home. When everything is ready - we lower seeds into solution for 10 hours.
After that, they must be dried (without washing) to flowability at room temperature.
Cultivation of eggplant from seeds provides the final stage of preparation of planting material for sowing - hardening. In the light half of the day (day) dry seeds are kept in a warm room, placed in a refrigerator for the night, on the lowest shelf. This procedure is repeated for a week.
After that, just before sowing eggplant seedlings (see video), the seeds need to germinate. We take a damp napkin, spread it on a saucer, scatter the seeds and cover with the same wet napkin on top and leave in a dark and warm place until full pecking.
After that, the seeds are ready for sowing.
What does all this give us? The advantages are as follows:
- Seeds together germinate quickly.
- Development accelerates and the early harvest of fruits increases.
- The first shoots of eggplant can be obtained already on the fifth day.
Preparing the soil for eggplant seedlings
While the planting material is being prepared, we stock up on soil. Soil for eggplant seedlings should be light, water and breathable, rich in nutrients, disinfected, moisture-absorbing and neutral in acidity. There are various options for combinations of soil mixtures.
Let's get acquainted with one of the most common:
- Humus mature - two parts.
- Sodland - two parts.
- Sand or rotted sawdust (not coniferous) - one part.
Soil mixture is ready, but since it is not so easy to sow the eggplants on the seedlings correctly, it is necessary to pay attention to one more stage - decontamination of the soil.
It can be done in several ways: freezing, scaling, roasting, heating. Now the soil must be “revived” with biological preparations (Trichodermin, Baikal M-1).
These funds contribute to the very rapid reproduction of useful and effective microflora and at the same time destroy bacterial and fungal pathogens.
In that case, if the top dressing of the soil was carried out with a wet method (solution), then it must be dried and then filled with fertilizer.
One of the options.Add 40 g of nitrophoska and one cup of ash to one bucket of soil mixture.
All you need to mix well, fill the prepared mixture with the mixture obtained and sow the planting material.
Methods for sowing eggplant seedlings
As already mentioned, the blue vegetable is very capricious, it does not tolerate transplants, therefore it is better to sow the seeds sparsely. First, we moisten the soil mixture moderately, as in the wet soil the seeds can “suffocate” and it is bad or does not rise at all.
A container with soil can be covered with a special grille with nests of 7x7 cm. In the middle of each hole (nest) we place 1-2 seeds to a depth of 1-2 cm and sprinkle it with the same ground.
Growing seedlings eggplant without picking provides for planting seeds in a separate container (pots, special cassettes). The main thing that is required from the cottager is to prepare containers. Many successfully grow eggplant seedlings in peat tablets.
We place such an individual container in a common box and place it in a warm dark place. If the sowing is done in a greenhouse, then the soil should be covered with lutrasil.
Not every gardener will like this sowing method, so you can grow sprouts through a pick, in the standard way. Picking eggplant seedlings should be carried out in the phase of 2-3 leaves (these).
Remember that a few days before this operation, we pour the soil in order to injure the roots less during a pick. Transplanted so that there is a large area of nutrition, deepening the seedlings to the cotyledon leaves.
All this is shaded, watered with warm distilled water.
Eggplant seedlings: what should the air temperature be?
Temperature control plays a huge role. It is necessary to adhere to the temperature that our gardeners recommend to us, as well as scientific literature.
From sowing to seedlings, the soil should be heated from +20 to +28. The air temperature in the first week after the emergence of seedlings at night is reduced to +8 degrees, and in the daytime to +16. Before hardening the plants, the air needs to be warmed up at night to +14, and in the daytime everything depends on the lighting. If the days are sunny, then the temperature can be raised even to 27 degrees, on cloudy days - to lower to 20.
What is the temperature change for? What eggplant seedlings (see video) will work if you do not follow these recommendations? All these measures are necessary so that the seedlings are not stretched. Otherwise, the summer resident risks getting long and pale, with underdeveloped leaves, sprouts.
To prevent this from happening, you can also organize artificial lighting of seedlings with lamps.
Eggplant seedlings: care, basic tips
Very carefully you need to care for young shoots. In addition to the temperature regime, it is imperative to monitor the soil and air humidity, feed, protect against common ailments and pests, and harden the seedlings. If the seedlings do not harden, then during transplantation it may become very sick or even die.
No one is immune from the appearance of aphids, caterpillars, whiteflies and others. Therefore, sprouts are recommended to spray bioinsecticides.
How to properly water the plants "blue"? This should be done in 2-3 days with separated (warm) water, moderately. To prevent root rot, immediately after watering, it is recommended to soil the soil with dry sand.
Twice a month, you can add antifungal drugs (Planzir, Trichodermin) with watering. It is harmless to people, therefore it is possible to use these funds not only when growing seedlings of eggplant in a greenhouse, but also in a residential area.
It is important to conduct airing.
Top dressing is best done with watering. Up to 8 g of urea and about 30 g of superphosphate should be placed in a bucket of water. You can even prepare a solution of the complete mineral fertilizer.
To do this, in the water (full ten-liter bucket) to place 30 g of nitrophoska. All is ready.
Another good tip! After feeding you should rinse the leaves out of the spray bottle with clean water so that there are no burns.
Feed the young plants would be good the second time. This can be done about ten days before the disembarkation of the seedlings “for permanent residence”. Prepare the same solution, but without nitrogen. You can also use Kemira fertilizer. It is intended for complex care of plants.
The last stage in the cultivation of seedlings eggplant - hardening. Approximately two weeks before the landing, gradually reduce watering, reduce the temperature in the room with sprouts, and even better bring them to the veranda, loggia or glazed balcony. But this should be done slowly, first for a couple of hours, gradually increasing the time the plants stay in a cool room.
Terms of planting eggplant seedlings
Many vegetable growers are interested in the question - when to plant eggplant seedlings on permanent beds? It is necessary to pay special attention to the fact that the main feature of the blue vegetable is quite a rather big growing season. And this directly affects when sowing eggplants on seedlings.
It must be remembered that from the time of sowing of seed material to planting sprouts on permanent beds, at least 85 days should pass, and warm weather should occur on the street. If we talk about regions with a warmer climate, then we focus on the beginning of May.
If you count about 80 days back, it turns out that eggplant seeds should be planted on seedlings in February. This is the most optimal period.
When to plant eggplants on seedlings in Siberia, in the Urals, where is the climate colder? Here we focus again on the timing of determining the plants in the open beds. This can be done no earlier than June. Therefore, answering the question - when to plant eggplants for seedlings in cold regions - should pay attention to summer residents for a period not earlier than the beginning of March.
If the shoots have a height of about 22 cm, they have 8-9 dark green leaves, 1-2 buds, and the root system is well developed, then they can be safely planted in the ground.
You can, of course, buy ready-made planting material. But it often happens that the person who grew it did not adhere to all the important stages, for example, hardening. In this case, even, at first glance, large and beautiful shoots will not take root. Therefore, in order not to risk the harvest and not leave the whole family without tasty vegetable stews, it is necessary to carefully study the above tips.