This bird is small in size, but due to its bright plumage, it is easily visible from a great distance. The length of her body usually does not reach half a meter, and the weight varies from 0.5 to 0.7 kg for both sexes.
The wingspan is about 60 cm. The miniature size allows the duck to easily take off from the ground and water almost vertically. Exotic color has a drake in the mating season.
He changes his beautiful outfit twice a year to an inconspicuously gray one that looks like a female.
In the period from September to July, a voluminous tricolor tuft and red whiskers are formed from the elongated feathers on the head of the drake, passing onto the elongated neck.
At the top are red feathers with green-purple ends, dark eyes bordered with white plumage, which smoothly turns into tuft. The bill has a bright red color.
The back is decorated with white, orange-red, green, and olive-brown feathers; a red, black, and purple color prevails on the neck and chest. The tail is red with a darker upper part. The abdomen of the male is painted white. Orange membranes are characteristic for webbed frames.
On the wing is a wide reddish feather with a dark blue edging, having the shape of a vane, and externally creating the appearance of a saddle. All variety of color does not mix in colors, and has clearly defined boundaries.
Mandarin duck females have a color that promotes good disguise against the background of nature. Their back is painted in olive-brown color, gray head with a small tuft, and belly is white. One color zone gradually turns into another. The beak, unlike the male, has a dark olive color, and the webbed feet can be painted in light orange, yellowish or gray.
Under natural conditions, ducks inhabit the expanses of China, Japan, and Korea, and in Russia their nesting takes place in Primorsky, Amur, Khabarovsk and on. Sakhalin. From the northern areas, birds migrate to the countries of Southeast Asia for the winter period.
Ducks create hollow nests on tall trees, sometimes even at a height of about 6 meters.
Given that these are waterfowl, they settle near mountain rivers and reservoirs littered with a large number of fallen trees, as this creates a sense of security. Taiga deciduous and mixed forests are perfect for their habitat.
This bird is listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation and hunting is prohibited.
Ducks feed on plant and animal food. In the water, they feed on fish and small amphibians, without neglecting their caviar, mollusks and various insects. Often they find food in the rice fields and under or in the trees, receiving the cereals, acorns and seeds necessary for their diet.
When grown at home, birds should be provided with feeds containing large amounts of protein and vitamins. The diet should include finely chopped grain crops (wheat, sorghum, corn, barley, oats, millet), wheat bran, meat and bone meal, fish products, low fat cottage cheese, boiled potatoes, greens. Be sure to add pebbles, chalk, crushed shells.
Mandarin Duck returns from wintering early enough when it is still snowing. Having arranged the nest in the hollows of trees at a height not lower than 1.5 meters, and the duck makes a clutch of 7-14 medium sized cream eggs.
Hatching eggs for a month, the female practically does not leave the nest. Feed it supplies the male. Hatching chicks, both parents feed, train to fly, protect from predators the entire summer period. Ducklings, as a rule, begin to fly to the age of 40 days.
Breeding at home
These exotic ducks are suitable not only for breeding in park areas and zoos, they are great for home keeping. The main thing is to create conditions for them as close as possible to the natural. Dilution and maintenance of mandarin ducks has features:
- there should be trees and bollards in bird quarters,
- near the place where they will breed ducks, it is necessary to create an artificial reservoir,
- duck nests settle in trees or attach to the house wall at a distance of 1.5-2 meters from the ground,
- for the period of planting eggs by the female, the male is transferred to another aviary,
- Because of the poorly developed instinct of motherhood, other types of poultry are attracted to the incubation of ducklings.
Where to keep these birds?
Mandarin ducks in the aviary in winter
Such ducks at home can be kept in special cages or open enclosures that are equipped with a roof to protect against precipitation. In the bird house you need to knead the container with water.
In the warm season, these ducks can be released to an open pond. They get along well with other waterfowl. If there is no reservoir nearby, then it is best to independently build a small swimming pool right in the aviary. To do this, dig a hole 0.3-0.4 m deep and 1.5 m x 1.5 m in size.
Walls for the pool made of concrete. Also additionally equip the hole for the drain. Fill the container with a regular hose. This homemade pool is recommended to clean once every 2-3 weeks.
Tangerine pool in the aviary
It is best to place the nest for ducks on a small elevation, since in natural conditions mandarins build houses for themselves on the branches or in the hollows of trees.
With a decrease in air temperature to + 5 ° С, it is recommended to transfer ducks to an enclosed area where you can create the most optimal conditions for birds.
Mandarin in most cases tolerate moderate frosts. If the air temperature does not fall below -7 ° C ... -8 ° C, then the maintenance of ducks is possible even in street conditions. In this case, you need to warm the enclosure with a bed of hay or straw. You also need to take care that the water in the bird pool does not freeze, for which you need to pour hot liquid from time to time.
How to equip a place for nesting birds?
The nest for ducks should be in a closed enclosure that does not have access to other birds. For the arrangement of the nests, you can use dry wood or any other vertical surface. Be sure to take care that the entrance near the hollow has a convenient additive.
It is recommended to place the nest at a height of at least 1.5 m from the surface. For breeding a large number of birds, it is best to arrange several nesting places at different heights, so that each mandarin duck can choose for itself the most comfortable place.
Mandarin duck enclosure with a house and pool
The bird house should have the following parameters:
- optimum height - 53-55 cm,
- bottom dimensions - 40-45 cm x 40-45 cm,
- hole for birds with a diameter of at least 13-14 cm,
- be sure to equip it with a removable roof.
Place for nesting mandarin need to equip in the first half of March. These amazing ducks start laying eggs at the beginning of April. Therefore, they need some time to get used to the new house. In one season, the female lays about ten eggs.
Bird Breeding Features
After the duck has sat down, it is best to remove the drake from the enclosure. But if your cell is large enough, you can not do that. The mandarin is a very whimsical bird, so if it refuses to sit on eggs, use an incubator.
Nestlings hatch 30 days after laying, after which they crawl out of the nest. Ducklings do not mutilate, even if they fall from a great height. This is due to the fact that on their legs are membranes. Also during the fall, small ducks spread their wings.
chicks apart from the mother is quite a difficult task. They are very shy and long adapted to the environment. To avoid all the trouble, it is best to choose a hen for them, which may even have other chickens.
Duck breeds Rouen and Mandarin
Diet for poultry
ducks are impossible without nutritious food, which should include the following products:
- various grain crops - wheat, corn, barley, millet,
- wheat bran, oatmeal,
- sunflower and soybean meal,
- flour from the bones of fish and animals
- pebble, chalk, coquina,
- fresh greens.
Closer to autumn, it is recommended to enter acorns into the poultry diet. It is best to feed them with a variety of mixers with the addition of cereals, bran, vegetables. When it is time for egg laying or feathering, it is recommended to additionally add raw meat or fish mince. Its quantity should not exceed 17-18% of the total volume of food.
What are the problems may face the novice farmer?
Mandarin is not always an easy task. These birds can infect a variety of diseases, most often caused by improper care or poor nutrition.
The most common problems that novice poultry farmers may face are:
- Avitaminosis of group A - during an illness the bird's body becomes covered with ulcers, it loses its appetite, problems that are associated with the eyes develop. To eliminate this, you need at least two weeks to add to the trough 5-6 drops of fish oil and vitamin A,
- Avitaminosis group E - characterized by a complete lack of appetite, the development of convulsions in birds. Treatment of the disease is carried out with the help of tocopherol. Also, wheat, grass, hay must be present in the diet of a sick bird, it is best to add dairy products to the mash,
Approximate diet for domestic ducks
- rickets - develops with a lack of vitamin D and is accompanied by poor growth, weak bone skeleton, soft beak and lag in physical development. For the prevention of the disease, mineral feeds (chalk, shells, bone meal), fish oil must be present in the poultry diet. Young animals should be regularly released for walks, for contact with sunlight,
- cloacitis - accompanied by the inflammatory process of the cloaca. The disease develops due to a deficiency of nutrients. For the prevention and treatment of cloacitis, fresh greens, bone meal, and carrots are introduced into the poultry diet. It is important to provide daily walking, while it is desirable in an open pond,
Drug for the prevention and treatment of diseases of animals and birds
- Hepatitis is a serious disease, which is accompanied by liver damage and often death of livestock. Characteristic symptoms - the bird becomes drowsy, lethargic, difficult to breathe. In order to prevent the spread and development of the disease, the cages or cages must be constantly cleaned, timely deal with rodents,
- helminthiasis - appear due to the damage by helminths (worms) of various species. They adversely affect the body of the bird, it is not gaining weight, can cause dangerous diseases. To get rid of worms, you must complete a course of antihelminthic drugs. For the prevention of this disease you need to constantly keep the enclosure clean, regularly changing litter.
Compliance with all recommendations will make it easy to get a good population of these amazing birds.
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Mandarin Ducks - description and photo, where they live
The usual white and gray ducks are not the only representatives of their own species. Nature has created amazingly beautiful drakes, which many people breed for aesthetic pleasure.
This is a mandarin duck. In the article you will find a description of their appearance, a story about the interesting small bright birds, where they live in the wild. You will also learn how to keep an exotic bird at home.
Mandarin ducks are forest ducks, of which there are only two species (another native to North America). Originally appeared in Asia, namely in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan.
Today it can be found in remote places of Russia - Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krai have become the places where a strange bird lives.
Mandarin flies from the northern regions by early October to spend the winter in their native Asian countries.
You can find birds in other areas. Scientists in the course of their observations, calculated the population on different continents:
- America - about 1 thousand individuals
- The British Isles - about 2 thousand,
- Russia - 30 thousand (60% of the total), most prefer Primorye,
- People's Republic of China - less than 2 thousand
As you can see, most of us now prefer to settle in the Russian open spaces. Sometimes tangerines independently find new habitats. These facts can be established through ringing.
For example, the drake, which lived in one of the parks of Moscow, moved to Ukraine, having covered several hundred kilometers.
A duck flew away from the zoo in Germany, which was later discovered in Karelia - a couple of thousand kilometers.
Mandarin Duck is a rare species listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation, therefore it is illegal to hunt it. What kind of landscape prefers? These are mountain streams, closely surrounded by forests, small lakes in the middle of taiga. Swims well, but very rarely dives. The dimensions are small - the weight of the drake is about 700 grams, the ducks - 400 grams. Wingspan reaches 25 cm.
Mandarin Ducks - photo
The Chinese duck is easily recognized by the bright, even colorful plumage that appears during the breeding season in the males. He has a crest on his head. It consists feathers of several different colors. On the sides of the head there is a white stripe, on the forehead a feather of contrasting dark shades. On the neck lush plumage, resembling the shirt-front, reddish-black.
The little body of the drake is also very elegantly decorated: there are purple feathers on the chest and fawn with pictures on the side. On the wings there are drawings with complex patterns, colors are various: bright red, blue, green, red. Light contrast stripes create an intricate pattern. Klyuvik bright red on the tip of white.
When the drake folds its wings, the outermost feathers protrude above the hull like a vane or sail. They have a golden hue with a dark blue edging. Twice a year there is a molt, after which the handsome males become ordinary gray ducks.
The female's plumage is greyish-brown with light specks - after all, it must remain inconspicuous to enemies, incubating the clutch and grooming the chicks. Only the base of the beak (it is of dark color) is decorated with white stripes, the tuft on the head, the feather on the wings is monochromatic dark, as on the tail. This is the description of the appearance of the most beautiful wild duck.
What eat mandarin ducks
In the wild, the Chinese duck finds its food among the small inhabitants of reservoirs. Like other waterfowl, like snails, worms, mollusks.They eat the seeds of shrubs, seek out juicy shoots, catch beetles, small fish (if lucky). Gathering in small groups, fly to the fields to feast on ripe grains.
Feed tangerines in captivity is easy. You can take cereals as a basis:
It is also necessary to add bran, fresh greens, fish or fish meal, food chalk. Favorite delicacies are acorns and frogs. Many useful for waterfowl found in duckweed, algae. Some poultry farmers give their pets chicken feed. A good addition to the diet in the winter period will be fish or minced meat, germinated grain.
If you get offspring in an incubator, you must force feed the ducklings (after they dry out). They make a wet mash of chicken feed with the addition of milk powder, placed in the pharynx. It makes the stomach work, the metabolism starts. Otherwise, the chicks may not start to eat and die.
In China, there is a beautiful legend about how one emperor decided to divorce his wife. A man came to meditation on the shore of the lake - he could not decide how to tell the sad news to his wife.
There he saw a pair of mandarins. Together they swam across the water, looking for food, straightening each other's feathers. The touching expression of tenderness touched the heart, love for his wife flashed with a new force.
In Asian countries there is also a beautiful rite - to give a couple of mandarins to the wedding. It is believed that this will provide the newlyweds good luck, a long harmonious life. Asian birds form a permanent union forever, feed, breed, and even fly into the sky side by side. It is not surprising that the duck figurine is considered a lucky talisman for the house.
The Chinese call mandarinok "yuanyang" - which means "he" and "she." Beautiful birds mean loyalty to each other. When a wedding is played, the banquet hall is decorated with figures of colored waterfowl, which should bring happiness to the young.
Modern scientists are trying to rectify the situation - they create new species of forest birds. The work is progressing successfully - the white hybrid variety has already appeared. This breed is very rare, as it is currently used only by scientists for further breeding. But maybe with time the Chinese duck will become more common.
Mandarin Duck - the brightest and most beautiful duck on earth
The little mandarin ducks are extremely popular in their homeland - in China. They are depicted even in medieval paintings and frescoes, they inspired poets and artists with their beauty and brightness.
For a long time, these extraordinary ducks were bred exclusively in Japan and China.
But in recent years, mandarins have become the most popular decorative birds not only in zoos and parks, but also in private farms of Europe and Russia.
A couple of mandarins decorate any compound
Mandarin - the most recognizable and interesting duck of all existing breeds.
- 1 Description of ducks
- 2 tangerines
- 3 Breeding ducks
The mandarin duck is permanently remembered for its bright plumage and has the most recognizable appearance. Drakes compare favorably with ducks in bright and interesting color. On a neat head and neck, feathers form a kind of whiskers. Each wing has feathers, resembling a fan.
They have a rich orange tint and with folded wings, they noticeably protrude upwards, their silhouette reminding the heart. The male's tummy is white, the goiter is purple, and the upper part of the tail is dark. There are many bright colors in the plumage of the back, head and neck of the drake - red, orange, blue and even dark green.
All these colors do not mix and each has a pronounced zonality.
Handsome tangerine drake
However, during the molt for two months a year, the male loses its brightness and becomes little different from the female.
Females are more restrained in their plumage: brown back, gray head and almost white belly plumage. The plumage tones alternate smoothly, without clear transitions. The head of the duck is decorated with a small crest. This inconspicuous color provides excellent masking in natural conditions.
Close-up of the drake's plumageThe mandarin's little girl has a modest plumage — for masking. The mandarin's duck looks like a wild duck chick, only smaller
Mandarin Duck is found in a rare, white color. In nature, it is extremely difficult to find white ducks, but this form is more and more actively divorced by breeders.
White mandarin is also very decorative
This is one of the smallest ducks - adults reach a maximum of 700 grams. There is almost no difference in body mass between males and females.
Another distinctive feature: in the mating season, drakes make whistling sounds instead of the familiar duck quack.
Black Mandarin Duck is a very rare species.
Mandarin Duck is not as complex in content as it seems at first glance. Birds are peace-loving and easy to tame. In the summer, these beautiful ducks feel good near water bodies and get along peacefully with other birds.
For maximum comfort near the pond is better to plant a few trees - mandarin like to spend time on the branches. They are wonderful flyers and this should be taken into account when arranging the enclosure.
Tangerines are very fond of water and there they find extra food. In the aviary, the ducks need to make an artificial reservoir
In winter, when the temperature drops below +5 degrees, it is better not to allow the birds to be outside.
They tolerate a good cooling, but quickly get hypothermia. For the winter, the ducks should be transferred to a heat-insulated house with litter. Hay or straw can be used as bedding.
For the health of the ducks, constant access to clean water is necessary - water procedures are the most important part of bird life.
Winter content mandarinho should be organized with water
In the diet of mandarin are not picky and well assimilated bran, barley, wheat. It is good to add corn to the diet, and in spring and summer to provide birds with fresh greens and duckweed. In autumn, they gladly regale on acorns.
Zernosmes for mandarin ducks must be enriched with greens
In addition, various insects and grass seeds form part of the diet during the captive period.
The main difficulty of breeding mandarins is called the low maternal instinct of ducks. Sometimes they refuse to hatch eggs or even refuse to hatch ducklings.
To solve this problem, you can use an incubator. However, it is better to lay eggs under the geese of any other breed. Growing ducklings is not the easiest task - they are fearful and subject to stress, quickly lose their appetite and die.
It is much better to entrust the cultivation of an experienced hen.
The mating of mandarins in the period of reproduction always takes place on the water.
During the breeding season, it is desirable to include proteins of animal origin, as well as mashed potatoes from grated fresh carrots and boiled cereals in the daily diet.
For nests, it is necessary to select places on the wall in such a way that a convenient additive is nearby. Birds are active and fly well, preferring not to nest on the ground, like many members of the family.
It is better to place the nests at a height of about two meters above the ground in several places, so that the duck chose for itself the most convenient and suitable.
Nests for mandarins in the aviary at height
The optimal size of the nesting:
- height 52 cm
- bottom area 40x40 cm
- notches - 12x12 cm
Egg laying begins in late March or early April. In laying usually from four to twelve eggs. At the time of incubation of the eggs of the drake is better to remove from the aviary.
Mandarin Duck with Ducklings
Ducklings hatch on the thirtieth day. From the first day they are active - immediately leave the nest and follow the mother.
Ducks of this breed are famous for their matrimonial ties and choose a mate for many years, preferring to stick together all the time. That is why these beautiful birds are considered in China as a symbol of love and loyalty.
Mandarin Duck: description of the breed, maintenance and breeding of poultry
Duck Mandarin Duck from the breed of forest ducks is rightly considered the most beautiful bird in the world. Originally from China, she has long been acclimatized in the Far East, in Ireland, the USA and the UK. Until now, people around the world are impressive plumage of this amazing bird.
She became a symbol of many legends and beliefs, where she was assigned the role of a symbol of happiness. Until now, people believe that in order for personal life to be successful, you must have a couple of mandarins in the house. Unfortunately, hunters also hunt for this miracle of nature, so the population is rapidly decreasing.
Yet there are a number of activities in the world to preserve this amazing duck species.
- Reproduction and content
The Chinese duck mandarin duck was added to the Red Book of Russia, as there are only 25,000 pairs left in nature, of which 15,000 are in Russia. Currently, it can be found in almost all zoos and in rare private collections, most often in warm regions.
The duck received the name not because of the exotic fruit, but in honor of notable Chinese officials, who were called mandarins. It is believed that once a noble man went to the pond to think about how to tell his wife that he no longer loved her.
Seeing the beautiful birds, who gently cleaned each other feathers and swim, not looking up from each other, his heart melted, and his love for his wife kindled with a new force. It is known that beautiful rare breeds were found even in the ponds of the emperors of China.
Birds weigh 0.5-0.7 kg, have a wing length of 21-24 cm. Paws are orange, the beak is bright red.
The drake in the mating season, which lasts from September to July, is transformed, its feathers are colored in all the colors of the rainbow, it acquires the so-called mating plumage. Folding them, broad multi-colored veils appear over it.
After that, the male sheds and hides in dense thickets.
He becomes like a nondescript female, which nature cheated with splendor for better camouflage during hatching eggs. Duck feathers are gray, olive or brown, the belly is light, eyes are outlined with a cream rim. Because of this appearance, it was often confused with other species and shot.
A duck swims well with a raised tail, is submerged under water only in extreme cases - when injured, danger. Quickly and maneuverable flies upright. Spends most of the day relaxing on a tree or rock.
An interesting feature is that the duck does not quack, but whistles softly and beeps. She has strong wings and sharp claws, so she is not afraid to nest in the trees, and this is the only species of ducks that does this. As a result of a gene mutation, a white mandarin duck appeared.
Her drake in the mating season is painted in cream tones.
At home, birds easily get along with other birds. They have a calm sociable character. In winter, individuals live in packs, in summer they are divided into pairs. Birds inspired many creative people to create paintings and poetry. The image of the riot of colors is present on a number of applications and embroideries.
Tangerine Aboriginal habitat - East Asia. Especially many individuals are found on Sakhalin, in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk regions. In autumn, the birds leave the cold lands, but fly home before the first snow comes off. In winter, they settle in China and Japan, but never in Korea. Over time, the distribution area has expanded, and today even in America there are about 550 pairs.
Muscled mandarin duck, description, features duck growing, photos and video
Mandarin - an extraordinary and unforgettable duck. The color of the bird is motley and very bright. The name she owes is not orange fruit. Mandarins in ancient China called representatives of the nobility, dressed in elegant attire. Previously, only very wealthy people could afford to keep these birds. Where does the bird live, what does it eat? Is it possible to breed at home?
Description of the bird, interesting facts
A mandarin duck, she is a mandarin pitching or mandarin duck, is considered to be one of the most beautiful representatives of its kind. In China, recognized as a cultural symbol.
Mandarin duck - wild duck of small size. Its weight is 0.5-0.8 kg, and its length is not more than 50 cm. It is considered to be a genus of forest birds. It swims and dives perfectly, moves quickly overland and flies.
The male has the most effective plumage. Thanks to the catchy colors it can be seen from afar. Exotic coloring is present in the mating season, starting in September and ending in July. Males are covered with white, red, orange, purple and green feathers.
The head is decorated with a tuft, and the neck with sideburns. On the wings there is one elongated fiery orange feather. Bright red beaks and yellow legs complete the colorful picture. When a bird swims in a pond, the feathers fold in such a way that they look like a saddle.
Females have a more modest appearance, have a natural color scheme and a smaller body weight than males. The belly of the ducks is white, with a tuft on the neat head, the eyes seem to be summed up. The main colors of the feather are beige, gray and olive. The female should be less noticeable, not attract the attention of predatory animals and engage in the incubation of eggs.
Interesting facts about "tangerines":
- At the end of the mating season, the color of the male is simplified and resembles the color of females.
- It is the only non-quacking duck in the world. The bird makes sounds that resemble whistling or squeaking.
- Duck can not be crossed with other representatives of the species due to differences in the genotype.
- Birds do not build nests in the same place twice in a row, prefer to change the location.
- The younger the female, the smaller the number of eggs she lays.
If we are talking about the pitching mandarin bird, the photos are spectacular. And to see her in nature is just an unforgettable sight.
Natural habitats and behavior in the wild
The populations of colorful ducks inhabit the East: in China, Japan and Korea. Also the species is found in America, UK and Ireland. There is a mandarin on the island of Sakhalin, on the banks of the Amur, as well as in the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krai. If the average air temperature does not exceed 5 degrees, the ducks will fly to a new habitat.
Birds gather in flocks, choose for life forests located near water bodies. They prefer forest thickets on the coasts with a humid climate or small cliffs near the rivers. At the end of the breeding season, mandarins may adjoin flocks of ducks of other species.
Birds are famous for their excellent adaptability to the conditions of life.
Hunting for birds is prohibited. The bird is listed in the Red Book and is considered rare.
Some animals hunt ducks: foxes, raccoons, squirrels, martens, birds of prey. Enemies sometimes invade nests.
Although this is not typical for ducks, mandarin dwell in the trees and build their nests at a level of 7-10 m above the ground. In flight, the birds are agile and maneuverable, easily fly into the air.
Due to the small size of the duck quickly jump from branch to branch. Adults learn to fly small chicks, which they plan well at the first attempt, as a result of which they remain whole.
Once near the reservoir, kids learn to swim.
Mandarin can dive. However, they do this only in cases of extreme need. For example, when there is a threat of predator attacks.
Some are accustomed to consider ducks as faithful birds. In fact, mandarin change partner annually.
What do ducks eat in different seasons
The diet of birds consists of plant food, representatives of fauna living in reservoirs, grasses, insects, and varies with the season. At each time of the year, various power sources are available.
In the summer, mandarins catch frogs, small fish, snails, mollusks and worms. This is the season of the most nutritious food.
In the fall, the diet mainly includes products of plant origin - cereals, seeds, nuts.
Ducks are very fond of acorns, for the sake of this delicacy the birds climb up on the oaks, seek out the fruit under the trees, on the rocky slopes and in the water.
Such maneuvers are not difficult due to the skills of vertical ascent to the branches. At the beginning of autumn, mandarins come to the fields in small flocks in search of rice and buckwheat.
Spring is a time for mixed nutrition. In this season, mandarins extract plant and animal food, find seeds, catch insects and snails. Special weakness is experienced in horsetail shoots.
The search for food and its eating occur at dawn and dusk. During the day, birds sit in trees or in thickets near water bodies and rest.
What do duck mandarins look like? Mandarin ducks differ in a miniature size. Body length is less than half a meter, weight ranges from 500 to 700 grams. This weight is inherent in both females and males. The wingspan is about 57-60 cm. Because of its small size, these ducks are able to take off almost vertically both from the ground and from the water.
The duck drake possesses bright, colorful plumage only during the mating season. The rest of the time, the drake and the female have a similar color, gray and inconspicuous, which makes it possible to mask themselves well in the wild.
INTERESTING!There is an opinion that the Mandarin duck got its name because of the beautiful bright plumage, similar to the clothes of rich nobles in ancient China, who were called "tangerines". Therefore, sometimes this duck is also called the Chinese duck!
Color in the mating season
The mating season in Mandarin ducks lasts from September to July. The appearance of the drake during this period acquires its exotic color. A lush crest of elongated three-colored feathers forms on the head of the male, white plumage runs along the sides, and on the top of the feathers they acquire a contrasting dark red color with green-purple tips.
Appearance of ducks at regular times
Duck eyes are framed by white plumage. The beak is bright red with a white tip. On the neck is a lush, reddish-brown plumage resembling sideburns. Belly white. The little body is on the sides of a pale yellow color, and the breast is purple. The tail is red with several shades. Particularly noteworthy is the plumage of the wings with a unique complex pattern.
These patterns on the wings are various in color: green, blue, bright red and red, diluted with bright contrasting stripes, which all together create an intricate pattern of a mandarin duck. Such a varied color of the mandarin duck's drake does not mix in colors and has distinct borders. Twice a year, these handsome males molt and become ordinary gray ducks.
The appearance of the female is quite harmonious - the back has an olive-brown plumage, the head is gray with a small tuft, white abdomen. Beak dark olive color. Paws are yellowish or gray.
Mandarin eats both plant and animal food. In the reservoirs they catch fish and small amphibians, not disdaining mollusks and insects. On the ground, they prefer to find their own food in the rice fields, under or in the trees, providing their bodies with cereals and various seeds and acorns necessary for their diet.
When breeding these ducks at home, it is necessary to provide them with special foods, including a large amount of vitamins and protein. As a rule, ducks are given such crops as finely chopped barley, oats, millet, maize and wheat. From animal food to the diet of domesticated ducks include fish products and meat and bone meal. Also give cottage cheese, boiled potatoes, chalk, greens and crushed shells.
Is it possible to breed at home
Now you can find more and more ads "selling decorative ducks", under which are placed photos of mandarin ducks. Indeed, the breeding of decorative birds is not uncommon. If you wish, you can grow a colorful duck at home.
In captivity create conditions that are like natural. With a good content, ducks breed well and feel comfortable with the proximity of other waterfowl.
In the warm season, tangerine care is the least troublesome. Be sure to have a reservoir, trees, branches and columns. Birds should have enough space for accommodation and rest. Plastic rods and perches are not suitable.
Since the creation of mandarin heat-loving, with a cold snap to 5 C and below, the birds are transferred to warmed enclosures. Straw or hay is used as litter.
Unchanged condition remains the presence of the reservoir. It can be an artificial pool. Water needs to be warmed daily, water procedures are vital for birds.
For the ducks to be healthy and active, make a balanced diet. Good nutrition includes vegetation, cereals and animal protein food.
Organize around the clock access to:
- Meal of sunflower or soy.
In warm seasons, when there is an abundance of greenery in the gardens, dandelion leaves, plantain, and duckweed are crushed to birds.
Do not forget that the favorite food in tangerines - acorns. In the fall, stock up on the product to the maximum and indulge the ducks. Also in the menu add chopped raw carrots, boiled cereals, bran.
Do not forget about the food of animal origin, which is especially necessary during the breeding season. Birds are given snails, daphnias, frogs, fresh minced meat or fish.
The proportion of protein should not exceed 20% of the daily feed rate. The increase in the recommended amount provokes the development of diseases.
Description mandarin duck and breeding features at home
Anyone who once saw a duck mandarin duck will inevitably want to know the name of this colorful bird. Often it can be seen in zoos, where you can get acquainted with the information about what kind of bird is a mandarin duck, where it lives and what is interesting.
The name of the most beautiful duck mandarin duck in the world was not due to citrus fruit. In ancient China, it was considered prestigious to keep these birds in the pond, and this pleasure was not cheap, available only to aristocrats. Tangerines - this is the representatives of the Chinese nobility, dressed up in bright elegant clothes. In their honor, the mandarin bird received its name. It is also called the "Chinese duck".
Mandarin Duck: description of wild birds
Mandarin - a small bird, weighing from 500 to 800 g, has a length of from 40 to 50 cm. Mandarin duck belongs to the genus of forest ducks.
The males in the mating season, which lasts almost the entire year, beginning in September and ending in July, wear a motley luxurious outfit of white, green, purple, orange, brown, red colors that can fancifully flow into one another. On the head and neck, the drakes acquire whiskers and a tuft; at the ends of the wings, an orange veil, which, when the wings are folded, rises up. On a back they develop in a saddle, characteristic of birds. Their paws are yellow, their beaks are red.
Females with a white belly, set eyes and a tuft on a graceful head, like most females in nature, have a modest color of brown, olive and gray shades.
Mandarin Duck - Waterfowl, therefore, it dives and floats perfectly, and also runs quickly over land and is excellent, flies maneuverable.
Life cycle features
The mandarin duck lives near the river, lives in small flocks, when the breeding season is over, can join the herd of other ducks. She likes to get food early in the morning and at sunset, during the daytime she prefers to lurk, resting, in thickets and trees.
Where does the mandarin duck live
The Far East, the Amur River basin, forest territories of Primorye, Sakhalin - these are the natural territories inhabited by the mandarin duck. In the winter she flies to China, Japan, Taiwan and Korea. This is a red-book bird, the hunt for which is prohibited. Hunters are guided by the way the mandarin bird looks like: you cannot confuse such bright plumage with anything. When the male sheds the plumage, he becomes indistinguishable from the female, and the hunters may confuse him with other ducks.
These birds love to make their nests in trees, sometimes at a huge height of up to 10 meters. Mandarin ducks, although the ducks do not nest in the trees, have perfectly adapted to the conditions where they live, and have learned how to jump from such a great height without any harm to themselves. Adult animals very quickly teach this art to chicks. To soften the fall, they use the wings and membranes on the paws.
Peculiarities of duck feeding in the wild
The main components of the rationists - acorns and frogs, fish trifle, beetles, snails, worms. Due to the special ability of vertical ascent into the air, they do not have obstacles in the form of trees in oak groves. It should be noted that a duck mandarin duck and plant seeds are eating: in the summer it feeds on rice and buckwheat plantations, and likes to fly to winter fields.
How to breed mandarin ducks
In July, after molting, the males are almost the same as the females. They form large flocks and hide in the thickets, preferring not to show. When autumn comes, the male dresses in his magnificent outfit and is ready to attract a female, which will make him a couple next year.
In the mating season, the males demonstrate attractive dances on the water, care for females and aggressively fight with rivals. Duck, choosing a partner, keeps close to him. Together they choose a place for the nest, or rather, the female chooses, but the gentleman always accompanies it. As a rule, it is a hollow on a tree not far from the reservoir.
In April, the bird lays 9-12 eggs, one each day, and hatch them. Future father at this time brings her food.
In ancient times, noble Chinese grandees wore colorful multicolored clothes. And called them tangerines. And these rich people loved to decorate their pond with colorful ducks, which got their name due to the similarity with the clothes of their masters. There are three more common names for this breed: Chinese, multicolored or tangerine duck.
This breed belongs to forest ducks, lives on the eastern territory of Russia: these are Sakhalin, Amur, Khabarovsk regions. For the winter, the birds fly to China, Japan and Korea. They settle near rivers and reservoirs, but unlike their relatives, they build nests in trees at a height of up to 10 meters.
Now the bird needs protection of the person. The multi-colored duck is listed in the Red Book, refers to rare species of birds.
External distinguishing features
The Chinese duck is very small, its weight ranges from 400 to 800 grams, the length of the body does not exceed half a meter, and the wingspan is 60 centimeters. It is so established in nature that females have a color that blends with the environment. Mandarin Duck is no exception: females of this breed look ordinary. They are painted in brown color on the back, the head is gray with a small tuft, the belly is white. The beak is dark olive, the color of the legs varies from a rich yellow to gray.
Unusual bright plumage characteristic of the drakes in the mating season, which lasts from September to June:
- Feathers on the head form an interesting volumetric crest of three colors (blue, red, white) and red whiskers, smoothly turning into a long neck.
- The eyes are dark, have a white eyeliner.
- The bill is bright, red or orange.
- The chest has a purple ebb.
- The back is decorated with colorful feathers: white, red, green, purple, all of them do not have a clear color border, but smoothly shimmer from one shade to another.
- The tail is orange.
- There are two feathers of unusual shape on the wings, which when folded, resemble the saddle on the back of the male.
- The abdomen is usually white.
After the mating season, the drakes change color to a less noticeable one and practically do not differ externally from females.
To breed a duck mandarin duck in a private household is possible not only for decorative purposes, but also as a meat breed of birds. Some restaurants serve dishes from this bird, whose meat has a delicate and exquisite taste. You can also find recipes for cooking this bird on the Internet.
Mandarin Duck Drinks Water
Description and general characteristics
This bird is small in size, but due to its bright plumage, it is easily visible from a great distance. The length of her body usually does not reach half a meter, and the weight varies from 0.5 to 0.7 kg for both sexes. The wingspan is about 60 cm. The miniature size allows the duck to easily take off from the ground and water almost vertically. Exotic color has a drake in the mating season. He changes his beautiful outfit twice a year to an inconspicuously gray one that looks like a female.
In the period from September to July, a voluminous tricolor tuft and red whiskers are formed from the elongated feathers on the head of the drake, passing onto the elongated neck. At the top are red feathers with green-purple ends, dark eyes bordered with white plumage, which smoothly turns into tuft. The bill has a bright red color. The back is decorated with white, orange-red, green, and olive-brown feathers; a red, black, and purple color prevails on the neck and chest. The tail is red with a darker upper part. The abdomen of the male is painted white. Orange membranes are characteristic for webbed frames. On the wing is a wide reddish feather with a dark blue edging, having the shape of a vane, and externally creating the appearance of a saddle. All variety of color does not mix in colors, and has clearly defined boundaries.
Mandarin duck females have a color that promotes good disguise against the background of nature. Their back is painted in olive-brown color, gray head with a small tuft, and belly is white. One color zone gradually turns into another. The beak, unlike the male, has a dark olive color, and the webbed feet can be painted in light orange, yellowish or gray.
To determine how to care for this breed at home, you need to study the life of birds in their natural habitat. Find out what eats Mandarin Duck, where it lives, what conditions it needs for a normal life.
First of all, you should create a convenient aviary. In zoological gardens, where you can meet representatives of these breeds, Mandarinki ducks are kept in spacious cages with an artificial pond.
Important! In nature, they settle near rivers and daily dive. Therefore, the owner must create a small reservoir on the territory of the house.
A shallow pool is suitable, for example, concreted, about half a meter deep, and one and a half meters wide. Water needs to be changed once a week, for these purposes you can use a regular plumbing. In the cold period, the water must be heated so that pets can swim in the will.
Multicolored duck is thermophilic, tolerates frosts only to minus five degrees. In winter, it should be kept in a closed insulated room. True, up to the specified temperature you should not cover the bird free range.
Chinese ducks are peaceful, able to get along with other birds. Since in nature birds lodge in trees, they need columns and branches on which they will sit.
The favorite food of the mandarin duck - acorns, if possible, should stock up on this delicacy. The rest of the birds are quite suitable homemade food:
- grain (barley, wheat, corn, buckwheat),
- greens (dandelion, plantain),
- vegetables and fruits (always grated)
- bran and feed,
- animal products (bloodworm, insects, frogs, small fish).
It is best to give food to birds in the form of mash.The basis should take the grain, adding vegetables, fish meal, chalk. In winter, a good addition to the diet is sprouted grains, fish or minced meat.
Features breeding at home
As nests you need to make small boxes:
- bottom size 40 × 40 centimeters,
- the depth of the box is about half a meter,
- entry into the poultry box with a diameter of at least 15 centimeters,
- be sure to attach the perch
- cover the removable roof, so that if necessary, be able to control the process.
Place them better on the wall, at a height of about two meters, firmly attached. It is necessary to make several such boxes so that the female and drake could choose a suitable place for nesting, as it happens in nature.
In the mating season, the proportion of protein foods in the diet is increased by 20 percent, and they also give a mash of grated carrots and boiled porridge. With proper maintenance and feeding, the female will lay eggs in March or April. In total, the female lays 9-12 eggs.
On a note! If the female is young, she will lay off less eggs.
The whole process lasts about a week, after which the duck sits on the eggs. A month later, the chicks appear. There may be a problem here. According to the experience of farmers, females born in captivity do not have maternal instinct. You can use an incubator and raise chicks there. True, this method has a huge minus: the chicks are very shy, in a stressful situation they start to run, do not eat and die. Therefore, it is not a fact that the little ones will survive.
There is another option: if the female did not want to hatch eggs, it is better to find another hen, for example, a chicken or a goose, which can replace the mother duck babies. In this case, the probability of raising healthy offspring is high.
Hatching chicks are active from day one and immediately leave the nest. Following mom, they themselves look for seeds and small insects for themselves.
Female mandarin duck
If the ducklings are grown in an incubator, they must be forcibly fed after they have dried. They are given a wet mash of chicken feed mixed with powdered milk, forcibly placed in the throat. So their stomach starts working.
Pros and cons of tangerine duck
Mandarin Duck is increasingly bred in private farms, as it has a number of positive qualities:
- It has a peaceful nature.
- It is picky in food.
- Beautiful and exotic in appearance.
But before you start a Chinese duck in your house, you should consider a number of disadvantages of this breed:
- Heat-loving and does not tolerate severe frosts.
- Needs a pond every day.
- Lack of maternal instinct in involuntary individuals.
- Shyness and poor survival of ducklings in captivity.
Tangerine duck is very attractive as a fowl. It will perfectly decorate the pond, will delight with its beauty every day. True, such an exotic pet requires increased attention and proper care. Therefore, before you get a couple of Mandarin ducks, you need to evaluate your ability to care for these beautiful birds.
Bright color plumage
So, let's look at the features of the exterior of males and females of mandarin ducks.
The heads of the males are decorated with long feathers, which turn into a tuft, painted in the following colors:
This bright plumage of males is intended to attract females during the mating season of birds.
On the cheeks of these drakes are lush whiskers, also consisting of a long feather, also painted ocher with white veins.
On the sides of the body of the drakes are wings, also decorated with feathers, one of which clearly protrudes upward, while outwardly getting similar to the horse saddle. They are painted orange.
The lower part of the body of the drakes is predominantly white in color, with the exception of:
- purple goiter,
- black tail.
On the body of the duck there is a clear zoning of colors, that is, the colors do not mix with each other.
The back, head and neck of the duck are also painted in bright colors, including:
The head of a duck is crowned with a scarlet beak, and their paws also have an orange tint, gray membranes lie between the fingers.
His warrior color drakes are worn immediately until the month of June. After that, they begin the process of molting, and the birds, as if ashamed of their appearance, stumble into groups and seek shelter in the thickets at the shore. At the end of the feather cover change, the males become as close as possible to the females.
Mandarin males look incredibly elegant and belligerent. True, this is not enough to win the female, for her attention you also need to win the fight
As for mandarin ducks, their plumage outwardly looks much more modest. Wise nature decided this way, because the Mandarin females have to think about the offspring, and to hide from predators. Among coastal driftwood and plants, such a duck will be almost invisible:
- she has a chestnut black back
- slate head,
- snow-white belly
- chest rippled with brown and white ripples.
In comparison with the explicit zoning of shades in males, females have subtle transitions of colors on their bodies. The crown is also decorated with a tuft, but smaller in size, as brown as the rest of the plumage on it.
The head continues with an olive beak. As for the color of the paws, it can vary between the following shades:
Mandarin females (right) are less noticeable, but still look very nice
Sometimes there are Mandarin ducks of very rare colors:
- females with white feathers,
- the males have a milky beige shade in the feather cover.
The weight of these ducks is very small, and according to gender, varies slightly:
- so, females usually weigh from 0.4 to 0.5 kilograms,
- drakes from 0.5 to 0.7 kilograms.
By the way, such a small weight causes love for ducks to fly. From the water surface or solid surface, they can fly up almost vertically.
Tangerines are lightweight
Where dwells mandarin duck
As we have said, China is the birthplace of Mandarin ducks, however, you can also meet this duck today:
- in Japan,
- In Korea,
- in Russia, in the territories of Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin, the Amur Region, the Khabarovsk Territory.
In winter, these ducks migrate to warm lands, with which they are:
- Islands of Japan
- southern part of China.
However, there are such Mandarins who prefer to lead a sedentary life, constantly living in the conditions of the southern territories of their homeland.
South China - the natural habitat of Mandarinok
What eat Mandarin ducks
In the wild, the Mandarin duck feeds on the gifts of the reservoir in which it lives. Let's see what kind of food is in question.
Table 1. What is a Mandarin Duck
Mandarin with pleasure to enjoy all aquatic inhabitants
In addition to the products of the freshwater reservoir, in which this duck lives, willingly regale Mandarinka with various woody seeds and acorns, which the birds shake off when landing on the branches.
Interestingly, ducks are often found in Chinese rice fields. They fly there to tightly fill their bellies, since cereal crops are suitable for them, as well as possible.
Can I Grow Mandarin Duck at Home?
Despite the fact that this bird is exotic, with due diligence and desire, you can still grow it in household conditions. Of course, for this you need to have your home and backyard territory.
Grow tangerines can be on your site
Arrangement of the pond
Since these birds are waterfowl, they will need a pond. The good news is that all other members of your household who also need a pond will quickly make friends with Mandarin ducks, as these smart birds are non-conflicting and friendly creatures.
To bring the ducks to their natural living conditions, you should:
- or arrange a pond with trees on the shore,
- or dig a wooden bollard around the perimeter of your lake on which birds can rest.
Mandarin easy to find a common language with neighbors in the pond
At the time of the onset of cold weather, you will need to stop walking the ducks. Do this when the thermometer shows a temperature below 5-7 ° C. It will be necessary to drive the ducks into the winter in enclosed enclosures in which they must be present:
- warm straw bedding,
- heated pool.
Without water procedures ducks can not live, therefore, you will have to think carefully and equip for them a “fancy” poultry house.
Mandarin Duck in the aviary
Mandarin nests are made from a dry trunk of a tree, in which hollows are made with convenient attachments. The height of the hole in the trunk should be one and a half meters above the floor.
As for the parameters of each nest, they are as follows:
- the height of the space is not less than 60 centimeters,
- width 45 centimeters
- length 45 centimeters,
- the entrance to the hollow is about 15 centimeters in diameter.
It is very important to equip the house with a side opening with a lid so that you can clean or check the nest from time to time.
Mandarin Duck in a contact zoo
Let's sum up
When deciding on the breeding of Mandarin ducks, you should know that these birds are listed in the Red Book of our country. In addition, they are under protection in many other countries. If you wish to artificially increase the population of these extraordinary animals, then go for it, but remember that you need to treat them carefully. In addition, keep in mind and associated with the breeding Mandarinok complexity. It is very important to count your strength so that no one suffers from the presence of the farm: neither the birds nor the farmer himself. Good luck!
Absolutely fair is the fact that the mandarin - this is the most beautiful and bright duck of all existing now. This member of the Duck family stands out against the background of ordinary forest ducks. Particularly bright are the drakes, which have unusually beautiful plumage, which is a contrast to restrained and ordinary colors in the wild. Males have feathers of almost all colors and shades of the rainbow, so that such a bird has become incredibly popular and widespread in China. Females are not as bright as drakes. They have a very natural, but not at all “flashy”, modest and quite attractive appearance. Among other things, the inconspicuous plumage is used by an adult bird to mask during the breeding and breeding of offspring.
In males, with all the variety of shades in the coloring of plumage, colors absolutely do not merge and do not mix at all, but have rather clear, very pronounced boundaries. Addition to such beauty is represented by a bright red beak and orange limbs. The back of the female is colored in various brownish shades, while the head area has a smoky gray color, and the entire lower part is represented by white tones. There is a gradual, very smooth transition between colors and shades. The adult female's beak is olive-colored, and the legs are reddish-orange. On the head of the male and female there is a characteristic, beautiful tuft.
It is considered that it is precisely due to the originality and brightness of the plumage of the mandarin duck that they got their very unusual name. In China, Vietnam and Korea, the most respected officials of notable origin were called Mandarins. The clothes of such rich people were noticeably distinguished from the background of the commoner; they were distinguished not only by their special pomp, but also by real magnificence. The dress of male mandarin duck causes just such associations. According to a less common version, the name “Chinese duck”, or “Mandarin duck”, was obtained by birds due to active breeding and keeping in the imperial ponds and reservoirs of Chinese nobility.
It should be noted that the drakes actively molt just before the arrival of winter frosts, so during the cold season they look ordinary and inconspicuous, which is the reason for frequent hunters shooting.
Character and behavior
Bright and bright appearance is not the only characteristic feature of the representatives of the genus of forest ducks and the family of ducks. Such a bird, possessing an original appearance, is capable of making melodic and quite pleasant sounds. Especially brightly contrasts with loud and lingering quacking of other duck species with the squeak and whistling of the mandarin. As a rule, a not too “talkative” bird does not cease to communicate even during the breeding and rearing period.
The behavioral features of the “Chinese duck” can be attributed to almost vertical take-off, as well as the ability of the bird to perform fairly complex maneuvers. Adult individuals of this species move absolutely freely from one branch to another. The mandarin duck swims well, high on the water and noticeably lifting its tail. However, such a duck is not too fond of diving, so it prefers to sink into the water only when absolutely necessary, including getting a strong injury or a sense of danger to life.
Mandarin - a bird is shy and suspicious, but over time it is able to get used to people and it is easy to make contact with a person, becoming an absolutely tame feathered pet.
Way of life
Most often, the “Chinese duck” lodges in close proximity to mountain rivers that flow close to extensive forest areas. The ideal conditions for the life of the mandarin - massive trees with numerous branches inclined above the surface of the water. Mountain forests with flowing, rather deep and wide rivers are also very well suited for the life of such a bird.
Mandarin Duck can swim very well, but often sits on rocks near water or on tree branches. Mandarin hunt is currently banned at the legislative level, and among other things, the bird was listed in the Red Book of our country as a rare species. Today, tangerines are rather actively bred in park areas as decorative and relatively unpretentious birds, whose lifespan is about a quarter of a century.
Under natural conditions, the average life expectancy of a mandarin duck is extremely rarely more than ten years, and when they are kept at home, such members of the genus of forest ducks and families can live a little longer, due to the absence of predators and the timely prevention of certain diseases.
Diet, what eats mandarin
The standard diet of the mandarin depends directly on where the nesting site of the representative of the Duck genus is located. Formed pairs of such ducks prefer to settle in the most protected places with abundant vegetation and water bodies, therefore the seeds of all kinds of plants, including aquatic species, often become the basis of nutrition.
The peculiarity of the mandarin duck is also the fact that such birds very much love acorns containing a huge amount of various useful substances. Due to the relatively close location of the aquatic environment, the “Chinese duck” can diversify its not too rich vegetable diet with protein food, represented by mollusks, caviar of all kinds of fish and a variety of medium-sized river inhabitants. With great pleasure, mandarin ducks use all kinds of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation, as well as worms.
In conditions of artificial breeding, the diet of an adult mandarin duck is most often represented by such crops as wheat, barley, corn, rice and other cereals, as well as meat and fish mince.
The reduction of the number of mandarin ducks inhabiting and nesting in our country is particularly affected by unauthorized hunting. Also, some relatively large predatory animals or birds have a very negative impact on the number of individuals. Shooting of ducks is carried out, as a rule, after the change of mandarin plumage by males.
The raccoon dog belongs to the category of the most frequent natural enemies that threaten the mandarin duck. This predatory animal very actively hunts chicks, but is also a serious threat to already mature, fully adult birds and eggs. On the water, increased danger may come from otters and fairly large birds of prey. Among other things, a nest made by a mandarin duck in the hollow of a tree can be easily destroyed by adult squirrels.
Mandarin Duck is a heat-loving bird, so temperatures below 5 ° C are extremely dangerous for its life and health, and the smallest ducklings often die even with a relatively long absence of summer heat.