Garden

Actinidia in the Urals, landing and care

Actinidia is a shrubby vine that combines decorativeness and wholesome fruits, known as kiwi. Long-term experience of gardeners allows quite successfully planting and caring for actinidia in the Urals. For this region, the type of actinidium colomict is best suited, which is well adapted to the weather and climatic conditions of the area. The frost-resistant plant withstands up to minus 45 ° C and a winter period of up to 8 months. A perennial liana has become an adornment not only of a garden plot, but also of a park.

Preparation for landing

The climatic conditions of the Urals do not allow actinidia to be planted in autumn due to early frosts and the unstable onset of winter. Plants do not have time to adapt and survive the cold during this time. According to experienced gardeners, planting should be carried out in the spring, in the first decade of May, after sudden changes in temperature and in well-warmed soil.

Choosing a place and soil

A suitable place for landing is chosen in the fall. An open and fairly lit area is suitable. Lack of lighting affects the yield and taste of the fruit. The place should be further from fruit trees, which take a lot of nutrients from the soil. For actinidia, you need a spacious place, the centenarian grows very much in width and height.

Actinidia does not tolerate excess moisture at the roots, therefore, they limit the access of groundwater to bushes to 1 m, building a hill at a height of at least 1.5 m. The best place will be a site on a hill. This will prevent stagnation of water at the roots of plants.

Preparing the pit for landing

Landing pits for actinidia are prepared in the fall. They should be distributed in a north-south direction. The approximate distance in the row between the pits is 2 m, and between the rows 3-4 m. Pits are excavated, the parameters of which are as follows: diameter - 50–70 cm, depth - 1.5 m.

The preparation of the pit begins with the introduction of drainage in the form of brick chips, expanded clay, pebbles or small stones. The soil layer extracted from the pit is mixed with the following fertilizers:

  • humus - 10-12 l,
  • potassium sulfate - 70–90 g,
  • superphosphate - 150-200 g,
  • carbamide - 30-50 g.

Seedling Selection

The selection of seedlings must be treated with special attention. Nurseries and specialized stores can guarantee high-quality planting material. It is advisable to purchase actinidia grown in the nurseries of the Urals, which have passed adaptation to the climate of this region.

When choosing a seedling should be guided by the following tips:

  • seedlings should be without broken and dry shoots,
  • plants are selected strong, with an intact root system,
  • it is recommended to buy seedlings with closed roots that will not dry out and will not suffer during transportation,
  • one-year or two-year-old actinidia should be chosen, three-year-olds and older do not take root well and are subject to diseases,
  • for a large crop, you need to purchase 3 female plants and 1 male pollinator.

Landing sequence

Landing and caring for actinidia colomicta in the Urals is not particularly difficult. Planting actinidia is carried out until the awakening of leaf buds. Seedlings with closed roots are moistened with an earthen lump before planting. The roots for disinfection can be immersed in potassium permanganate. To increase immunity and adapt to new conditions - hold in any biostimulator.

The correct sequence for planting actinidia consists of the following steps:

  • a sapling is set in the middle of the fossa in the middle,
  • gradually the soil is poured in small portions and crushed a little,
  • the roots are straightened at the same time
  • the root neck is placed at the level of the soil,
  • the topsoil is well compacted
  • watering is carried out at the rate of 25-30 liters per 1 bush,
  • a trunk circle of 50–70 cm in diameter is made,
  • mulching is created with leaves, compost, peat or sawdust.

Actinidia care activities in the Urals are practically no different from cultivation in other areas of our country. Despite the pedigree, subtropic plants gardeners have successfully learned to grow a vine on their territory. Contrary to spring frosts, actinidia can easily recover.

Watering and loosening

Actinidia does not tolerate an excess of moisture. Irrigation should be carried out as necessary, according to the degree of dryness of the soil. Watering in the hot summer time is increased, carried out in 5-7 days 1 time, spending 1 bush up to 60 liters. After hydration, carefully loosen to a depth of 20 cm so as not to damage the roots of the plants. Also add spraying of leaves in the morning and evening. To retain moisture in the soil, it is necessary to periodically update the trunk circle of mulch.

Top dressing

The plant responds well to fertilizer application. At the initial stage of the growing season, nitrogen is added to increase the green mass. During loosening, a solution of humus of 20–25 l and urea of ​​15–25 is introduced into the near-stem circle. Actinidia categorically do not tolerate lime and chlorine in the soil; therefore, excess acidity can be removed using dolomite flour, eggshell and crushed chalk.

At the beginning of summer, wood ash infusion is used - 3-4 liters per 12-15 liters of water. This natural top dressing gives potassium and phosphorus, necessary for growth. During the summer season, the bushes are sprayed 2 times with the universal complex mineral fertilizer Zdrazen, Kemira Lux, Agricola, etc. With the onset of autumn, potassium sulfate - 20-25 g and superphosphate - are diluted in 15 liters of water per 1 plant 25–35 g. During the rainy season, dry top dressing is scattered in the trunk circles.

Cropping and shaping the crown

Decorative actinidia requires special care for appearance. An important procedure - the formation of the crown - gives the plants well-groomed, splendor and the rapid appearance of new shoots. In autumn and spring, special attention is paid to sanitary pruning - the removal of broken, diseased and dry branches. During increased sap flow in the spring, pruning is not recommended.

At the first pruning, 4–5 strong shoots are left, and all the rest are removed to the growth point. The branches are fixed in an upright position, tied to a trellis. Subsequent shoots that have grown over the summer are also tied to a support; as a result, a crown-shaped fan is obtained. In the future, the shoots are nipped every year, and the upper leafy 3-4 buds are removed. In the third and fourth year, fruit branches are formed, which are cut in half.

Winter preparations

Actinidia grown in the Urals is resistant to frost. However, for reinsurance, you should worry about wintering plants and take the necessary measures. Trunk circles should be cleaned of debris. The mulch is updated to 25 cm in thickness.

The shoots are carefully unhooked from the trellis and laid out nearby on the ground. Then they should be covered with a protective layer for insulation from foliage, spruce branches or wood shavings. The structure is tightened with covering material that allows air to pass through. Subsequently, the structure is covered with snow, turning into a snowdrift.

Actinidia can be grown in the Urals, thanks to the main characteristics of the plant. Frost resistance of the crop is the main quality for growing in this region. Proper care with the implementation of recommendations and advice will help to grow a quality and healthy plant. Quite unpretentious actinidia has long taken root in many gardens and is popular with summer residents.

The best varieties of actinidia for growing in Siberia

For a long time, with the help of domestic breeders, varieties were developed that could not only grow in Siberia, but also give good crops. They are entered in the state register of the Russian Federation.

Here are some of the best varieties that you can buy for cultivation and care in Siberia and the Urals. First of all, these are varieties that were bred by breeder Michurin I.V:

  1. Pineapple Michurina - a liana plant has great potential in yield, frost resistance for Siberian regions. Berries ripen in early August. Pineapple variety has a long shelf life. With good care, one bush can give 5 kg. fruits. On average, the fruit weighs about 3 grams.
  2. Klara Zetkin - this variety has a late ripening period and less winter hardiness. At the same time, it is also in demand among local gardeners, although it is slightly inferior to the previous variety.

Varieties of actinidia developed by VNIIR:

  1. Actinidia colomict Sakhalin 23 has an early ripening fruit. Liana is stunted and comfortable to cover with the onset of cold weather. On the surface of light green berries are strips of a lighter shade. The taste is slightly tart.
  2. Universitetskaya - its appearance resembles gooseberries. On the green surface are longitudinal strips. The taste of berries resembles citrus. About 1 kg is collected from one bush. fragrant berries.

Varieties of actinidia for growing in the Urals, in Siberia in the photo:

Where could I buy

Where can I buy seedlings for growing actinidia in Siberia, sellers in Novosibirsk:

  1. Online store "Russian seeds by mail" sells actinidia seedlings.
  2. Sarafanov plant nursery in Novosibirsk.
  3. Online store "Actinidia seedlings in Novosibirsk."

Cold-resistant Actinidia

Actinidia: cultivation and care

In addition to heat-loving varietal varieties that grow only in warm climatic conditions, there are a number of persistent breeding varieties capable of development and fruiting in Siberian conditions. The state register has three dozen varietal names.

Historical fact. Breeding work on the cultivation of varieties of this culture, capable of fruiting in cold conditions, began at the very beginning of the last century.

Varieties bred by I.V. Michurin

  • Pineapple Michurina is a high-yielding variety of lianiform actinidia, which has good cold resistance for the climatic zone in which Siberia is located. The fruits of actinidia Pineapple Michurin ripen in early August. The total fruiting period is extended. One shrub yields, on average, a five kilogram crop. The shape of the berries is cylindrical, slightly flattened on the sides. The average weight of the fetus is 3 grams,
  • Klara Zetkin is a mid-season late ripe actinidia, also suitable for cultivation in the northwestern regions. One fruit weighs an average of 2 grams. The yellowish-green berry has a cylindrical shape. The maximum yield of one shrub is 3 kilograms.

Varieties of Moscow breeding VNIIR

  • Sakhalin-23 is a cold-resistant varietal actinidia of early ripening. The type of vine is stunted. Fruiting begins in the first half of August. On the surface of green berries there are light longitudinal stripes. The average weight of the fetus is just over 1 gram. The taste of berries is slightly tart,

Note. The berry fruits of actinidia Sakhalin-23 are especially well combined with honey.

Cut fruits

  • Universitetskaya is a cold-resistant mid-early actinidia variety. On the surface of the brilliant saturated green berries there are ribbed longitudinal stripes. The taste of sweet fruit has a light aroma of citrus. Productivity from one bush does not exceed one kilogram,

Note. The fruits of Actinidia Universitetskaya can be confused with gooseberries because of a similar appearance. [/ Alert

  • GF 17/9 is a cold-resistant varietal actinidia of late fruiting period. The type of vine is stunted. Green berries have light streaks. The average weight of one berry is 2 grams. The taste of the fruit is notable for the presence of a weak taste of strawberries.The yield of one shrub is about 2 kilograms,
  • Homeland is a cold-resistant variety of early ripening. Berries have an elongated cylindrical shape. The weight of some sweet and sour fruits can exceed 3 grams. Overripe crops fall to the ground. One shrub gives 2 kilograms of fruit.

Hybrid varieties of selection of Novosibirsk

Note. Each of the varieties presented is early ripe, and is also able to be used as a decorative element in a garden plot.

  • Snowball is a medium-sized pollinating variety with abundantly flowering liana,
  • Compact is a high-yielding varietal actinidia. Dark green berries growing on a medium-sized bush have the shape of a cylinder, however, from time to time, several flat berries can be seen on one shrub. On average, one fruit weighs 3 grams. The sweet taste of berries is notable for the presence of a barely noticeable aroma of banana. One bush gives a 4 kg crop,
  • Borisovskaya is a productive variety of actinidia, whose berries are olive in color. The shrub is well developed. Overripe crops fall to the ground. One bush is capable of producing an almost five kilogram crop,
  • Early Novosibirsk is a high-yield varietal actinidia. On the leafy multi-stem bush there are flowers of both sexes. The shape ranges from cylindrical to pear-shaped. One berry weighs an average of 2 grams. The bush gives 7 kilograms of the crop.

Actinidia planting in Siberia

Landing and caring for actinidia in Siberia has some nuances. Important points are also described in the video:

When purchasing actinidia seedlings, one must take into account that she has male and female individuals. Therefore, they acquire one male seedling and 3-5 pieces of female seedlings. If this ratio is not maintained, then pollination will not occur. No pollination - no actinidia crop.

When to plant

Seedlings are planted with the onset of heat in May, when the threat of return frosts passes. But if the liana is planted, and the forecast is cooling, it is wrapped with any non-woven material, especially at night. This will protect it from freezing. Planting a creeper in May will guarantee that the plant grows and gets stronger before the onset of cold weather.

How to plant

Sapling is planted according to a certain method:

  1. They dig a rather deep hole, on the bottom of which they put humus mixed with black soil.
  2. Add a tablespoon of superphosphate, which will help increase the number of buds, which means the number of ripening fruits.
  3. A seedling is put on the prepared soil and dug it with earth from the pit.
  4. Abundantly watered and mulched with straw.

Mulch serves as a protection against the rapid evaporation of moisture and the growth of weed grass.

How to plant seedlings?

Planting actinidia is planned for early spring, in the suburbs, planting can be postponed until autumn. However, care for the young plant in the future should be good. Sapling must be insulated for the winter. For planting, use a two to three year old plant. Work is completed 2 weeks before the alleged frost.

In the Leningrad Region, growing a decorative vine is more difficult, the climate is harsher there. Landing is done in early spring, before buds open.

Growing shrubs in Belarus is not much different, it is enough to properly care for the plant, then a good harvest of delicious berries is provided.

Culture predecessors

Actinidia is a thermophilic plant, so it is important for him to choose the right place. Do not plant a bush in a draft or on the north side of the site. An ideal place for actinidia is the elevated part near the south wall or fence. Liana grows well and bears fruit in a well-lit place, but it must be shaded from the scorching sun. Liana can be planted in light partial shade.

Most flower crops are good predecessors:

  • asters
  • petunias
  • gerberas
  • calendula,
  • legumes that enrich the soil with nitrogen.

In the neighborhood you can plant currants, it does not interfere with the bushes to develop. However, actinidia cannot be placed next to fruit trees. The soil is greatly depleted and dries up, and deep loosening can damage the roots of actinidia.

Important! Actinidia does not like wetlands, so in the lowland it can not be planted.

Soil and landing site

The best positions for actinidia are warm, sheltered from the wind, sunny and semi-shaded places. In the garden you need to create suitable conditions.

  • Clay and alkaline soil is completely unsuitable for cultivation.
  • In nature, a shrub grows on loose, fertile soil.
  • For liana, neutral or slightly acidic soil is suitable.
  • Actinidia does not like when the soil dries. You need to remember about regular watering, especially during the summer.
  • Actinidia prefers fertile soil with a neutral or slightly acidic pH of 5.5-6.5.
  • Ideally, planting is carried out on a well-drained bed enriched with humus and compost. Manure under actinidia is not introduced.

Landing algorithm

To plant a liana correctly, you must adhere to the following recommendations:

  1. Prepare landing pits 60 × 60 cm in size.
  2. Lay drainage with a layer of 10 cm from broken brick or other material.
  3. Fill the hole with soil mixed with ash, superphosphate and humus.

Prepared pits are left for 2 weeks to settle the soil, then proceed to planting. The seedling is carefully placed in the hole, spread the roots and fall asleep in the soil. The root neck is not buried. After planting, the trunk circle is mulched with sawdust or other organics.

If you need to plant several bushes, then between them they must leave at least 1.5-2 meters. It is very convenient to plant vegetative bushes with a whole root system.

What is actinidia

Actinidia is a very unusual liana, capable of becoming a real decoration of a personal plot. It is also known to gardeners under the nicknames “northern grapes”, “kiwi”, “Amur gooseberry”, “Far Eastern raisins”. This plant is not only spectacular and decorative, but also very useful. It regularly brings a crop of berries containing many vitamins, macro- and microelements vital for the body.

Actinidia in the garden looks very impressive

In the garden, actinidia is widely used. This creeper has a powerful tree-like trunk; shoots are literally dotted with large leaves of a beautiful shape. The arbors and verandas twisted by her look very impressive. You can also mask some unsightly structure or create a hedge. Actinidia attracts attention even in winter - its intricately interwoven shoots are similar to the work of a talented graphic artist.

Spread

In nature, there are many varieties of actinidia. The homeland of most of them is the Asian subtropics. But there is actinidia colomictus, which is common in nature in northern China. It successfully survives not only in the European part of Russia, but also in regions with a harsher climate, rightly ranked as “risk farming zones” - in Siberia, the Far East, and the Urals. Liana is frost-resistant, temperatures up to -45ºС do not harm her. The main danger for it is return spring frosts, which in these territories are not something out of the ordinary. When the temperature drops to -2ºС, the leaves will suffer, but will quickly recover, at -4ºС and they and the flowers will turn black and fall, -8ºС - a critical minimum at which shoots may not survive.

The plant has long been and successfully used in traditional medicine. All its parts are used - leaves, roots, bark, flowers. Cooked decoctions and infusions serve as an effective prevention of atherosclerosis, help fight other vascular diseases, and are used in case of digestive and breathing problems. It is also an indispensable tool for the treatment of vitamin deficiency.

In general, actinidia is one of the oldest plants that have survived to this day.Botanists claim that this liana existed on the planet at the same time as dinosaurs, but, unlike them, was able to survive the ice age. Accordingly, she has the ability to adapt to the most extreme conditions.

Description and specifications

Actinidia belongs to the category of dioecious plants. If you plant it not only for decoration, but also counting on bearing fruit, it is imperative that you have a "male" bush that will serve as a pollinator. Breeders have bred several new varieties that are marketed as self-fertile, but practice shows that they cannot be called fully legitimate. Distinguish “male” plants from “female” plants by flowers. In the former, they have many stamens, but are devoid of a pestle.

Flowers on "male" actinidia bushes lack pestle

For the winter, the liana drops its leaves. But before that, they acquire a very bright shade - sunny yellow, crimson-crimson, blood-red. The shape of the leaf plate resembles a slightly elongated heart. In most varieties, it is dark green, but varieties with a leaf tip painted in white, pinkish or cream are also found.

Bright multi-colored leaves only add actinidia decorative

The flowering period is short (2–2.5 weeks), but it is very plentiful. Snow-white or pastel pink flowers are small, but the opened buds spread an amazing aroma, similar to the smell of orange blossom or lily of the valley.

Blooming actinidia spreads amazing aroma

Actinidia fruits look like very large gooseberries or small kiwi fruits. Their taste is very pleasant, sweet and sour, refreshing. The pulp contains more vitamin C than lemons and black currants. Its daily rate is only two fruits. It is best to eat fresh berries, so experienced gardeners recommend letting them hang on the vine until the first frost - then the shelf life will increase significantly.

Actinidia fruits are very similar in shape to kiwi

Rodents, primarily mice, shoots of actinidia are not interested. They can only build a nest in the space between the roots. But on cats, the plant has about the same intoxicating effect as tincture of valerian. They do not eat leaves, but to get to the juice, they gnaw through the bases of shoots and roots.

Strangers do not take root?

The Ural gardener has something to flaunt before the neighbors! For instance, actinidia and lemongrass chinese - real woody vines. They braid arbors, fences and arches no worse than their tropical counterparts.

Schisandra - natural power engineer. All its parts have a strong tonic effect, so if the house has very small children, epileptics or hypertension, it’s better to plant actinidia. This is a Uralian relative of kiwi, they also say about "Far Eastern quiche-mish" about actinidia. Actinidia fruits with a very delicate and fresh taste have more vitamin C than lemon! From them you can make jam, freeze or dry. Actinidia is especially useful for digestive disorders.

Almonds low also feels very good in the Urals. In May, it blooms like sakura - leaves are not yet visible, but all branches are dotted with delicate pink flowers. Hazelnut cannot boast of beautiful flowering, but how cool it is to shoot ripe nuts in the fall!

Myth 2. Wrap snow for warmth

Yes, it is easier for some plants to survive the Ural winter under a snow blanket. Raspberries, henomeles, garden strawberries, gooseberries, colored currants (red, white, pink) will approve this idea. But apricot or cherry accumulation of snow at the trunk only harms. Plum is especially bad - its root neck under snow suffers from undermining, and the plant may die. After the first autumn snowfalls, scoop up the snow from the plum tree trunk so that the soil around it is well frozen, and in the spring do not be too lazy to free the tree trunk from snow. The tree will thank you with a good harvest.

Myth 3.Whitening one comb

In spring, it is customary to whitewash trees with lime “from pests”. In fact, whitewashing is not useful to everyone and is needed not only as a remedy for insects.

Against pests Only adult trees that are more than five years old can be processed. Young trees will suffer from caustic slaked lime. To protect them from parasites, it is better to use hunting belts, they are sold in garden stores.

Against sunburn whitewashing is also needed, but for this it is not necessary to use lime, a solution of chalk with laundry soap is suitable. When sunlight reflects off snow, it damages the bark, especially young plants. To avoid burns, treat the trunks at least twice a year - in October in dry weather and in April.

Loosening

Loosening and simultaneous removal of weeds is carried out after each watering. Loosening will give oxygen access to the root system of the plant, and this favorably affects the increase in yield.

The root system of the plant does not go deep into the ground. In view of this, you need to carefully loosen the soil on the surface.

Dr. Shimanovsky

One of the most popular varieties of Polish selection. The average shoot length is about 2 m. It is characterized by good cold resistance (up to -40ºС). The creators of the variety is positioned as self-fertile, but practice shows that this is not entirely true. Shoots are glossy shiny, chocolate brown. The leaves are variegated, bright green with snow-white, cream, pinkish, blurry spots. In the fall, they change color to yellow, crimson, purple-scarlet. The intensity of the color depends on the planting site of the vine - the more sun, the brighter it is. Variegation manifests itself after two to three years of being in the open ground.

Flowering can be expected from plants older than five years. The flowers are small, snow-white, with pale yellow stamens, spread a pleasant lemon scent. Flowering duration - up to three weeks. The fruit ripening period is 4–4.5 months. Usually harvested in early August. The berries are small, weighing about 2.5–3 g and a length of 2–2.5 cm. The peel is salad-green, the pulp is juicy, tasty, sweet and sour. The aroma resembles a pineapple or apple. Ripe fruits quickly crumble. The average yield is 12-15 kg per adult plant.

Actinidia Dr. Shimanovsky - one of the most popular varieties of foreign selection in Russia

Queen of the Garden

A variety of Russian selection included in the Russian State Register in 1999. It belongs to the category of dessert. Spectacular climbing vine, the shoots of which reach 7–9 m. Winter hardiness is within -35ºС. Productivity is not too high - 1-2 kg per adult plant. Very rarely suffers from diseases and pests. Leaves are brilliant, lime color. Fruits are characterized by a very high content of vitamin C (1700 mg per 100 g of berries). Ripens in the first ten days of August. The berries have a regular cylindrical or barrel-shaped shape with a cut top, reaching a weight of 3.5-4.5 g and a length of about 3.5 cm. The skin is greenish-olive, with a gray tint. On the side facing the sun, a pinkish-red blush may appear. The taste is refreshing, sweet and sour, intense aroma, similar to the smell of apples. Professionals rate the taste very highly - at 4.8 points out of five.

The fruits of Actinidia Queen of the Garden are very tasty, but, unfortunately, they are few

Waffle

Achievement of Moscow breeders. A medium-ripening variety, experts are considered one of the best. Withstands frosts up to -30ºС. The undoubted advantages are excellent resistance to diseases and pests, consistently high productivity (up to 7–8 kg from an adult vine) and large berry size (more than 8 g). The fruit is elliptical with a flat, as if cut off base. The skin is dull, greenish-brown. From a distance it may seem dirty. Taste with a slight acidity, the pulp is very delicate, the banana aroma.Tasters he is rated at 4.75 points out of five. Ripe berries quickly crumble. Therefore, it is better to remove unripe fruits - they ripen within 2-3 days. The length of the shoots is 6–8 m, the thickness is 3-4 cm. In old plants, it reaches 8–10 cm. The maximum yield is achieved when growing vines in light penumbra. Flowers are solitary, with snow-white petals.

Actinidia Wafelnaya - one of the best achievements of Russian breeders

Fertilizers

Fertilizing during the cultivation of actinidia in Siberia is made according to the period. When the liana gains its height, it is fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizing, but not in the first year after planting, which was carried out according to the requirements.

During the formation of the ovaries, they are fed with fertilizer, in which the proportion of phosphorus and potassium exceeds the proportion of nitrogen. This will help increase the yield.

Myth 4. Watering under the root

It is especially wrong to water the stem itself if the root system of the plant is superficial. As a rule, the bulk of the suction roots is not located near the trunk, but in the crown projection zone. So that during irrigation the plant receives the required amount of water, water it in circles at different distances from the trunk, focusing on the diameter of the crown. It is especially important to observe this rule when the watering can is not plain water, but fertilizer.

Folk

Actinidia of medium maturity. Shoots grow slower than most vines. The fruits are small, weighing up to 4–4.5 g, in the shape of an almost regular ellipse. The taste is sweet and sour, the flesh has a rich apple flavor (to some it looks more like strawberries). Lime skin. Tasting score - 4.5 points. The shoots are curly, smooth, brownish in color. The leaves on the front side are bright green, in the sun they can acquire a yellowish tint. The inside is almost white. The edge is carved with small cloves. It rarely suffers from diseases, but, in comparison with other actinidia, it enjoys the increased attention of pests.

Unlike most actinidia, People’s growth rate is not different

Myth 5. Do not spoil the bed with manure.

What is valuable manure? It contains nitrogen, due to which plantings actively grow and increase green mass. Therefore, manure should be fertilized only in spring or early summer.

The most useful and safe fertilizer is obtained from year-old manure: they unloaded a bunch of “product”, threw grass or sawdust on top and covered it with a layer of earth so that the amber would not spread around the neighborhood. During the year of overexposure within the heap, three important processes will occur:

- cross weed seeds (animals are not able to digest most seeds),
- parasite eggs will be destroyed,
- Nitrogen binds to the microflora of the soil, and a useful compound is formed.

Fresh manure can also be used, especially if you want to get a good crop of cucumbers, zucchini, squash. But such a fertilizer must be properly prepared so as not to destroy the plants. Pour 1 liter of manure with 9 liters of water, close the container and put it in the greenhouse for a week. Then dilute the fertilizer again with water in a ratio of 1: 2. Water the plant with finished liquid without touching the stems and leaves. Do not fertilize with fresh manure root vegetables and greens - there will be more harm than good.

Hope

Belorussian variety of medium maturity. Recommended for cultivation in all regions of Russia. Its main advantages include a good yield (4–5 kg per adult vine), a high content of vitamin C (1250 mg per 100 g), and the fact that it does not suffer from diseases and pests. A significant drawback is drought sensitivity. The length of the shoots is 5.5–6 m. The first crop of the vine comes in 4–5 years after planting in the ground. It differs in the large size of flowers, reaching 2.8–3 cm in diameter. The leaves are very elongated, in the form of a wedge, with a sharply sharpened tip. The average weight of the berry is 3 g or slightly less. To the top, it gradually narrows. Even fully ripened fruits do not crumble.Bright green peel is covered with longitudinal stripes of salad color. The pulp is very sweet, sourness is barely noticeable. Tasting score - 4.5 points.

Actinidia Hope is very sensitive to substrate moisture

Botanical features

Shrub lianas are characterized by regular, whole, without stipules leaves and buds, which are completely or partially hidden by leaf scars. Flowers have different sizes, and their diameter can vary between 10-30 mm. The flowers are solitary or collected in small inflorescences and are located in the leaf sinuses.

Perianth double, 4−5-membered. Corollas have a cup shape. Rare species have fragrant flowers. Fruits are represented by oblong berries of yellow-green or light orange color. Some varieties form edible fruits.

Myth 6. "Degeneration" of wild strawberries

If you like garden strawberries, you have noticed that over time, planting is more likely to get sick, bear fruit less, and the fruits are small and ugly. Often this process is mistakenly called "rebirth", they say, a cultivar due to self-sowing gradually degrades to the state of "wild", loses varietal qualities. Of course, this is not so, the variety does not change, but the specific strawberry bush is aging, this is a normal process of age-related withering. So aging a specific person does not mean changes in his genotype. With strawberries over four years old, you can part without regrets and organize a garden in a new place.

Fortunately, Ural dacha owners trust rumors less and less and prefer to consult with specialists.

Magpie

One of the earliest varieties, the fruits ripen in the first decade of August. Disease rarely affects. Curly shoots, about 3 m long. The leaves are soft, of an unusual dark olive hue. Fruits are elongated, ellipsoid, slightly flattened laterally, rather small (weight - 2.2–2.5 g, length - 2.5–2.8 cm). The skin is thin, lime, smooth, shiny. The pulp is very sweet, with an apple flavor and a high (2200 mg per 100 g) content of vitamin C. The taste has earned the highest rating possible from professional tasters - 5 points. The yield, unfortunately, is low - 1–1.5 kg per bush.

The fruits of Actinidia Magpie in the Urals ripen earlier than anyone

Grape

It is considered one of the most promising breeding novelties, but along with excellent winter hardiness and good immunity against diseases, there is also a significant drawback - low productivity (not more than 1 kg from a bush). The fruits ripen at the very beginning of August. The variety belongs to the category of dessert. Fruits are large, weighing 6–7 g and a length of 2.2–2.5 cm, strongly elongated, slightly ribbed. The flesh is slightly acidic, has a pronounced strawberry aroma, which to some seems like marmalade. The skin is dark olive in color, very thin, almost transparent. Longitudinal light stripes and a slight blurred blush on it fit into the norm.

Grape actinidia has very tasty fruits, but it does not differ in productivity

Species selection and characterization

On the territory of Russia, less heat-loving and more hardy species of actinidia are grown, which include the species "Colomikta" and "Argutta". The culture forms very useful fruits that are superior to citrus fruits in the content of ascorbic acid.

According to experienced gardeners, in the Urals and Siberia it is advisable to grow actinidia colomict. Varieties of this type of actinidia differ in terms of ripening, yield indicators and sugar content in fruits.

Grade nameRipening periodBotanical DescriptionFruit
WaffleMid-season2-3 m high, with medium leafy crownMass up to 3.2-3.3 g, elongated oval, sweet
"Magpie"Mid-season2-3 m high, with medium leafy crownMass up to 2.5−2.7 g, cylindrical, very elongated, olive-colored, sweet
The Queen of the GardenEarly ripeMedium-sized liana, relatively winter-hardyElongated cylindrical, weighing 3.4-3.5 g, olive green, sweet and sour
“Gourmet”Mid-seasonMedium-sized vine with red-brown shootsCylindrical, squeezed, olive green, sweet, with pineapple flavor
"Commander"Early floweringWinter-hardy mid-vineNo ovaries
"People"Mid-seasonMedium Brown VineCylindrical, slightly compressed, weighing 3–3.2 g, yellowish-green, with strawberry aroma
"Hope"Early ripeRare bushes with a height of not more than 2.3–2.5 metersMass 2.1–2.3 g, elongated oval, emerald green, sweet and sour

Transfer

Only young seedlings are transplanted. When digging them up, they dig with a large lump of earth, so as not to damage the root system. Large adult specimens are injured during transplantation and may not take root in a new place. Therefore, the choice of a place for actinidia is correctly thought out, because it can live in one place for up to 50 years.

Homestead

A variety of early ripening, the fruits ripen in the first decade of August. The average weight of the berry is 4.5–5 g, length is 3.5–4 cm. The skin is colored in various shades of olive. The form is an elongated cylinder with well-felt ribs. The taste is rather sour than sweet, but tasters rated highly at 4.7 points. Pulp with a rich aroma reminiscent of pineapples and apples. Shoots reach a length of 3-4 cm, intensively curl. Even in adults, creeper bark retains a green tint. Plants rarely suffer from frost. Productivity - up to 2 kg per bush.

The taste of Actinidia Homestead is not very sweet, but professional tasters like it

Gourmet

The fruits ripen in the second decade of August. The liana growth rate is not different. The support, which is interesting, it wraps strictly counterclockwise. The shoots are very thin, but the leaves are large, with prominent veins. The flowers are single, in appearance reminiscent of lilies of the valley. Flowering lasts almost a month. Frost resistance - within -40ºС. Fruits in the form of a slightly flattened cylinder. The skin is very thin, olive green in color, can be covered with blurred longitudinal stripes. The berries are quite large - 4.5–5.5 g. The taste is balanced, sweet and sour. The pulp smells faintly of pineapple. The average yield of 5-7 kg from an adult vine.

Actinidia Gourmand is characterized by productivity and good frost resistance

A variety of late ripening, belonging to the category of dessert. It is characterized by frost resistance, rarely suffers from diseases and pests. Young shoots change color from greenish to chocolate brown during the season. The leaves are smooth on the outside, on the wrong side along the veins there is a fringe. Fruits in the shape of a rounded cone. The average length is a little over 2 cm, weight is 2.5–3 g. The pulp is very sweet, with a rich aroma of pineapple. Ripe berries do not crumble. The skin is brownish-green with darker longitudinal stripes, thin. Taste is estimated at 4.5 points. Productivity is low - 0.5–1 kg per adult plant.

Actinidia Moma is practically not attacked by diseases and pests

"Male" plant, does not bear fruit in principle. It can be used as a “universal” pollinator for any of the described varieties of actinidia. The average height of the vine is 3.5–4 m. The leaves are very decorative - when the plant reaches 3–5 years of age during the season, they gradually change their bright green spring color to almost white summer color, which becomes crimson-pink by the beginning of autumn. The older the vine, the more intense the tone of the leaf plate. The flowers are small, white, collected in an inflorescence of three. The aroma is almost imperceptible, similar to the smell of lemon.

Adam is a suitable pollinator for any “female” colomict actinidia species

In general, bright coloration is a distinctive feature of "male" actinidia plants. Their leaves are much larger and brighter than the "female". Flowering occurs in late spring or early summer.

Landing rules

Experts recommend giving preference to planting material grown in nurseries and plant growing organizations, which guarantee the quality and health of the plant being sold. Actinidia has a very fragile and delicate root system, therefore, it is very important to purchase seedlings that have a closed root system. It is also not recommended to plant plants older than two to three years.

Plant characteristics

Actinidia is a decorative-leafy plant native to China; it is also called mini-kiwi. On its basis, many winter-hardy varieties that have been successfully grown in Russia are bred. The plant bears fruit with delicious berries, growing, trimming actinidia and caring for it does not cause much trouble.

Botanical description of actinidia:

  • This is a shrubby vine of the Actinidiaceae family.
  • Actinidia is characterized by a compact arrangement of serrated, ovoid or heart-shaped leaves.
  • The flowers of the plant are usually white or cream, small.
  • The fruits are small, resembling gooseberries.
    Photo - Actinidia fruit
  • Bushes are monoecious or dioecious. Monoecious plants do not require pollination - male and female flowers are on the same shrub. Dioecious vines need to be planted at least 2 specimens on the site - a male plant and a female, which gives fruit after pollination.

Actinidia fruits resemble kiwi in appearance and taste. They are used fresh and for processing. However, the bush gained popularity not only for this reason. The plant is often used for landscaping. Beautiful actinidia flowers bloom in early summer, and the fruits ripen in autumn.

Actinidia: planting and care (video)

Actinidia refers to dioecious garden crops, therefore, not only female but also male plants should be planted in a ratio of 5: 2 seedlings. Not very favorable soil and climatic conditions of the region do not allow for the autumn planting of plants, so in the fall you should only prepare planting pits for garden culture. Planting actinidia should be carried out according to technology and involves the implementation of the following measures:

  • it is best to place plants on trellises, placing them along the perimeter of the garden or along the walls of any structures,
  • a good option for placing actinidia in a garden or garden plot is to plant for the purpose of landscaping arbors, canopies or fences,
  • despite sufficient shade tolerance, fruiting can be achieved only in conditions of good sunlight,

  • it is preferable to carry out an ordinary planting, placing landing pits from north to south and maintaining a distance between rows of 3-4 m with a distance of 1.5-2 m between planted plants,
  • planting pits should have a depth and diameter of 0.5-0.7 m, and when planting in trenches, their depth should be 0.5-0.6 m with a width of 0.4-0.5 m,
  • at the bottom of the pit or trench, it is necessary to equip a drainage over which garden soil is poured with the addition of: 8-10 kg of humus, 0.2 kg of superphosphate, 50 g of ammonium nitrate and 70-80 g of potassium salt per planting hole,
  • Actinidia grows and develops best on slightly acidic and acidic, as well as soils with neutral pH values.

The site should not have stagnation of moisture, and also be exposed to the negative effects of high-lying groundwater.

Growing Features

Actinidia kolomikta is one of the slowest growing plants, belongs to the most shade-tolerant species of actinidia, therefore needs minimal care:

  • during the first year after planting at a permanent place, it is recommended to shade plants from the scorching rays of the sun using non-woven material or a special mesh,
  • watering should be minimal, and to preserve moisture in the soil it is allowed to use mulching in trunks,

  • the soil in the area around actinidia should be clean of weeds, and loosening should be very superficial and rare,
  • at the initial stage of the growing season, plants should be fed with nitrogen or organics at the rate of 2 kg per square meter of plantings,
  • in the summer, it is advisable to feed actinidia with infusion of wood ash, and in the fall 40 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium salt per square meter are added,
  • for the winter period, young plants should be mulched with leaf humus, and then covered with spruce branches.

Characteristics and varieties

The culture belongs to the woody perennial vines of the genus Aktinidievyh. In vivo, it is found in the Far East and in Asian countries (Himalayas, Tibet), has more than 30 species. Wild varieties of actinidia can reach a length of 8-15 meters, but in gardens they grow up to 3-4, less often up to 7 meters.

Actinidia bush colomicta

The stems are brown, covered with slightly scaly bark and large leaves with excellent decorative characteristics. At the beginning of their development, they have a brownish-golden color, after which they acquire an emerald color, then turn white, and gradually turn pink with a crimson hue.

The leaves of actinidia colomicta have an original, constantly changing color.

In late spring or early summer, the liana begins to bloom with white inflorescences 1.5 cm in diameter, which have a specific aroma that attracts bees to the area. Actinidia fruits are small oval or cylindrical berries. At first they are fairly hard to the touch, the taste is burning, but as they mature, they soften and become sweetish-acid. From one bush you can get about 4-7 kg of fruit.

The fruits of actinidia colomictus

Interesting! Actinidia colomicta is a close relative of kiwi, an exotic plant whose berries are very popular due to its taste. The fruits of actinidia are smaller, but not inferior to their "relatives" in their characteristics and the content of nutrients.

Table 1. The best varieties of actinidia colomicta.

GradeDescription and Features

Liana in length can reach 4 meters. It has variegated leaves, bears fruit berries 2.5 cm in size with a sweet and sour flavor and an interesting aroma reminiscent of the aroma of apple and pineapple
Bushes with fast growth. One of the most prolific varieties of the plant - fruits reach 3 cm in length, have a greenish-red hue and a pronounced pineapple taste
A plant with excellent decorative characteristics - variegated foliage and white inflorescences with a light lemon aroma
Large vines with bright green fruits, covered with light stripes, have a pronounced pineapple aroma and a pleasant sweet aftertaste with a slight sourness
Vines of this variety can reach a length of 3-4 meters, the berries are very sweet (without the sour taste that many other varieties of actinidia have)
Srednerosly bush (no more than 3 meters in length), gives ellitic, slightly flattened at the edges of the fruit, sweet in taste
A type of plant of late ripening, bears fruit in August or September with large berries (3.5 cm long) with pointed tips and orange peel

Attention! Colomict actinidia belongs to dioecious plants, therefore its vines differ by sex - the fruits appear only on females, while males are used for pollination. You can distinguish them only after the appearance of flowers - female creepers bloom single flowers, and male vines - inflorescences, 3-5 flowers each. To get the crop, you need to plant plants of both sexes.

How to choose a seedling

Choosing a seedling is a very responsible procedure. Beginning gardeners are advised to purchase plants exclusively in specialized stores or nurseries.This is the only way to guarantee that it is precisely the actinidia of the desired variety. Buying at hand or at agricultural fairs is a big risk. In this case, it is desirable that the nursery where the plant was grown, also be in the Urals. Such seedlings are already adapted to the climatic characteristics of the region.

Purchasing from trustworthy suppliers - a guarantee of the quality of planting material

What else should you be guided by when choosing:

  1. The roots of actinidia are quite fragile, so it is better to give preference to a plant with a closed root system. So you can guarantee that they will not suffer during transportation and will not dry out before landing. Five to ten minutes in the open air is enough for the roots to suffer irreversibly.
  2. Annual plants take root well in a new place. Moreover, they rarely have an earthen lump. A large seedling (three years or older) is by no means the best choice.
  3. If actinidia is bought with the expectation of a future crop, the presence of a pollinator is mandatory. For every three “female” bushes, one “male” bush of the same species is acquired (sometimes a 5: 2 ratio is recommended). Interspecific pollination is not possible for this plant.
  4. Seedlings grown from seeds do not always inherit the varietal traits of the “parent”. This is relevant only for actinidia obtained from cuttings. They can be distinguished by the presence of a trunk similar to a “stump” and lateral buds, from which thin shoots grow. An annual seed plant is the only smooth shoot.
  5. In actinidia colomict, unlike other varieties, the shoot is painted in a rather dark color - green-brown, red-brown, chocolate. Small rounded growths of a lighter shade are clearly visible. The other actinidia shoots are much paler - sandy, beige, salad color.

Actinidia Colomict: leaving in the Urals

Actinidia in the Urals is not only a decorative, but also an extremely useful plant, because it is capable of producing yields of delicious fruits that are incredibly rich in vitamins. To get the most out of this exotic vine, you need to take good care of it. For actinidia of Colomict in the Urals, care is not complicated:

  • young plants that are not yet 1 year old should be protected from scorching sunlight. For this purpose, any material that you can find is suitable. The main thing is that he creates penumbra for actinidia. Adult lianas will no longer be so afraid of direct sunlight,
  • watering should not be too plentiful and frequent. Water the vine in the evening or in the morning when the weather is especially dry. An effective method of preserving moisture in the roots is to mulch the trunk. Remember that actinidia does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil,
  • getting rid of any weeds is also an indispensable element of care. This will not only create a well-groomed appearance for the plant, but also protect it from possible pests, diseases that weeds can spread,
  • loosening the near-stem circle should not be deep, because the roots are not too deep
  • actinidia responds well to various dressings. As soon as the growing season begins, you can make organic or nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 2 kg per 1 sq.m. The next top dressing will take place in the summer and will consist in the introduction of infusion of wood ash. And in order to reinforce the plant after active flowering, fruit ripening, in the fall use 10 g of potassium salt and about 35 g of superphosphate per 1 sq. Km. m. landings
  • the fragile shoots of young actinidia can be an excellent treat for rodents and even domestic cats. For protection, you can use the grid,
  • Actinidia, which is intended for cultivation in the Urals, has winter-hardy qualities. Therefore, for the winter it will be enough to strew it with rotten leaves and cover it with spruce branches. As you can see, the actinidia of Colomict landing and leaving in the Urals is not at all complicated.

Watering and feeding

The soil is kept moist, watered as necessary. However, in a period of prolonged drought, actinidia needs special care. Watering is carried out 2 times a week, spending 8 buckets of water per plant. If this is not done, the liana will throw off the leaves and overwinter poorly.

When cultivating actinidia, it is important to pay attention to soil fertilizer. This increases the immunity of the bush, its winter hardiness and productivity. Top dressing is applied throughout the growing season: in early spring, during the formation of berries and after harvesting. Fertilizers are applied as follows:

  • At the beginning of the season, nitrogen fertilizing is predominantly made, then phosphorus and potassium are added to them, and the proportion of nitrogen is reduced,
  • in the fall, the vine is fertilized only with phosphorus-potassium mixtures.

Do you need pruning for actinidia and how to do it

During the growing process, the shrub needs to be shaped and trimmed. This allows you to prevent thickening of the crown, and also increases productivity. In the first years, actinidia is not cut, the procedure is started after three years of cultivation.

It is important to know how to prune a vine. Pruning is done throughout the season:

  1. spring thin out the crown,
  2. in the summer, pinch the shoots to slow down the growth,
  3. in autumn, adult vines, which are rejuvenated for more than 10 years - all shoots are cut at the level of 25-30 cm, new ones grow in spring.

The most important trimming of actinidia is done when the plants are dormant. Actinidia requires a fairly strong reduction in shoots. It is necessary to cut off all shoots that intersect, compact the plant, grow from below and all unnecessary. Cut as many shoots as possible so that the crown is better illuminated.

Only young actinidia, whose age is no more than 3 years old, need shelter for the winter. Adult plants winter well without additional warming. Winter care for actinidia depends on the growing region. For example, according to reviews, actinidia is always covered in the Urals, and in winter it is additionally insulated with snow.

The shoots are removed from the supports, tilted to the ground and covered with dry leaves, peat and covered with spruce branches. On top of which spanbond supports are installed. Experienced gardeners advise to spread poison from rodents for the winter so that they do not damage the shoots and roots.

Supports

As the vine grows, it must be tied to the supports. They can be purchased at garden centers, or can be made from improvised material. The main thing is not to forget to tie up the growing stem in time.

Loosening

Loosening and simultaneous removal of weeds is carried out after each watering. Loosening will give oxygen access to the root system of the plant, and this favorably affects the increase in yield.

The root system of the plant does not go deep into the ground. In view of this, you need to carefully loosen the soil on the surface.

Watering

Watering is often necessary, as the plant loves moisture. So that it does not evaporate quickly, the bed is mulched with peat or straw. Watering is done with warm water.

Fertilizers

Fertilizing during the cultivation of actinidia in Siberia is made according to the period. When the liana gains its height, it is fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizing, but not in the first year after planting, which was carried out according to the requirements.

During the formation of the ovaries, they are fed with fertilizer, in which the proportion of phosphorus and potassium exceeds the proportion of nitrogen. This will help increase the yield.

Pruning

In the first years of life, the vines are not formed, but only those parts that are damaged and dried are removed. Only for 7 years begin to form a bush. Do this in the middle of summer or autumn, when the plant is preparing for wintering. The height of the bush is regulated by the gardener at his discretion. If he believes that the liana has grown to the desired height, then pinch it, removing the tip. After pinching, the branches of the second plan will go on the liana; In this way, a lush bush resembling a grape bush is formed.

It is better to form a bush in the morning in sunny weather.This will protect the lesion from fungal spores causing mold.

Winter preparations

Many species need shelter for the winter. Even a frost-resistant colomict often freezes without warming.

In Siberia, in the Urals, full shelter is used. This need is explained by the surface location of the root system of the creeper and the possibility of freezing if the temperature drops below -30 ° C.

Usually they hide actinidia in early November - after leaf fall, when the leaves fell from the bush, and the daytime temperature dropped to + 5-7 ° C, with the approach of stable night frost. Too early shelter is fraught with heating of its buds and branches.

What can hide actinidia:

  • land or peat,
  • plant mulch - needles, grass remains, crushed bark,
  • coniferous spruce branches,
  • straw,
  • sawdust.

It is best to use several materials together. For example, lay straw under a bush, cover it with it from above, then cover it with spruce or tarpaulin.

Straw should not be used, but agrofibre with a density of more than 40 g / m2 - spanbond or lutrasil - is possible. You can not use polyethylene, as it leads to baking during the thaw.

A few important steps:

  1. Mulching. It is with him that the shelter process begins. A trunk circle and soil within a radius of 50 cm are mulched, sawdust, needles, peat and a layer of up to 20 cm are introduced.
  2. Actinidia is removed from the trellis, tied up and laid on the prepared mulch.
  3. Near the plant lay out funds from rodents, mice.
  4. Top with a thick layer of spruce branches, if necessary. After falling snow, it is raked to the shelter.

However, matured vines are difficult to remove from the trellis. Here you can show imagination and make for the plant a kind of houses, pyramids, which are covered with two layers of agrofibre from above.

Transfer

Only young seedlings are transplanted. When digging them up, they dig with a large lump of earth, so as not to damage the root system. Large adult specimens are injured during transplantation and may not take root in a new place. Therefore, the choice of a place for actinidia is correctly thought out, because it can live in one place for up to 50 years.

Humidity

Actinidia loves bathing with warm water. Therefore, watering it, you can pour water on the leaves. This is done only with warm water so that the plant does not get stress. You can not bathe a vine during flowering.

Plant characteristics

Actinidia is a decorative-leafy plant native to China; it is also called mini-kiwi. On its basis, many winter-hardy varieties that have been successfully grown in Russia are bred. The plant bears fruit with delicious berries, growing, trimming actinidia and caring for it does not cause much trouble.

Botanical description of actinidia:

  • This is a shrubby vine of the Actinidiaceae family.
  • Actinidia is characterized by a compact arrangement of serrated, ovoid or heart-shaped leaves.
  • The flowers of the plant are usually white or cream, small.
  • The fruits are small, resembling gooseberries.
    Photo - Actinidia fruit
  • Bushes are monoecious or dioecious. Monoecious plants do not require pollination - male and female flowers are on the same shrub. Dioecious vines need to be planted at least 2 specimens on the site - a male plant and a female, which gives fruit after pollination.

Actinidia fruits resemble kiwi in appearance and taste. They are used fresh and for processing. However, the bush gained popularity not only for this reason. The plant is often used for landscaping. Beautiful actinidia flowers bloom in early summer, and the fruits ripen in autumn.

Characteristics and varieties

The culture belongs to the woody perennial vines of the genus Aktinidievyh. In vivo, it is found in the Far East and in Asian countries (Himalayas, Tibet), has more than 30 species.Wild varieties of actinidia can reach a length of 8-15 meters, but in gardens they grow up to 3-4, less often up to 7 meters.

Actinidia bush colomicta

The stems are brown, covered with slightly scaly bark and large leaves with excellent decorative characteristics. At the beginning of their development, they have a brownish-golden color, after which they acquire an emerald color, then turn white, and gradually turn pink with a crimson hue.

The leaves of actinidia colomicta have an original, constantly changing color.

In late spring or early summer, the liana begins to bloom with white inflorescences 1.5 cm in diameter, which have a specific aroma that attracts bees to the area. Actinidia fruits are small oval or cylindrical berries. At first they are fairly hard to the touch, the taste is burning, but as they mature, they soften and become sweetish-acid. From one bush you can get about 4-7 kg of fruit.

The fruits of actinidia colomictus

Interesting! Actinidia colomicta is a close relative of kiwi, an exotic plant whose berries are very popular due to its taste. The fruits of actinidia are smaller, but not inferior to their "relatives" in their characteristics and the content of nutrients.

Table 1. The best varieties of actinidia colomicta.

GradeDescription and Features

Liana in length can reach 4 meters. It has variegated leaves, bears fruit berries 2.5 cm in size with a sweet and sour flavor and an interesting aroma reminiscent of the aroma of apple and pineapple
Bushes with fast growth. One of the most prolific varieties of the plant - fruits reach 3 cm in length, have a greenish-red hue and a pronounced pineapple taste
A plant with excellent decorative characteristics - variegated foliage and white inflorescences with a light lemon aroma
Large vines with bright green fruits, covered with light stripes, have a pronounced pineapple aroma and a pleasant sweet aftertaste with a slight sourness
Vines of this variety can reach a length of 3-4 meters, the berries are very sweet (without the sour taste that many other varieties of actinidia have)
Srednerosly bush (no more than 3 meters in length), gives ellitic, slightly flattened at the edges of the fruit, sweet in taste
A type of plant of late ripening, bears fruit in August or September with large berries (3.5 cm long) with pointed tips and orange peel

Attention! Colomict actinidia belongs to dioecious plants, therefore its vines differ by sex - the fruits appear only on females, while males are used for pollination. You can distinguish them only after the appearance of flowers - female creepers bloom single flowers, and male vines - inflorescences, 3-5 flowers each. To get the crop, you need to plant plants of both sexes.

Actinium colomictus prices

Actinidia Colomict: leaving in the Urals

Actinidia in the Urals is not only a decorative, but also an extremely useful plant, because it is capable of producing yields of delicious fruits that are incredibly rich in vitamins. To get the most out of this exotic vine, you need to take good care of it. For actinidia of Colomict in the Urals, care is not complicated:

  • young plants that are not yet 1 year old should be protected from scorching sunlight. For this purpose, any material that you can find is suitable. The main thing is that he creates penumbra for actinidia. Adult lianas will no longer be so afraid of direct sunlight,
  • watering should not be too plentiful and frequent. Water the vine in the evening or in the morning when the weather is especially dry. An effective method of preserving moisture in the roots is to mulch the trunk. Remember that actinidia does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil,
  • getting rid of any weeds is also an indispensable element of care.This will not only create a well-groomed appearance for the plant, but also protect it from possible pests, diseases that weeds can spread,
  • loosening the near-stem circle should not be deep, because the roots are not too deep
  • actinidia responds well to various dressings. As soon as the growing season begins, you can make organic or nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 2 kg per 1 sq.m. The next top dressing will take place in the summer and will consist in the introduction of infusion of wood ash. And in order to reinforce the plant after active flowering, fruit ripening, in the fall use 10 g of potassium salt and about 35 g of superphosphate per 1 sq. Km. m. landings
  • the fragile shoots of young actinidia can be an excellent treat for rodents and even domestic cats. For protection, you can use the grid,
  • Actinidia, which is intended for cultivation in the Urals, has winter-hardy qualities. Therefore, for the winter it will be enough to strew it with rotten leaves and cover it with spruce branches. As you can see, the actinidia of Colomict landing and leaving in the Urals is not at all complicated.

Cultivation and care

The plant is grown on supports that are installed immediately after planting. Shoots direct and tie up. When caring for the actinidia shrub, you need to remember about watering, fertilizing and loosening the soil. Which is especially important in the heat.

Watering and feeding

The soil is kept moist, watered as necessary. However, in a period of prolonged drought, actinidia needs special care. Watering is carried out 2 times a week, spending 8 buckets of water per plant. If this is not done, the liana will throw off the leaves and overwinter poorly.

When cultivating actinidia, it is important to pay attention to soil fertilizer. This increases the immunity of the bush, its winter hardiness and productivity. Top dressing is applied throughout the growing season: in early spring, during the formation of berries and after harvesting. Fertilizers are applied as follows:

  • At the beginning of the season, nitrogen fertilizing is predominantly made, then phosphorus and potassium are added to them, and the proportion of nitrogen is reduced,
  • in the fall, the vine is fertilized only with phosphorus-potassium mixtures.

Do you need pruning for actinidia and how to do it

During the growing process, the shrub needs to be shaped and trimmed. This allows you to prevent thickening of the crown, and also increases productivity. In the first years, actinidia is not cut, the procedure is started after three years of cultivation.

It is important to know how to prune a vine. Pruning is done throughout the season:

  1. spring thin out the crown,
  2. in the summer, pinch the shoots to slow down the growth,
  3. in autumn, adult vines, which are rejuvenated for more than 10 years - all shoots are cut at the level of 25-30 cm, new ones grow in spring.

The most important trimming of actinidia is done when the plants are dormant. Actinidia requires a fairly strong reduction in shoots. It is necessary to cut off all shoots that intersect, compact the plant, grow from below and all unnecessary. Cut as many shoots as possible so that the crown is better illuminated.

Only young actinidia, whose age is no more than 3 years old, need shelter for the winter. Adult plants winter well without additional warming. Winter care for actinidia depends on the growing region. For example, according to reviews, actinidia is always covered in the Urals, and in winter it is additionally insulated with snow.

The shoots are removed from the supports, tilted to the ground and covered with dry leaves, peat and covered with spruce branches. On top of which spanbond supports are installed. Experienced gardeners advise to spread poison from rodents for the winter so that they do not damage the shoots and roots.

Supports

Actinidia belongs to the climbing vines, its main and lateral shoots are wrapped around the support in a circular motion. This is a perennial vine. During the first 2 years of cultivation, you can grow without supports, but it is better to create it immediately. In subsequent years, reliable support is required.

At the beginning of cultivation, it is worth tying the stems to the support.This will avoid entanglement around their own shoots, which leads to compression of their vascular system, impaired growth and development.

The plant can be planted next to the supporting elements:

  • openwork fences
  • pergolas
  • bars
  • balustrades
  • trellis.

If you want actinidia to grow near a wall or other flat surface, you need to provide vertical elements a few centimeters from the wall, for example, strong links, thick trims. Plants are planted at a distance of at least 50 cm from the support.

Trellis

In order for actinidia not to damage the shoots and form a bush, it is necessary to make a special support called trellis. You can make it according to the following algorithm:

  • prepare branches with a diameter of 1 cm in an amount of 20-30 pieces,
  • dig in the required number of branches at the same distance,
  • to tie branches horizontally to rooted instances, at the same distance forming a network,
  • in the places of diamond formation, it is necessary to additionally attach a wire to strengthen the structure,
  • protruding branches are cut, and a section is obtained,
  • the number of such sections depends on the number of bushes.

Trellis can be made from any material. This type of support is mounted in the second year of plant development.

Important. In order not to use the backwater, the culture can be planted near the building on which the mesh is preliminarily mounted from the wire.

How to choose a place to land

Actinidia secrete a good spot on the site. After all, this plant is a long-liver. Actinidia will adorn the garden until 50 years old. Therefore, the choice of place, approach with all responsibility. What actinidia loves:

  • Light soilrich in nutrients and humus. The soil acidity level is neutral or slightly acidic. Alkaline soil, acidified with peat or sawdust of coniferous trees,
  • Actinidia is a lover of moisture. Moderately moist soil is the best option for plants. But it should be remembered that the vine does not tolerate stagnation of water at the roots. You can not plant plants in lowlands, in swamps and in places where groundwater comes closer than a meter to the roots,
  • The plant likes to soak up the sun. In the shade, actinidia develops poorly, rarely blooms, foliage becomes pale. It is necessary to choose a place so that the sun shines moderately. With light partial shade.

The best predecessors and neighbors are legumes, asters, petunia, marigolds. The unfortunate neighbor for the creeper is the garden apple tree. The tree takes nutrients from the soil, thereby inhibiting the growth and development of actinidia.

Pest and Disease Control

Actinidia has a strong immunity to diseases, however, the following types of problems may occur:

  • Phyllosticosis - refers to the fungal type of the disease. More often affects adult types of culture and manifests itself in the form of spots on leaves and trunks. To eliminate the disease, spraying with Bordeaux fluid is necessary.
  • Ramulariosis - manifests itself in the form of white spots on the leaves. To eliminate pathology, damaged shoots are removed. The bush is treated with Bordeaux fluid.
  • Powdery mildew - manifests itself in the form of plaque on the leaves. To remove it is necessary to spray with a solution of soda ash.

Among the pests that can occur on actinidia, it is necessary to distinguish:

  • leaf beetle - damages leaves and young shoots, as a result of which the plant withers,
  • insect - affects the shoots and fruits of culture.

For removal, you can use Bordeaux liquid or a light solution of copper sulfate. In difficult cases, it is necessary to use chemicals against pests.

Actinidia planting in the Urals

The process of planting an actinidia seedling in open ground takes several steps:

  1. A week before the expected date of landing, a landing pit is prepared, with a depth of up to 50 cm, diameters up to half a meter.Be sure to organize drainage in the pit, from a layer (10 cm) of expanded clay, brick chips or pebbles. One third, they fill the pit with fertile soil (land mixed with humus (10 liters) and mineral fertilizers. Sprinkle with garden soil.
  2. Next to the landing pit, place a trellis support or mesh. The height of the structure is up to 3 meters. Liana for the winter, it is recommended to incline to the ground and sprinkle with snow. Therefore, it is advisable to install a collapsible support. The distance from the plants to the trellis is about 50-100 cm,
  3. A sapling in a pot is abundantly watered with water so that the earthen lump is soft. A plant with an earthen lump is removed from the pot and installed in the landing pit, after moistening the soil in it. The root neck should be at ground level,
  4. Sprinkle the seedling with soil without fertilizers, slightly tamping the soil. This will help to eliminate the formation of voids in the landing pit,
  5. Actinidia is abundantly watered with water. Recommended water temperature, not lower than 10 degrees and not higher than 20. Consumption per plant -25 liters,
  6. Around the plant, a circle with a diameter of 50 cm is distinguished. The trunk circle is mulched with peat crumbs, grass or humus. Layer of mulch - about 10 cm,
  7. White agrofibre of low density is pulled over the liana. Shelter will protect actinidia from the scorching sun and night frosts. Remember - immature plants do not tolerate direct sunlight.

When planting several plants in one area, they maintain a distance between adjacent vines of at least half a meter, and leave about 4 meters between rows.

Features of planting and care of actinidia in the Urals

An important stage in the successful planting of culture in the Ural conditions is in choosing a suitable seat. Do not forget that the plant can grow normally for many years in the same place, because it is considered a long-liver. However, it is important to provide him with enough room for growth, both in width and in height. Before choosing a place for planting, consider the estimated dimensions of the future bush, paying attention to varietal features. Also consider arranging a suitable support for actinidia.

As a soil composition, it is better to choose neutral or slightly acidic compositions based on sandy loam or loam with a high content of nutrients, including humus.

Despite its need for plentiful humidity, liana reacts poorly to stagnation of water near the roots. For this reason, it is better to grow it on higher ground or in places with a good drainage layer.

To collect a tasty and rich harvest, the plant needs to provide plenty of sunlight. Representatives of some varieties have excellent shade tolerance, but still can not develop normally without plentiful lighting. The method of planting actinidia near other garden trees that will fulfill the role of partial shade has proven itself very well.

When to plant actinidia in open ground in the Urals, care after planting

It is better to start growing Colinict actinidia in the springbecause the high risk of autumn frost does not allow for planting in the fall. In turn, in order not to waste time, in the autumn, you need to start choosing the right place for landing and preparing the landing pit. Experienced gardeners are advised to start planting in early May, when the threat of too serious frost and temperature changes will finally disappear.

When choosing a suitable planting material, you need to be extremely careful. Do not forget that some seedlings may not be of sufficient quality, so they simply do not take root in the soil. The decorativeness and condition of the future culture depends on the right choice. To prevent mistakes just follow some selection rules and be guided by the recommendations of experienced gardeners:

  • do not buy the planting material of Colinict actinidia “by hand”, because in this case you will not have 100 percent guarantee of the quality of the planting material. Also, you will not be able to find out if this variety is winter-hardy or not, and it is cold resistance indicators that occupy a key place in the search for suitable seedlings for growing in the Urals. For a successful purchase, contact specialized nurseries or experienced flower growers who attach certain documents or guarantees of return to their products,
  • It is known that Colomikt Actinidia has a very fragile root system that can be damaged by the slightest error during transport. For this reason, it’s better to buy specimens with a carefully closed rhizome,
  • do not pay attention to the size of the seedlings. Buy individuals at the age of 1 year, as older seedlings may have an overdried earthen lump, which will aggravate further rooting in the open ground,
  • many gardeners buy actinidia Colomict for home cultivation, not only with the aim of decorating the homestead. Many of them begin to grow the plant for an excellent crop. If you wish to receive a “shock” dose of vitamin C on the plot, purchase for each 3 “female” seedlings 1 “male”,

As mentioned above, the preparation of the soil composition can begin in the autumn, and landing itself is best done in spring, paying attention to a number of recommendations of experienced professionals.

  • Before proceeding with the preparation of planting pits, you need to correctly create a scheme for their placement, provided that you intend to engage in mass cultivation of the crop. It is better to place landing pits in an ordinary way, which is directed from north to south. This arrangement will allow the vine to receive the maximum amount of sunlight. Between two plants it is necessary to maintain a minimum distance of 1.5-2 meters. When planting a crop in several rows, leave between the rows about four meters of free territory,
  • If there are a lot of planted plants, and you plant them in a row, arranging a trench with a depth of 50 centimeters and a width of 40-50 centimeters. The optimal dimensions of the landing pit vary within 50x50 centimeters. When growing larger individuals - 60x60 cm,
  • At the bottom of the landing pit, it is better to lay out a drainage layer created from pebbles, chipped bricks or small stones,
  • The next step is to prepare a nutritious soil composition. For this purpose, it is enough to add 9-10 kilograms of humus, 200 grams of superphosphate and 80 grams of potassium salt to the excavated earth. Similar proportions will be effective for one landing pit,
  • 1 third of the landing pit should be filled with nutrient composition,
  • If the purchased plant has an open rhizome, the roots carefully straighten the mound during planting. If the root system is closed, then the earthen lump is pre-moistened before planting, after which the rest of the earthen soil is rammed,
  • It’s important not to deepen the root neck and water the garden plentifully after a successful planting of a seedling,
  • Also, after watering, it is necessary to mulch the upper layers of the earth, which will allow moisture to linger in the soil for a long time. In the process, it is better to apply leaves, peat or humus,

Step 1. Choose a place to land

  • When choosing a place for actinidia in the Urals for planting, you must not forget that this plant will grow in this place for a very long time. It is a long-liver. There should be enough room for the growth of actinidia both in height and in width. Be guided by the maximum sizes which the grade chosen by you can reach. Provide support for actinidia in advance, as it's still a liana.
  • The composition of the soil should preferably be neutral or slightly acidic.
  • Actinidia will grow best on sandy or loamy fertile soils that are rich in humus.
  • Although actinidia loves moisture, it does not tolerate stagnation of water at the roots. Therefore, if in your area the groundwater flows too close to the surface, you should either choose an elevated area or take care of good drainage.
  • To collect a tasty and rich crop, the plant must receive enough sunlight. Some varieties, although shade-tolerant, still require sunlight. You can choose trees that will create light partial shade with your crown as “neighbors”.

Step 2. Choose a time to land

Siberian climatic conditions with fairly early autumn frosts simply do not allow the planting of actinidia in the fall. In autumn, it is better to choose the right place for planting and prepare the landing pits. Experienced gardeners in the Urals recommend starting planting in early May, when the threat of too serious frosts and sudden changes in temperature passes.

Step 3. Choose planting material

The choice of planting material should always be approached with particular care. This will determine how your plant will grow, whether it will have the declared decorative qualities, and whether the crop will be tasty and rich. In order not to make a mistake in choosing, follow the following tips of experienced gardeners in the Urals:

  • do not buy actinidia seedlings “from hand”. So, you cannot be 100% sure of the quality of such planting material. You cannot be sure of the winter hardiness of such plants - one of the main criteria for choosing plants for planting in the Urals. To buy actinidia in the Urals is not a problem. Give your preference to buying seedlings in specialized nurseries, where seedlings are grown, or in narrow-profile stores for gardeners,
  • actinidia has quite fragile roots that can easily be damaged during transportation. Therefore, actinidia seedlings are sold with a closed root system,
  • Do not chase the size of seedlings. It is better to purchase plants that are no more than 1 year old. So, you do not run the risk of buying actinidia with an over-dried earthen lump. And the 1-year-old sapling, moreover, is much better able to take root in a new place of growth,
  • most gardeners acquire actinidia, not only for its decorative qualities, but also for the purpose of harvesting. If you also want to get a crop with a “shock” dose of vitamin C from your plot, then for 3 “female” seedlings you should buy 1 “male” seedling.

Step 4. Soil preparation and planting

As already mentioned, you can prepare the soil for planting in the fall, and the planting itself in the spring.

  • Before you start digging the landing pits, you should consider the layout of their location. Of course, this is only necessary if more than one plant is planted. Landing pits are best placed in a row, which will be directed from the north to the south. It is thanks to this arrangement of plants that they can get the optimal amount of sunlight. Between 2 plants, keep a minimum distance of 1.5-2 meters. If you plant actinidia in several rows, then between the rows leave about 4 meters of free space,
  • if there are a lot of plants and you plant them in a row, then instead of landing pits, they dig a trench 50 cm deep and 40-50 cm wide. The dimensions of the landing pit are 50 * 50 cm or 60 * 60 cm,
  • a good drainage layer must be laid at the bottom of the pit. It can be pebbles, chipped bricks, small stones,
  • Next, you need to prepare a nutritious earth mixture. To dug ordinary earth, you need to add 9-10 kg of humus, 200 g of superphosphate, 80 g of potassium salt and 50 g of ammonium nitrate. These proportions are given for one landing pit,
  • 1/3 of the landing pit is filled with the mound obtained with the nutrient mixture,
  • if the plant was purchased with an open root system, then the roots should be carefully distributed along the mound. If actinidia was purchased with a closed root system, then the earthen lump must be moistened before immersion in the landing pit. After that, fill up the rest of the soil, gently ramming it,
  • do not deepen the root neck,
  • after planting actinidia should be abundantly watered,
  • After watering, do not forget to mulch the surface of the earth to prevent moisture from evaporating quickly. Leaves, peat or humus are perfect for this procedure.

Landing pit preparation

Landing pit for actinidia is prepared in the fall or at least a few weeks before the scheduled date. Several bushes are best arranged in a row from north to south. Leave at least one and a half meters between neighboring vines, and between their rows - at least 3.5–4 m. The optimum depth of the pit is about half a meter, and the diameter is 50-60 cm.

At the bottom of the pit, with a layer of at least 10 cm thick, brick chips, expanded clay, pebbles, ceramic shards are always poured. Other materials can also be used as drainage.

A layer of drainage is required at the bottom of the landing pit for actinidia

The top layer of soil extracted from the pit is mixed with humus (10–12 l), simple superphosphate (180–200 g), potassium sulfate (70–90 g) and urea (40–50 g). With the finished mixture you need to fill about a third of the volume of the pit, forming a mound.

When planting actinidia, you need to provide a place to place the trellis. It is desirable that it be collapsible. In this case, the shoots can be removed from it and shelter for the winter. In the Urals, it may well be extremely cold and light snowy, so it is better to play it safe. If it is planned that it will climb a wall or a fence, seedlings are placed about a meter from them. Creepers lack air roots, therefore they are absolutely safe for any buildings. The height of the support should be such that the plant was convenient to care for and harvest. Enough 3–3.5 m.

Actinidia on the trellis looks much more aesthetically pleasing than tangled shoots, moreover, it is much easier to care for it

Landing procedure

The process of planting actinidia in the ground takes several steps.

  1. A pot with a plant is immersed in a suitable container with water for about half an hour. You can add potassium permanganate to a pale pink color (for disinfection) or any biostimulant (to strengthen the plant's immunity).
  2. The soil in the landing pit is well watered.
  3. They make a deepening, filling its bottom with a layer of clean nutrient soil, without fertilizers. This will help protect brittle roots from burns.
  4. Actinidia is removed from the pot, trying to inflict as little damage as possible on the earthen coma. It is placed in a recess made on the top of the knoll in the pit and soil is added in small portions, periodically gently ramming it. Be sure to ensure that the root neck is not deepened.

Actinidia is planted, trying to bother the roots as little as possible

  • The planted plant is abundantly watered, spending at least 25-30 liters of water. You do not need to dig holes for irrigation, so that rain and melt water do not accumulate in them.
  • When the moisture is absorbed, the trunk circle with a diameter of 50–70 cm is mulched with freshly cut grass, peat crumb, humus (a layer 10–12 cm thick). If there are cats in your or neighboring areas, it is advisable to surround the plant with a metal mesh or to build another barrier. These animals can gnaw shoots and roots.

    It is advisable to surround young actinidia plants after planting with a fine-mesh metal mesh, protecting them from cats

  • In summer, a white covering material or gauze folded in several layers is pulled over the liana. This will help her successfully survive the "stress" and protect the soil from drying out. Immature plants do not tolerate direct sunlight.
  • Fertilizer application

    Actinidia responds very positively to fertilizers, mineral or organic. At the beginning of the active vegetation period, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are needed to build green mass. 15-20 g of urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate per square meter or 20-25 l of humus, rotted compost are distributed over the area of ​​the trunk circle during loosening.

    Urea, like other nitrogen-containing fertilizers, stimulates the vine to build green mass.

    The second top dressing is natural fertilizer. Wood ash is a natural source of phosphorus and potassium. Her infusion (a three-liter can of 10 liters of boiling water) is watered by a liana in early summer. If the state of actinidia or the growth rate does not suit you, during the season it can be sprayed 3-4 times with a solution of any universal complex mineral fertilizer (Kemira-Lux, Agricola, Zdrazen or others are suitable).

    In early autumn, actinidia is watered with a solution of potassium sulfate (10–15 g) and superphosphate (30–35 g) in 10 l of water. If the autumn is rainy, you can distribute the top dressing in the near-trunk circle in a dry form. An alternative is a complex fertilizer containing phosphorus and potassium (ABA, Autumn). Nitrogen can not be introduced at this time - it prevents the plant from properly preparing for winter.

    Categorically does not tolerate actinidium chlorine and lime. Therefore, in order to neutralize the excessive acidity of the soil, use dolomite flour, crushed chalk, powdered eggshell. And potassium chloride as a fertilizer is completely eliminated.

    Common Diseases and Pests

    The fact that actinidia is extremely rare, and with proper care, almost never suffers from pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, can not but rejoice gardeners. Pests also do not have a special love for this plant.

    But there are exceptions to the general rule:

      Phyllosticosis. A fungal disease that can be easily identified by dark brown spots with a maroon border on the leaves. Gradually, the tissues in these places dry out, holes appear. Most often, phylostictosis affects old actinidia or plants whose roots are damaged.

    Phylostictosis mainly affects old actinidia creepers

    Ramulariosis The sheet plate on both sides is covered with whitish spots with a wide dark border.

    Ramulariosis is a dangerous fungal disease from which actinidia can suffer if improperly maintained

    Having discovered the first alarming signs, measures should be taken to treat and prevent re-illness:

    • diseased leaves need to be removed and burned,
    • spray the plant several times with an interval of 7-12 days with a 2% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux fluid.

    These are the most common means, but you can use other, more modern fungicides - Abiga Peak, Skor, Topaz, Horus and so on.

    Of the pests, caterpillars, leaf beetles, and lacewing pay attention to actinidia. They can cause serious damage to the plant by eating leafy and flower buds from the inside. In order to cope with them, a vine is sprayed 2-3 times with a solution of any common insecticide prepared according to the instructions - Inta-Vir, Mospilan, Iskra-Bio, Tanrek and others.

    Leaf beetle is a very pretty bug, but it causes actinidia significant harm

    Harvesting and storage

    Actinidia yields the first fruits 3-4 years after planting in open ground. In most varieties, fruiting begins in August and lasts at least 1.5 months. Unripe berries during storage can ripen, becoming sweeter.

    Actinidia berries ripen gradually, the crop is harvested within 4-6 weeks

    Fresh actinidia fruits are stored in a cool (10–12ºС) room with good ventilation and humidity at the level of 60–75%. Make sure that there are no any smelling foods or substances nearby. Berries easily absorb odors.

    During the heat treatment, the benefits of actinidia are not lost. Therefore, it is quite possible to cook jam, compote from it, make other homemade preparations. Frozen, dried and dried berries are stored the longest.

    Heat treatment does not reduce the benefits of actinidia fruits

    Gardeners reviews

    It is quite possible to grow actinidia (especially its variety of colomict) in the Urals, despite the fact that this region deservedly belongs to the category of “risky farming zones”. Among the many varieties of Russian and foreign selection, each gardener will find one that suits him. The main advantages of this culture are decorativeness, cold resistance, good productivity and general unpretentiousness. It is they that contribute to the fact that actinidia is becoming more widespread in Russia.

    Actinidia refers to lianoid plants, with a powerful tree-like stem and a large number of large leaves. Among all varieties, it is colomiktin actinidia that is common, the planting and care of which is relevant for the Moscow Region and the northern part of Russia. This plant is also known as the northern grape, which it received as a result of the external similarity of the fruits with grapes. It is grown not only to obtain berries, but also as an ornamental plant.

    Features of actinidia colomict

    Bred varieties of actinidia tolerate severe winters. It is the actinidia colomict variety that is the leader in frost resistance. It is able to withstand temperatures up to -35 degrees. Therefore, knowledge of how the planting and care of colomict actinidia occurs in the Urals, as well as in Siberia, is simply necessary for the owners of cottages who want to grow an unusual plant on their site. When a plant is affected by spring frosts, it quickly recovers, releasing foliage from sleeping buds.

    The sex of actinidia does not change throughout the entire period of growth. To obtain a high-quality and rich harvest, it is recommended to keep 5 female roots and 2 male roots on one site.

    Actinidia colomict, whose fruits have a high content of ascorbic acid, will be very useful for humans. 100 g of berries account for more than 1 thousand mg of this valuable vitamin. To get a daily dose of vitamin C, just eat two actinidia berries. From this it follows that for a year a person needs only 1.5 kg of berries.

    In the comments of gardeners, it is noted that this plant is not affected by pests, they bypass it, which means that you will not have to spend additional funds on the fight.

    Actinidia colomict, grade description:

    1. Perennial plant with a winding trunk, capable of entwining a support up to 8 m high.
    2. The life span reaches 30 years.
    3. The flowering period is late - mid-June. The temperature for normal flowering should not be below 0 degrees. The first flowers appear only at 4–5 years of plant life. Male specimens have stamen flowers, and female flowers also with a large pestle.
    4. Ripening occurs in September - early October. Ripe fruits have a dark green color, with a soft and delicate structure. The yield from one shrub is about 1–2 kg.
    5. The taste is sweet and sour or sweet, with a pineapple flavor.

    Soil requirements

    Actinidia grows well on soil with a low content of components such as nitrogen and phosphorus. However, it is better to abandon the cultivation of vines on alkaline soils, this type is absolutely not suitable for it. The best option is acidic or slightly acidic soils, possibly neutral. The structure of the soil should be loose, but not sandy. Clay soils are also not suitable for growing this crop.

    In places with a close occurrence of groundwater, it is not recommended to plant actinidia, since excess moisture can harm it.

    Planting actinidia colomicta

    The variety of actinidia colomicta in Siberia is very popular.Planting can be done both in spring and autumn, after frosts or before they occur.

    A pit (50 * 50 * 50) is prepared for planting actinidia, with a preliminary laying of the drainage layer. For it is customary to use gravel, crushed stone or broken brick. Such a layer should be at least 10 cm. After it, garden soil is covered with layers of dried humus.

    If the site is still heavy soil, sand is added to the drainage layer. Ashes (1 kg), superphosphate (0.2 kg) and potassium sulfate (0.1 kg) can also be added to garden soil.

    Filling the pit with earth, a small mound is formed in its center, into which the actinidia seedling is placed. In order to prevent young roots from drying out and not being attacked by pests, they are dipped in clay mash before planting.

    At the end of planting, the seedling is watered with water (at the rate of 2 buckets per 1 bush.), And the earth around it is slightly compacted. The root neck should be flush with the ground.

    A hole around the bush should not be done to exclude the accumulation of rainwater in it.

    Care for actinidia colomictus

    To increase productivity and the formation of the decorative appearance of a plant, it must be properly looked after.

    Actinidia colomicta, care and its main stages:

    1. Watering is frequent, but without the formation of stagnation of water. It is necessary to constantly maintain soil moisture, as the roots of the plant are shallow. For the normal growth of the vegetative part of the plant, moist air is required, therefore, in hot weather, it is recommended to spray the leaves with water, preferably twice a day, in the morning and in the evening.
    2. Plant nutrition is carried out in early summer. For this, an infusion of mullein diluted with water in a proportion of 1:10 is used. You can also use other types of mineral fertilizers.
    3. In order that the soil does not dry out, it is recommended to mulch it, using different methods for this. The easiest and most effective way is to fill the surface with sawdust.
    4. Colomict actinidia variety, planting and care in the suburbs and Siberia also provides for its shelter for the winter.

    Trimming actinidia and why it is needed

    Pruning a plant is carried out immediately after flowering or late autumn, after all leaves have fallen. In the spring, during the juicing season, pruning is not recommended, since the plant may weaken or die at all due to loss of juice. Trimming actinidia involves thinning a plant, as well as cutting weak and dried branches.

    Formation of actinidia colomicta

    The cultivation of actinidia colomicta and care for it also implies its molding, the variety of which depends on the region where it grows, the place of planting and the type of trellis.

    In the middle lane, actinidia is grown in the form of a bush located on a trellis by fan-forming. For this, 3-4 main, vertical shoots are selected, which will be the sleeves of the fan. In autumn, after the leaves fall, the top is plucked off to the level of a stiff vine, due to which lateral branches will grow next year. Having chosen the most powerful from these shoots, they are tied to a trellis, with a direction in different directions.

    The next year, shortened branches grow ready to bear fruit. They are tied upright. In a year, shoots will appear on them again, which will need to be tied up already in a horizontal position, spreading them in different directions. Shoots that have already been fertilized, it is recommended to shorten by 5 buds, counting from the top berry.

    Description of self-fertile actinidia

    Phylloctictoses, powdery mildew and other fungal parasites

    Suitable for such a procedure

    The most common in the culture of actinidia colomict. Caring for this frost-resistant variety allows you to get a crop even in central Russia.Other varieties include actinidia of the argument, or sharp-toothed, polygamous actinidia, purple actinidia, and Chinese actinidia.

    Actinidia comes from ancient tropical forests with a mild, warm and humid climate. Hence its potential for distribution, winter hardiness, but by acclimatization and selection, its individual species can be grown in almost all regions with a frost-free growing season within 160 days and with a sum of effective temperatures of at least 2000 ° C. The root system of actinidia is densely branched, superficial, the main mass of roots lies in the upper fertile layer at a depth of 20-25 cm from the soil surface.

    Useful properties of actinidia

    This action cannot be carried out:

    • The above plant is propagated by both cuttings and seeds. Seed stratification is carried out for 2 months. Before this process, the seeds are steamed. Then they are mixed with sand and slightly moistened. After that, the seeds are wrapped in tissue and placed in a refrigerator, where a temperature of about +5 degrees Celsius should be observed. Recommended daily fifteen-minute ventilation at room temperature.
    • Pectins.
    • The above plant has several names. This is actinidia acutifolia, and self-fertile actinidia, and kiwi, and pineapple atinidia. The plant is, first of all, a spectacular tree-like vine, which is characterized by a beautiful decorative appearance and edible fruits. The latter are characterized by an extremely high content of beneficial trace elements and vitamins.
    • The manifestation of diseases is characterized by the appearance of dots and spots on the foliage. In the fight against the disease Bordeaux fluid will help, and painful foliage should be torn and eradicated. Young growth must be protected from cats that like to nibble the bark and kidneys. As a protection against animals, a net is often placed around the vine. And for adult plants, cats are not dangerous. Each culture has its own vulnerabilities.
    • , Sunlight without direct exposure to rays, and average humidity. As the temperature rises, moistened gauze is placed on top of the film. Cuttings must be sprayed daily once a day.
    • In winter hardiness, colomict actinidia is in the first place, arguments are in the second place, purple actinidia is in the third and Chinese actinidia is completely winter-hardy - a subtropical species.

    Winter hardiness of actinidia species is different. Kiwi freezes when the temperature drops to -12 ° C. The most winter-hardy species is colomict actinidia, which can withstand -30 ° C, but shoots freeze and flower buds die.

    The optimum temperature for this process is 18-24 degrees. Sunlight (indirect and non-burning) and humidity above average are also needed.

    Types of autologous actinidia

    Kiwi Actinidia: now more than 100 varieties.

    Sun-dried actinidia or kishmish is especially popular, which reminds one of its appearance of dried grapes (raisins).

    • In early spring
    • After the above stratification process, the seeds are planted in light soil, which is pre-steamed. Shoots appear early enough: in two weeks. During the first year they grow slowly. But they are not recommended to feed anything.
    • It should be noted that the fruits of this plant contain 5 times more vitamin C than blackcurrant and 10 times more than citruses.
    • This plant is characterized by stable, high productivity, sufficient frost resistance, unpretentiousness to growing conditions, resistance to diseases and pests.
    • Actinidia has

    Subject to all conditions, after three to four weeks, the roots will be fully formed, and actinidia seedlings will be ready for planting next spring. For the winter period, you can cover them with fallen leaves or sawdust.

    • Thus, in the Non-Black Earth region it is recommended to grow actinidia colomict and varieties belonging to this species. In the middle zone of fruit growing - actinidia argument. In the southern zone of fruit growing, in addition to hot arid areas, actinidia purpurea and hybrid varieties obtained by crossing with actinidia purpurea. In subtropical regions, it is possible to grow Chinese actinidia and its derivatives.
    • The winter hardiness of the actinidia argument and polygamous is even lower, there is a strong freezing of branches under the condition of insufficient snow cover. In addition, annually unripe shoot tops freeze in all types of actinidia already in November-December. Most suitable for cultivation in the southern region of actinidia colomict and argument.

    If the temperature rises - wet gauze can be put on top of the film - when the moisture evaporates, the temperature inside the greenhouse will drop. Spray cuttings under the film with water from a flower sprayer - it is enough to do this once a day.

    • Usually actinidia is a dioecious plant, therefore, when planting this crop, it is necessary to plant 1 to 10 female plants on one male plant. The male plant is a more powerful liana with a huge number of pollinators.
    • When preserving the fruits of actinidia, experts recommend adding citric acid, since they already have a taste with mild acidity when processed.
    • During a period of intense sap flow (due to the loss of juice, the plant becomes weak),
    • It is better to keep young actinidia seedlings in the first winter in a cool place. It is advisable to plant only in the early spring.

    These fruits greatly enhance the immune system of hypertensive patients, people with diabetes, the elderly and children. Especially useful kiwi fruits for patients who have vision problems.

    It should be noted that self-fertile actinidia does not require a male plant: it is well pollinated by itself. This monoecious plant begins to bear fruit already for 4 years after planting. From one bush you can get up to 9 kg of berries.

    Three weak points

    Seedlings that are grown using cuttings, will begin to bear fruit after two to three years

    Actinidia is a climbing plant. It is grown on supports in the form of trellis, arbors, arches, placed near the walls of houses on the west, north-east and north-west sides.

    When growing actinidia, spring frosts during shoot growth, budding and flowering are of great danger.

    Actinidia reproduction

    If all conditions are met for germination, then after 3 (at most 4) weeks the roots will form, then these seedlings can be planted next spring, and for the winter just cover them - this can be done with fallen leaves.

    Colomictic (but not all!), Giralda, in the absence of males, are pollinated by their own pollen, yield a crop, but not much. Female kiwi have the same property. Polygamous is monoecious, dioecious, and triple-homed. Its flowers are only pistillate with reduced androecium or stamen with reduced gynoecium.

    Self-fertile actinidia is a plant that can not only decorate a personal plot, but also give extremely tasty and healthy fruits. This is just a godsend for an enterprising summer resident.

    At the end of summer (may cause awakening of the kidneys on the shoots of the current year).

    If actinidia is propagated by cuttings, then it is recommended to cut them with two or three buds. Also leave one top shortened leaflet. Cuttings are recommended to be put in a glass of distilled water for a day. Only then can they be planted in a container with a substrate. As the latter, you can safely use peat or sand. Important: do not fall asleep with a leaf leaf substrate! After planting the cuttings, they need to be poured with water and covered with a film.

    Perennial tree creepers comprise about 30 plant species in the genus.All varieties of actinidia are distinguished by high annual fruitfulness and a beautiful decorative appearance. In Russia, the following species of the above plant are known:

    Soil for the above plant

    Actinidia fruits can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 2 months, but be sure to observe a strict temperature range: from 0 to 2 degrees Celsius.

    . To speed up the process of obtaining the first crop, grafting can be done with splits. This procedure is carried out from November to January.

    Actinidia refers to dioecious, dioecious plants. On some plants, only female flowers are formed, on others, male flowers. Female flowers are usually located singly or 2-3 together; they have well-developed pistils and small stamens. Male flowers are collected in large inflorescences from 2-3 to 12-17 in each. Inside them are numerous small stamens with yellow anthers at the actinidia colomictus and polygamous and black at the actinidia argument.

    Autogenous actinidia: planting and care

    The negative effect of low temperatures on actinidia plants can be reduced by choosing the right place in the garden for it. Therefore, before planting actinidia, you need to choose a place well protected from cold winds.

    I must say right away that the propagation of actinidia is worse with cuttings that have already hardened and lignified. But if you try, then here you can achieve a good result.

    Pollination occurs by wind or insects. It is interesting that pollination can occur at a great distance from the pollinator - up to half a kilometer. In one place, actinidia grow up to 70 years or more.

    I was prompted to write an article about this extraordinarily interesting and very useful culture, a feeling of resentment for it, it is very slowly being introduced into our gardening. Many grape varieties have been created, which have a high sugar content with a lack of vitamins, which must be sprayed (accumulates toxins), in addition, it is contraindicated for many health reasons.

    The ideal time for pruning is considered the period after flowering plants. Trimming of actinidia is also carried out in late autumn. At this time, you can thin out the plants, cut weakened twigs, remove the frozen tips on the shoots.

    1. In order for the cuttings to take root well, it is necessary to provide them with a temperature regime (+18 degrees Celsius), humidity above the average and access to sunlight. Once a day, it is recommended to spray the cuttings with a spray gun.
    2. 1. Argut:
    3. The above plant has the following characteristics:
    4. Unstable to frost, which can be late spring, causing damage to shoots and flowers,

    Actinidia conditions

    A variety of soil is suitable for a plant. However, there are limitations:

    Actinidia is pollinated with the help of wind or insects - bees, bumblebees. The exception is actinidia colomicta, in which female plants in the absence of male ones are pollinated by their own pollen, but the yield is significantly lower.

    1. For planting and caring for actindea, it is preferable to choose winter-hardy and unpretentious varieties, for example, colomict actinidia.
    2. Immediately after trimming actinidia (I usually prune immediately after leaf fall) - select the best processes of actinidia. The principles of selection are similar to the same process in grapes.
    3. Actinidia fruits contain many small seeds that are almost not felt when consumed. Fruits vary depending on the type and variety: colomictic and polygamous - 3–6 grams, argut - 5–25 grams, kiwi - 50–200–330 grams (the last new variety recently bred in the USA). Variable and the yield of lianas: colomictic - up to 3 kg, argut - up to 50 kg, kiwi - up to 250 kg.

    Pruning actinidia

    Yes, and wine? Have you tried wine, actinidia liquors? In terms of usefulness and health, only Chinese schisandra (by the link you can read more about it) and kiwi have the right to compete.What a taste of actinidia wine! The fruits of these vines have a very high content of vitamin C, while the Polygama variety has the highest carotene content. The ripe fruits of actinidia can be chewed on the lips, they are tender, with pineapple-strawberry flavor.

    • The above plant is highly resistant to various diseases. Breeders note the following diseases that can affect actinidia:
    • Saplings grown from cuttings will begin to bear fruit in two to three years.
    • Hybrid

    Has a height of up to 25 m (sort of argument), up to 6 m (type of colomict),

    Pests and Actinidia Diseases

    Non-simultaneous ripening of berries,

    • Floating clay soils are not suitable
    • In actinidia colomictus, the leaves whiten a few days before flowering, and then become raspberry, that is, the plant becomes variegated. Actinidia has no argument for such variegation, its leaves are leathery, glossy, dark green, giving the vine a elegant look.

    When describing actindia, it is worth mentioning that it is a dioecious plant: on some vines only functionally female flowers are formed, on others - male. Single self-fertile forms are found in actinidia colomict and argument. The affinity of fruits from free pollination is 40–70%. But the best pollinators for actinidia are some types of insects, and for kiwi honey bees.

    Then sort these cuttings into varieties, put on the soil and fill with a half-meter layer of sawdust.

    Calendar of work on the care of the above plant

    Different ripening time of the crop:

    1. All actinidia have a harmonious complex of amino acids and salts necessary for a person, it improves the human immune system and is necessary for hypertensive patients, diabetics, children and the elderly who are losing their sight, weakened. This liana is well adapted even to severe climatic conditions (frost resistance is up to -46-50 degrees, and kiwi up to -30 degrees, although the Americans have already bred a variety that can withstand frosts and for -40 degrees by crossing polygam and kiwi).
    2. Phyllosticosis of leaflets (brown spots),
    3. Actinidia seedlings prefer a variety of soils, with the exception of floating clay soils, near which groundwater is located. Breeders recommend making a good drainage for the plant. Therefore, tree-like lianas are best placed on slopes with a drain of water, in elevated areas. This will prevent stagnation of water in the roots of the plant.
    4. Kiev large-fruited,
    5. Trunk with a diameter of up to 5 cm,
    6. The ability to shed.
    7. In which groundwater stands close. The main requirement is a good drainage, which involves planting a vine in an elevated place, because plants do not tolerate water stagnation near the root system.

    Interesting Actinidia Facts

    Young actinidia seedlings attract cats, which can severely damage young shoots. Cats like the peculiar ethereal smell of a plant. Therefore, after planting, you need to install fencing from a metal mesh or wrap the plantings below with fir branches.

    • Propagation of actinidia is carried out by vegetative and seminal methods. Amateur gardeners propagate it with ripened and green cuttings, vertical and horizontal layers, through vaccinations, root offspring, stumps, dividing the bush. The seed method of propagation of actinidia by amateur gardeners is not practiced, since seed offspring is characterized by strong variability of characters and the presence of a large number of male plants. Scientists breeders and originators propagate actinidia by seeds and in vitro (meristemic tissue) method, thus obtaining a healthy new planting material and introducing it into production.
    • By the beginning of the spring planting season, when the soil warms up well (at least 12, and even better 15 degrees), remove the sawdust and take out the cuttings, cut with 1-2 buds and place the bottom of each cuttings in water (preferably distilled or rain) a then they can be planted at an angle to the ground well flavored with peat or deciduous land can also be composted (light).
    • Colomictic and giralda
    • This genus has more than 30 species of perennial woody vines. All types of actinidia are very beautiful decorative vines with annual fruiting. On the territory of Russia are known:

    How is actinidia used?

    Fruit rot on berries.

    Intensive growth of actinidia is observed on acidic and slightly acidic soils fertilized with organic mixtures. But in no case should they contain lime. The plant does not tolerate this top dressing. It is also not recommended to add calcium chloride under actinidia.

    High growth rate of plant shoots (up to 2 m per season),

    Each of these shortcomings cannot be considered significant. Since actinidia is capable of rapid recovery due to the reserve of "dormant" buds, it begins to be covered with new foliage and shoots.

    Actinidia colomicta, argumenta and other varieties - cultivation, reproduction planting and care

    For vigorous growth, lianas require a soil rich in organic fertilizers. The soil may be acidic or slightly acidic, without lime impurities. In addition to lime, actinidia does not tolerate potassium chloride.

    Landing is best done in the spring. The depth of the landing pits or grooves is 60 - 70 cm, the depth is 40 - 60 cm. Nutritious soil, 10-12 kg of humus and 100-200 g of superphosphate are introduced into each pit. Drainage is laid at the bottom - a layer of small gravel, large expanded clay or broken brick. The distance between plants in a row is 1.5-2.5 m.

    Actinidia - beneficial properties

    When actinidia is propagated by lignified cuttings, shoots are cut after leaf fall and stored in the basement in moist sawdust at a temperature of 2–5 ° C or dug in the garden and securely covered in a snow pile. Before growing actinidia in this way, in spring cuttings with 2-3 buds are cut from shoots, the lower part is treated with root-forming stimulants (Kornevin) and planted in soil or greenhouses, or under a simple shelter. The yield of seedlings by autumn is small, within 50%.

    Actinidia - varieties

    I recommend putting a damp rag on all this structure, which will not create a greenhouse effect (retain heat) but will allow water to pass through. Keep the fabric on the cuttings for about a month and remove.

    - Midsummer, the rest - from late August to September. Kiwi fruits can already be removed from the end of August, but I try to harvest before frosts, more sugar accumulates.

    • Colomictic:
    • It should be noted that to combat the above infections, the affected fruits and leaves are collected and destroyed.
    • It should be noted that it is strictly forbidden to plant actinidia after actinidia. An undesirable neighbor for the above plant is an apple tree. It is better to plant actinidia near the black currant.
    • September,
    • The root system is fibrous, with skeletal roots,

    The second drawback can be turned into a virtue, given that the period of consumption of fresh fruits is extended. The problem of crumbling is solved with the help of a litter under a vine of clean paper or film.

    • The root system of the liana is located close to the soil surface and is located directly under the loose bedding, which remains moist for a long time.
    • Before planting, it is useful to moisten the roots of actinidia in a clay mash. Plants are planted 2-3 cm below the root neck.
    • Green cuttings are the main way to grow seedlings of varietal actinidia. Cuttings are harvested at the beginning of lignification of shoots in June.On cuttings 12-15 cm long, 2-3 lower leaves are removed, dipped in boiled cooled water, the bottom of the prepared cuttings is treated with Kornevin powder and planted in a loose, disinfected substrate to a depth of 2-3 cm. Artificial fog is created for the planted cuttings, regularly ventilated and moisturize. With good care, rooting of cuttings occurs in two to three weeks. By autumn, cuttings form a powerful root system and shoots up to 40-60 cm long, which can be used for planting in autumn or spring.
    • Saplings grown from cuttings will yield crops in 2, 3, well, the longest 4 years.
    • But if frosts have passed through unrefined fruits, the fruits do not last long, in which case they must be processed: jam, jams, wine, liquors, or stored in the refrigerator. Kiwi fruits, taken to frost at a temperature of 0-10 degrees, can be kept fresh for up to 8 months (on shelves in the pantry). Harvest the remaining varieties of actinidia consumed or processed immediately. In autumn, as soon as ripe fruits begin to fall, we pick them all up, spread them in the shade with a layer of up to 5 cm, where all the fruits ripen in a few days together. Then they are dried (raisins), jam, compotes, wine, liqueurs are prepared from them. Of course, it is better to eat kiwi fruits fresh. Their hard fruits, if brought into a warm room, after a few days become soft, fragrant, of great taste. In the West, in Australia, kiwi fruits are required in a salad, as we have tomatoes. Kiwi fruits cut into slices decorate cakes and various salads. In the East, they believe that with the daily use of one kiwi fruit, you are not at risk of cancer. Yes, and it is understandable - because this is the balance of the body.
    • Klara Zetkin,
    • Dangerous pests for actinidia are cats that like to gnaw young shoots and dig in the roots of the plant. Therefore, it is important to fence the woody vine with a wire mesh and cover the top.

    In no case is excavation of soil around a tree-like liana allowed. The maximum that can be done is to carry out fine loosening.

    • Actinidia Argut self-fertile.
    • The maximum minus temperature that the actinidia plant can withstand is -30 degrees Celsius,

    Breeders were able to breed certain plant varieties in which the fruit does not crumble after ripening

    Vines are usually planted in spring. Plants must be planted when they have reached the age of three, but no later than four years. A hole is made for planting or a ridge 60 cm wide and 50 cm deep, into which drainage in the form of pebbles, small pebbles or broken bricks is poured with the first layer.

    After planting, the seedlings are abundantly watered (2-3 buckets per plant) and mulch the soil with peat, compost, rotted sawdust.

    When actinidia is propagated by layering in a healthy, productive plant, strong annual branches are selected and pinned into prepared grooves. During the season, when the shoots are regrowth, they carry out repeated hilling, watering and feeding. In autumn, cuttings are separated from the uterine plant, cut according to the number of shoots that have developed, plants with a well-developed root system are selected, and the rest are planted in another area for growing.

    But if grafts are planted on the seeder (this can be done from the month of November to January inclusive), then the harvest can be accelerated and the next year will be fruitful.

    This plant is a perennial tree-like liana; it requires support in the form of a trellis, a pillar with a cross at the top or a beautiful arbor. I believe that the supports should be no higher than 2.5 m, which does not make it difficult to cut vines and harvest. I consider the distance between vines to be the best 3-5 meters (male plants are not taken into account, they can be planted at the border of the site).PineappleIn order for the plant to grow intensively and bear fruit well enough, it is important to carry out the necessary work on care and maintenance of actinidia in time:

    Plants are planted in the spring to a depth of 70 cm. Gardeners advise to add a little fertilizer to each hole: about 10 kg of ordinary humus and 100 grams of superphosphate. It should be noted that actinidia is planted in early spring.

    Actinidia - planting

    (At Moskvichki and Moma).

    Crushed stone for construction is not suitable for these purposes, since it contains lime that is not tolerated by vines.

    For pollination, male and female plants are planted in the ratio of one male to 10-15 female (there may be fewer female ones).

    The actinidia vaccine is rarely used, but the most advanced gardeners use it when growing varietal plants, planting a resting stalk on a stock rootstock using the “turn” method at the very beginning of the growing season or “budding” the budding in July by taking a peephole (bud) from a growing plant .

    Variety Actinidia "Polygamus" also multiplies perfectly and layering.

    Actinidia propagation

    Over many years of observation, practice, I was convinced that this plant is both shade-tolerant and not very demanding on the soil, although it prefers sour, light, humus-rich soils. It does not tolerate boggy and carbonate soils. Dense soils are dangerous during prolonged drought, cracks in the soil break the roots. That is why the soil structure should not be dense.

    In April, shelters were removed from young tree-like vines. This is the time when actinidia is planted.

    At the very bottom of the pit, first you need to place drainage, which can be stones, expanded clay or broken brick.

    Mid-August - fruit ripening period,

    Actinidia is fertilized in accordance with their age and power. Recall that vines do not tolerate lime and potassium chloride, which should be excluded from top dressing, in contrast to fertilizers for top dressing roses in spring, considered here

    About 10 kg of organic fertilizer in the form of humus, peat or compost, as well as a mixture of mineral fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potassium sulfate or wood ash) are introduced into the hole.

    Immediately after planting, it is necessary to install supports for plants.

    Actinidia is placed on the southern or eastern side of the house or gazebo, departing from the building 1 m. In the garden you just need to have 2-3 female and 1 male plant. Planting actinidia is best done in the spring. For planting, biennial planting material is used. A planting pit measuring 60 x 60 cm is prepared on the eve of planting. Coarse drainage is laid at the bottom of the pit, filled with rotted plant compost mixed with garden soil, at least 250 g of autumn-type fertilizer is applied, the root neck of the seedling is buried by 5 cm, watered abundantly, cut into two buds, spud and then mulched in winter. Landing is placed at a distance of 2-2.5 m from each other. For the normal development of actinidia, trellises are installed: the first wire is pulled at a height of 50-60 cm from the ground, the top wire is pulled at a height of 200-250 cm and vertical wires or cords are pulled. Actinidia shoots are tied up just like grapes.

    Somehow, my eldest son gave me a taste of kiwi wine, but it stood still, "phew, what a nasty thing!" - I said. A year later, I tasted the spilled wine and was struck by the extraordinary excellent taste. "What is this wine?" I asked. "This, dad, is the kiwi wine, but he's already a year old." Here it is, the older the better!

    When planting actinidia, the shoot is cut to 2–4 buds, pits 60 × 60 cm, stones, old sticks, hemp, a humus bucket (or a mixture of soddy soil with leaf humus), a spoon of superphosphate or half a glass of wood ash (not coal) are drained to the bottom !). The planted plant should be well watered and it is advisable to mulch it around either with peat, or humus, or fallen leaves (garbage). Mulching is done annually.

    In May, gardeners advise feeding tree vines with organic fertilizers.Also this month it is recommended to carry out loosening, weeding the soil around actinidia. If the weather is too dry in May, gardeners advise watering the plant and mulching the soil.

    Plants are planted at a distance of up to 2.5 m. Before planting a tree-like vine, its roots are moistened in a clay mash.

    Plant fruits are rounded or oblong in shape, from light to dark green in color,

    According to numerous studies and observations, it can be concluded that the most resistant to frost is actinidia colomicta, in which most of all shoots survive. The shoots of actinidia polygamum and argument, which did not have time to ripen by the autumn period, are damaged.

    Fertile soil is poured first, followed by a mixture of fertilizers, soil and sand

    During the fruiting of actinidia, the soil is kept under black vapor. Dig the earth finely, since the root system of actinidia is located in the surface soil layer at a depth of 10-20 cm. In hot weather, plants are watered. It is useful to mulch the soil with peat, humus, sawdust with a layer of 10-12 cm.

    The first two years after planting, actinidia should get everything for the powerful development of shoots and only in the 3rd year of life begin to form it on a support. The formation of actinidia is carried out on the principle of the vine. In the southern region, actinidia is formed on a trellis as a vertical cordon or candelabrum palmette. You can form a plant in free form on a pergola or at the pergola. In spring, two strong shoots develop from the two buds left after trimming. Then, but already in the fall, one of them is again cut into two kidneys. Wintered long shoot in the spring tied to the bottom wire at an angle of 45 °, on which grow vertical shoots that carry the crop. They are directed along vertical wires or twine, and in the eyes left after trimming, two more strong shoots germinate again. The cycle is repeated every year. On the bushes bear two strong shoots. In the autumn of the second, and then the third year, the very first shoot is cut out and replaced with grown over the summer. The seedling is protected by a fine wire mesh from bites of young shoots by domestic cats that gnaw the bark and buds in the zone of the root neck. This can cause stunting or plant death.

    I have thirteen varieties of kiwi and six varieties of actinidia. Actinidium I collected ten varieties, but my plot of eight acres did not allow me, so I transferred part of the varieties to the institute, nursery, academician Gryazev V.A. On six hundred square meters under kiwi, I received up to 2.5 tons of fruits. Of the actinidia, the most fruitful is Kiev large-fruited.

    The root system of actinidia is very powerful, but up to 70% of the roots are in the surface layer of the soil, so only slight loosening of the soil with mandatory mulching is permissible (in summer it is good with grass).

    In June, it is desirable to provide the plant with the required amount of moisture. It is also important to carry out a little loosening and weeding of soil. At this time, cutting of green cuttings is carried out.

    Actindia fruits and leaves

    In addition, breeders recommend planting one male plant for 10-15 female plants - for better pollination.

    The taste of fruits - from sweet and sour to sweet,

    Video about the secrets of planting actinidia and caring for it.

    . A liana is planted on the hill, while the root neck should not go deep. After it should be well watered (several buckets of water for each landing). Then the soil is covered with peat or compost. It is necessary to maintain a distance between landings of two meters.

    Fertilizers are applied in the fall when digging at the rate of 1 sq. Km. m: 2-3 kg of humus, 40-50 g of superphosphate and 10-15 g of potassium salt, and in the spring - 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate. It is also useful to fertilize actinidia before flowering with phosphate fertilizers.

    How to grow Actindia

    From 10 years of age, an anti-aging pruning is performed annually in the actinidia bush, replacing the old branches with young ones.

    My dream now is to get a new selection of actinidia from the USA. Through relatives living there, I want to get cuttings or seedlings next year: Kiwi Blake - self-fertile, Cambridge - self-fertile, Elmvid - fruit up to 330 grams, Carioca - the most delicious, Sanichton - the most frost-resistant (up to -44 degrees), etc. The nursery is located near the city of San Diego, in the southwestern United States.

    The best fertilizer actinidia - organic fertilizer in the spring, ash - in the fall.

    In July, in addition to weeding, loosening and watering, it is important to tie up the plant. It is also necessary to remove excess shoots.

    Actinidia care is as follows:

    How to plant Actindu layering

    When grown on a trellis, plants are formed in the form of a fan and horizontal cordons. In the fall or in the spring before the start of sap flow, the broken, underdeveloped and thickening bush shoots are removed during pruning. At the same time, annual shoots are shortened, leaving 25-30cm long. . The shoots are tied to the trellis, evenly distributed from in the support plane.

    Before you trim the actinidia, get a good pruner and delimber. Trimming actinidia is carried out according to the principle of the vine in autumn or summer, spring pruning is not recommended, as it causes “crying” and the drying of the vines. After trimming, it is advisable to remove the shoots of actinidia from the support and cover in the winter.

    The culture of actinidia is a gift of God for people in such a difficult unpredictable time. This is food, and medicine, and longevity, and ease of cultivation and care. Actinidia have no borders for Russia.

    The formation of the bush, pruning is done in the fall immediately after leaf fall.

    Trimming Actinides: How to Trim Actinidia

    Kiev large-fruited - (the largest berry is the most fruitful),

    Harvested in August. After collecting the fruits, it is recommended to feed the plant with minerals and organic fertilizers.

    Before flowering, fertilize the tree-like vine with phosphorus.

    Klara Zetkin,Culture likes moisture, but an excessive amount does not tolerate it,

    Storehouse of vitamins and minerals

    Actinidia is not removed from trellises. In winter, young plants cover around the root neck with peat or humus.

    Caring for actinidia plants during the growing season reduces to systematic weed control, maintaining the soil in a loose state, moderate watering and timely top dressing with mineral fertilizers. Actinidia is responsive to organic and mineral fertilizers. In the spring, at the beginning of the growing season, 20 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 square. m of nutritional area of ​​a fruiting plant or full fertilizer of the Fertik type, which includes all macro- and microelements necessary for the plant. When caring for actinidia, fertilizers are applied a second time for autumn digging with a high content of phosphorus and potassium, which contribute to a better wintering of the plant.

    Actinidia varieties

    Author: Mikhail Vasilyevich Konoplyanov. Sochi

    On the trellis (how to make a trellis for actinidia and other climbing plants, see the following link - Do-it-yourself trellis) by trimming form a fan and a horizontal cordon. Free form is inherent near arbors, near houses where up to 5 stems are left. With a trellis, in the first year, 1-2 of the most developed shoots are selected, tying them to the bottom row of wire, and already in the next year, branches of 3-4th order are formed on the second row of wire, which usually already bear fruit.

    Harvest is also going in September.

    The choice of soil for planting

    Fine loosening of soil and thinning.The best way to propagate is cuttingsGrowing actinidia at home or in the garden is certainly a good activity. And, besides, it is also promising, at present, varieties for different climatic zones and natural conditions have been developed.And also the corresponding agricultural technology is developed.

    Actinidia juice is able to break down nitrates. If we add to this the ability of actinidia to resist pests and diseases, get rid of pesticides, and produce environmentally friendly products, we have to sincerely regret that so little is produced. Unfortunately, this culture is not so often found in amateur gardens, planting material is in short supply. She is little known and, as a result, gardeners themselves are not sufficiently propagated, and there are no nurseries for the production of seedlings.

    Fruiting actinidia depends on breeding, species and variety. Kiwi Monti bears fruit in the second year, and Kewaldi - in the 4th-5th year, from seeds - in 5-7 years.

    Liana planting technology

    In terms of ascorbic content, only rosehips can compete with the fruits of the above plants,

    The above plant is unpretentious, but still requires some attention. A tree liana prefers to grow in the sun, although it feels good in the shade.

    In one place, tree lianas are able to grow for more than 70 years.Carotene, niacin, ascorbic acid, vitamin B5,

    Plant care

    . Berries contain solids, natural sugars, pectin and organic acids. Fruits are rich in their mineral composition with potassium salts, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus.

    • For vines, airborne droplets will be preferable, therefore, in dry and sultry weather, spraying in the morning and evening is most effective. The formation of a liana after the second year of life on a support occurs mainly in the form of a multi-arm fan. Actinidia should not be removed from the trellis and covered for the winter.
    • , Which is carried out in the summer, in contrast to the autumn planting of cuttings of roses.
    • After all, the berries of actinidia or kiwi (this name sounds more familiar to us) are rich in vitamins, especially vitamin C, organic acids, sugars. Actinidia is 15-20 times higher than lemon in vitamin C content, many times higher than blackcurrant and only slightly inferior to wild rose.
    • The actinidia fruit is a multi-chamber berry of various shades of predominantly green color, sometimes with a purple blush. The shape of the berry can be round, oval, cylindrical. Kiwi fruits, like other parts of this plant, are covered with thick reddish pubescence. The taste is very pleasant, sour-sweet, with a strong aroma, tender flesh, melting. The fruits contain up to 100 small brown seeds, which give the actinidia a specific muscat shade.

    Actinidia can be grown as seeds or as rooting cuttings (both winter and summer). You can also propagate it for cultivation and vaccination.

    1 or 2 actinidia berries provide the body with a daily requirement for vitamin C,The conditions for the actinidia are as follows:The yield of a liana depends on its type. Argutovy produce the largest number of fruits - up to 250 kg, colomictic - only up to 3 kg. The weight of the fruits is also different: for example, polygamous fruits have a weight of 6 grams.

    Plant fruitsYou need to know that in the spring the liana is not cut off, because even minor damage can cause “crying” during the movement of the liana juice, which in the end can lead to serious weakening and even death of the plant.With this method, cuttings of a plant with several buds are cut. It is necessary to leave only the top shortened leaflet. Then, for a day or two, the cuttings are placed in a container with distilled water or a solution of heteroauxin. Then you can plant in prepared containers, which are pre-filled with a substrate, which may be peat, sand or expanded clay.

    • In its natural form, actinidia lives in the subtropical, tropical and temperate latitudes of East Asia - Indochina, China, Japan, and the Korean Peninsula.In Russia, in the wild, this plant is found in the Far East - in the Primorsky Territory, Southern Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands.
    • Actinidia is a winding tree-like, deciduous and very decorative vine, which has no antennae or suction cups, but needs support. Its thin stalk with large leaves can rise on a support very high. Actinidia leaves have the ability to change color during the growing season, which enhances the decorativeness of plants. Actinidia rises along the support due to circular counterclockwise movements of the young tops. Moreover, entwining begins with a height of 30-100 cm.
    • I recommend that you store Actinidia seeds in a dark, dry, cool place, and in the spring sow them in seedlings. Seeds in actinidia appear within 15-17 days. As soon as the first leaves (3-4) appear, immediately dive them either into cups or in the garden.

    About 700 berries of the above plants cover the annual need for ascorbic acid for humans,It is important to build supports for the plant.Recently, in America, breeders have bred a new sort of actinidia called Kiwi. So he is able to produce fruits weighing up to 330 grams.

    Minerals: salts of potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus,

    Therefore, this culture can be safely called a unique plant that brings not only decorative benefits, but also thanks to the fruits, you can improve your health.