Among the best-known to any person flowering plants is lavender. People like the shade of its flowers so much that it even received the same name - lavender.
Many people dream of having this perennial in their garden, but not everyone knows how to grow lavender from seeds.
Lavender as a flower culture
Lavender, or Lavandula, is a non-herbaceous plant. This is a shrub, representative of the species Iasnatkovye, which unites about 30 species. You can meet them in Africa, Arabia, southern Europe, India, Australia.
Interesting. Lavender is a symbol of France, more precisely one part of it - Provence. All because in the time of the Roman Empire it was precisely those lands that were used to breed this plant. It was considered very valuable and was sold almost worth its weight in gold.
The first name of the flower comes from the Latin "lava", which means "wash". This is because the ancient Greeks used it not only for medicinal purposes, but also for washing and washing their clothes. A little later, the French christened the fragrant flora lavandre, it was this name that spread throughout the world.
Types of Lavender
In total, this genus unites as many as 30 species. Of these, only two are most often cultivated. Namely:
- Narrow-leaved lavender (it is also English and medicinal),
- Lavender broadleaf (or French).
English lavender is the most common throughout the world. It has narrow leaves and spike-shaped inflorescences. It is cultivated on the streets in the middle lane. That's because she is able to calmly winter in open ground, she does not have to dig out and transplant into the house.
The French look is much more moody. Its leaves are wider, the inflorescences are shorter. The most important difference is that French lavender is killed by cold below -10 ° C. Because it is often grown at home, when grown in the garden for the winter, they must be dug up and transferred to the room.
Interesting. Russian gardeners use two more species (albeit much less frequently than the first): Dutch, or hybrid, and toothed.
Benefit and Application
Even the ancient Greeks noted the benefits of this flowering plant. Time passed, the boundaries of people's knowledge of the world expanded, and doubts about the useful qualities of lavender still do not appear.
The most important thing for medicine in this flower is its essential oil. This can be obtained by squeezing the entire aerial part of the flora (and not just from flowers, as some believe). The oil has a rich composition: it contains linalool, coumarins, geraniol, borneol, and other useful elements. Thanks to them, lavender ether can be used as follows:
- For healing abrasions, cuts.
- With dizziness, headaches.
- With insomnia and nervous disorders.
- With toothache.
- To get rid of edema.
- With discomfort in the stomach and intestines.
- As an anthelmintic.
The flower is used in folk medicine in different ways: the seeds of lavender, and its sprouts, and flowers, and leaves are used. From it make teas, poultices. It is added to ointments, baths are taken with it. Lavender oil can be used for aromatherapy.
Moreover, the official, scientifically proven medicine also uses this flora. True, in that case, flower extract is more often used.
Lavender Varieties for Home Growing
Lavender is a flower that can be grown both in the garden and at home. Moreover, for the second purpose, the French type of flower, notched or hybrid, is usually chosen. They are small, afraid of frost, because in the middle lane they are best grown immediately at home. Among the variety of varieties, the following are especially interesting:
- Helmsdale. This is a variety of broadleaf lavender. It is distinguished by a color of flowers - it is not lilac, rather burgundy.
- Alba This variety is a variety of Dutch lavender. Its difference is white flowers.
- Sawyers. This is also a hybrid lavender, the flowers of which have a purple hue.
- Royal Crown - a variety of jagged lavender with delicate lilac flowers.
How to collect seeds for sowing
Gardeners prefer the propagation of lavender through seeds. They can be obtained in two ways: by collecting them yourself and choosing in the store. In each case, there are subtleties that you need to know.
You can collect completely blossomed inflorescences in the garden (or by buying a bouquet with them in the store) and dry them. After that, small seeds showered.
Lavender seeds have one characteristic feature - amazing germination. Even after five years from the collection, they can shoot. But only with proper storage (in a sealed container) and germination.
By the seeds themselves, it is difficult to determine whether the variety is sold in a paper bag or not. In order not to be surprised at replacing the flower after the sown seeds have sprouted, you first need to look at the price. The more interesting and beautiful the plant, the more expensive its seeds will cost. They are not cheap.
Lavender seeds from the store
The second point that you should definitely pay attention to is the information on the package. It should contain:
- Variety name
- Care recommendations.
In order for the lavender seed to give strong healthy seedlings, a number of rules for caring for it should be observed. In particular, these are:
- Shine. Lavender is an extremely photophilous plant, therefore in no case should you put it in the shade.
- Heat. The flower will not like neither heat nor cold - temperature indicators should vary between 15-21 ° C.
- Pick Diving is the transplanting of sprouts into a larger container. Germinating seeds is more convenient in a shallow box. As soon as the lavender sprouts release the first pair of real leaves, they need to be transplanted into the pot deeper. It can be separate or general (with a large distance between seedlings), but quite spacious in any case. This is because the small-looking sprout has sufficiently strong roots, which are crowded in the vessel for germination.
What you need for seed germination
When the seeds of odorous flora are sown in the ground, they still do not need replanting, fertilizing and many other conditions. So far, they have only two requirements, but they will have to be followed:
- Lighting. Lavender seeds need about 10 hours of light per day. If the weather does not allow the condition to be fulfilled naturally, the seedlings will have to be lightened.
- Temperature. For germination, it is necessary to strictly observe the temperature regime specified above.
Description of the lavender plant and known species
Before starting to grow lavender from seeds, let's find out what kind of plant it is and get acquainted with its description in more detail. Botanists include herbaceous shrubs in the family Iasnatkovye. In total, about 30 species are known in the world. Many of the varieties are found in the Canary Islands. Also, as a wild plant, lavender has become known in East and North Africa, in Australia, as well as in southern European countries. Ancient civilizations used lavender bushes for washing and purification. The plant is still used for the same purpose in India and in Arabia, where lavender has spread over dry soils in forests.
Of all known species, Russian flower growers were able to cultivate only two. The first and most common is Lavender narrow-leaved or Medicinal, it is cultivated to create medical devices. The second cultivated species is Lavender Broadleaf. It is used less often, but also has certain healing properties. In general, the name of the plant comes from the Latin word “lava”, which has a translation into Russian “wash”.
Lavender belongs to the perennial shrubs of the evergreen group. She has a large, fibrous rhizome. Under certain growing conditions, root shoots can go up to 2 meters deep. Tall stems, up to 60 cm long. In the lower part, the stems quickly woody, at the end of summer a very thin bark may begin to exfoliate with small brown scales. Bushes form numerous erect stems.
On the shoots there are a few leafy plates of green with a bluish, often silver tint. The leaves are linear, not large, pubescent with very small soft hairs. During the flowering period, which occurs in the second half of summer, numerous flowers are formed in the upper part of the stem. They are collected in 6-10 pieces in small whorls, which in turn form a large complex inflorescence: interrupted ears. The color of the buds depends on the degree of openness and variety, but it is always either blue or blue-violet.
Due to the high content of essential oils, lavender during the flowering period is fragrant. Its aroma is difficult to confuse with anything else. Thanks to this ability and large nectaries, lavender is an excellent honey plant, which is often grown in apiaries. After flowering, fruits with small seeds are formed. With proper storage, planting material retains germination up to 10 years. Also, in some regions, lavender is prone to self-sowing, which must be regulated independently, otherwise the plant will grow and lose its former decorative effect and other pleasant properties.
An easy way to grow lavender outdoors
As you know, beekeepers love lavender very much. In order to plant an excellent honey plant in a large batch - spontaneously, they use a simple method of planting in the winter. Seedling option is suitable for growing plants to decorate an alpine hill or borders, if you come across a stunted variety. In general, when growing from seeds, lavender prefers open ground and responds well to planting in dry, sandy loamy soil. If there is loam in the area, then before you start sowing or planting seedlings, you need to dig it up to the level of a bayonet shovel and add some sand or gravel to improve water and air permeability.
Lavender seeds need to be acquired or collected from their bushes as early as possible. Before the first seedlings go, planting material needs to be stratified. For this we need: temperature +5 degrees and a couple of months. You can mix the seeds with wet sand and leave for the winter in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator. If you are sowing in the winter, then this should be done only in a warm region where the land does not freeze to great depths.
Let’s begin with a look at sowing seeds “under the winter”. Many simply do not know when to sow lavender seeds and confusing time does not get the expected result. Sowing seeds "in the winter" is best done in October. Need dry weather, because otherwise the planting material will float in blurry soil. Before embarking on a seed embedment process, dig the soil to the level of the shovel bayonet and add compost or humus to enrich the nutrients. Next, sow planting material to a depth of about 3 cm. As soon as the first snow falls, form snowdrifts on the beds, at least 15-20 cm high.
Important nuances that are worth observing: this is the level of acidity (optimal pH = 6.5-7.5) and soil moisture. If the soil is too acidic, then dig it during digging. When planting in dry soil, seeds need to be watered abundantly, but without swamping the surface of the earth. With improper watering, in particular excessive, at night, if frost occurs, the seeds will simply freeze in ice and die.
We grow seedlings for planting lavender in the open ground
Before you plant lavender on your site in the open ground in the spring, you need to take care of growing young seedlings at home. This becomes a necessity if you want to grow lavender in the garden as a decoration and not much bushes are needed. A spontaneous landing, as often happens in autumn crops, is often unpredictable and results can rarely be adjusted correctly to produce beautiful compositions. Also, seedlings will be required for growing in a pot, but we'll talk about this later. We have been growing lavender seedlings from seeds at home since the beginning of February.
Seeds for planting lavender in open ground, as mentioned above, should be stratified for about 2 months. Without it, plants will be sluggish, and most will simply die due to lack of immunity to various diseases and climate change. Therefore, we send planting material for a long stratification.
So far, the seeds are stratified to prepare a nutrient substrate. Suitable universal seedlings. But in order for everything to turn out exactly at the highest level, take two parts of humus and add a portion of coarse river sand to it (this is necessary so that the soil is not prone to wateryness). Even purchased materials are best heat treated and sieved. Thus, it is saturated with oxygen, useful for seedlings. For disinfection, calcine the substrate in the oven for 20 minutes at 110-130 degrees, or pour a bright solution of manganese (do not forget to cool the composition before sowing the seeds).
Sowing lavender seeds for seedlings
Take a seedling box with large drainage holes as a container. Lay out the substrate in a layer and tamp lightly. Seeds are best sown on seedlings in late winter or early March. Before sowing lavender seeds for seedlings, they are mixed with sand and evenly distributed on the surface of the substrate. Cover the planting material with a sand layer no more than 2-3 mm high.
Place the seedlings in a warm, well-lit place. Immediately after sowing, the soil must be moistened and throughout the development of plants, monitor the level of moisture. From above, the crops are covered with a glass cap or film. For seedlings to appear, maintain an optimum temperature of 15-22 degrees Celsius.
How and how much lavender sprouts from seeds (shoots in the photo)
Want to know how much lavender sprouts from seeds and how the first sprouts appear? After a couple of weeks, the first shoots of lavender will begin to appear. As soon as the first stems with leaflets hatch, you need to take care of additional lighting, otherwise the plants will begin to stretch very much. Lavender seedling care is based on timely soil moisture and airing. The latter is necessary so that plants gradually get used to new conditions, especially temperature. As soon as the young lavender gets stronger, the cap of glass made of polyethylene is removed.
At the same time, you need to order the seedlings and leave the small, strongest bushes at a distance of 5 cm from each other. Otherwise, the root system of plants begins to intertwine and then it will be very difficult to separate them.
Look at how lavender seedlings look in the photo, which shows already grown plants:
Seeds can be collected either on their own or purchased at a store. In any case, they must meet the following criteria:
- Be harvested from fully bloomed inflorescences.
- Correctly stored in medium temperature (not in frost or heat), in a closed container.
- Do not be damp or spoiled pests.
- When buying - do not be cheap.
Even with the right choice, lavender seed will not sprout on its own. He needs stratification. This is a natural “trigger” of the mechanism of seed growth through exposure to critical temperatures. Moreover, it can be carried out both at high degrees and at low. In the case of this particular flora, stratification is carried out only by cold.
And there is one feature. It is not enough just to put the seed in the refrigerator for a minute - the effect of frost should last quite a long time.
What is stratification?
Stratification is carried out in two ways: natural and artificial.The first is sowing the seed immediately into the open soil before winter.
To grow lavender from seeds to seedlings at home, you need to know how to stratify seeds artificially. This means that they should be kept in the cold for at least a month and a half before sowing. More is better. This procedure is carried out as follows: the seed is mixed with sand or earth and placed in a resealable container. One goes to the refrigerator for at least 8 weeks, at a temperature of about +5 ° C. But the seed will not survive freezing.
Stratification of seeds in the refrigerator
What to sow seeds
In addition to other preparations for sowing, the gardener is faced with the question of choosing the capacity and soil.
Earth lavender needs loose, nutritious. The easiest way to buy in the store is a ready-made mixture for seedlings or universal for indoor plants. But before germination it is recommended to calcine it in the oven.
The capacity should be wide, spacious, and shallow - no more than cm deep. It will not work to make life easier and sprout a flower in the cassette - this method does not suit him.
How to plant lavender seedlings in open ground on a plot
To plant lavender seedlings, they select the sunniest and warmest place on the site. The plant loves bright sunshine and responds to such conditions with abundant flowering and bright aroma. Particular attention should be paid to the soil before planting in open ground. It should not be too wet. If groundwater deposits are not observed nearby and the place of planting is not in a ravine, where all moisture drains after rains, then feel free to choose this site for planting lavender.
Dig the soil in advance at the level of the bayonet of the shovel. To replenish nutrient reserves in the soil, compost or humus is added during digging. Lavender prefers to grow on dry sandy loamy soil. If there is heavy loam in the garden, dig and add gravel, crushed stone or sand to the soil.
Dig holes of a size so that the entire root system enters. It is better that the rhizome shoots do not bend. Some part of them is recommended to be cut, so that in the open ground they do not go very deep. Lavender is planted at a distance of 60-80 cm between the bushes. If the variety is tall, then stand at least 120 cm.
Next, you need to be able to care for young seedlings, so that by the middle of summer lavender will shine with luxurious inflorescences. The first flowering, which will come at the end of June or July, is the period when you need to cut off all the inflorescences. This is done in order to give lavender time to grow stronger, and she did not waste her energy. Also, throughout the period you need to monitor the level of moisture. Watering is done abundantly and regularly. If there is a dry period, then increase the frequency of water procedures. After rains and watering, you need to loosen the earth to prevent stagnation and decay of the rhizome.
In the first year of life, beds with lavender violently attack weeds. They must be disposed of constantly. The fact is that at this time the root system is only developing and is clearly losing in the interspecific struggle to its unpleasant competitors. The same composition of the soil is very fond of sleep and sedge. But such plants multiply throughout the garden, through the growth of the creeping root system. Therefore, in order to protect lavender from these "parasites", it is necessary to dig a rotting border, not less than 20 cm high, around the perimeter of the bed.
Sowing itself should be carried out according to the following step-by-step instructions:
- The calcined substrate is spread in the container. It can not be crushed, it must be loose.
- The ground must be well sprayed with water from a spray bottle.
- Flower seeds are laid out over the ground quite rarely - with indents of 2 cm at least from each other.
- From above they need to be covered with soil, too, sifting it from above. Topsoil should be 2-3 mm.
- After sowing, it is imperative to make a greenhouse by covering the container with cling film.
In breeding, both narrow-leaved and other types of lavender are almost similar. Regardless of the degree of winter hardiness, representatives of the genus Lavandula retain common features and differ only in details - the size of leaves and flowers. Without exception, lavender is easiest to propagate vegetatively: Plants give a large amount of overgrowth; both layering and cuttings are well rooted in them. But in this way you can only get lavender of the variety and species that you already have or are available on the market (and rare varieties with an interesting color and unusual species, as a rule, are not common). And the number of “offspring” will always be more or less limited.
If you want to grow a new variety of lavender and get a large number of seedlings, saving both time and money, then you can use a not so popular, which has come to be difficult, way to grow lavender from seeds. In practice, seed propagation of lavender is not at all so tricky, since the only difficulty - stratification - is overcome quite simply.
Self-collection of lavender seeds and their selection for sowing
When choosing lavender seeds, pay special attention to the price and the producer. Buy lavender only from trusted companies and suppliers you trust, with a wide palette of ornamental plants and a representative collection of not only seeds of annuals, but also other perennials. Remember that lavender seeds may not be too affordable: cheap seeds can unpleasantly surprise with the “substitution” of one species for another. Make sure that information about the manufacturer, the characteristics of the plant, the characteristics of the sowing is fully presented.
You can collect the seeds yourself, by purchasing or collecting fully blossomed inflorescences, making bunches of lavender and after drying, preserving the awakened small and fragrant seeds.
Lavender seeds retain their germination ability for an amazingly long time. They do not have to be used fresh at all, even after 5 years they will come together in compliance with all the rules of agricultural technology. And the main condition is the proper storage of seeds: they must be kept in hermetically sealed containers.
Pretreatment of Lavender Seeds
Lavender seeds need stratification, or rather cold stratification. Without cold treatment they will not rise, and the effect of low temperatures should last long enough. Depending on the method and processing time, there are two options for growing lavender from seeds:
- Artificial stratification, exposure to cold before sowing.
- Natural stratification, sowing before winter to pass the cooling period already in the soil.
The minimum period for stratification of lavender seeds is 1.5 months (or at least 30-40 days). If the stratification will take longer, it will only positively affect the number of shoots and the rate of germination.
Artificial stratification it is better to carry out not in bags, but mixing the seeds of lavender with sand or substrate. Filling the container with the mixture prepared, it is wrapped with a film or covered with a lid (you can fill the mixture with hermetically sealed plastic bags). Seeds are sent for cooling for 6-8 weeks at a temperature of about 5 degrees heat. You do not need to freeze lavender seeds: it is enough to place them in the refrigerator to pass through the cooling phase.
In addition to the usual stratification, you can experiment with other processing methods:
- scalding of the lavender seeds sown in the ground,
- treatment with a growth stimulant or phytohormones (for example, gibberellin in a concentration of 100 to 200 ml per 1 liter of water).
But such methods may not give a result at all.
Soil and containers for sowing lavender seeds for seedlings
For lavender, use universal loose substrates with a high proportion of nutrition. For this plant, it is preferable to use ready-made soil mixtures (universal for indoor plants or special for seedlings and summers). Before planting, it is advisable to calcine or shed the potassium permanganate.
When choosing containers for planting lavender seedlings, it is worth giving preference to shallow, but large and wide containers, boxes and cups. Lavender is not sown in cassettes. The maximum capacity depth is 7 cm.
Seed germination conditions
For lavender, two main factors must be provided:
- bright lighting
- restrained room temperature in the range from 15 to 21 degrees of heat.
Throughout the entire period before the emergence of lavender seedlings, it is necessary to maintain a light but stable soil moisture by carefully spraying the soil in the morning and airing the “greenhouses”. Overmoistening is very dangerous, but without constant, even at least light humidity, it will be difficult to achieve friendly seedlings.
Usually, the process of sprouting lavender is quite long. The first shoots can appear after 2 weeks, friendly shoots - on average, after 1 month.
After the emergence of friendly shoots of lavender, glass or film is removed from the containers as early as possible, but continue to maintain light soil moisture. Young shoots need to be planted in the most brightly lit place (preferably on a sunny southern window sill). If there is not enough sunlight, the lavender is illuminated, increasing the daylight hours to 8-10 hours.
Dive seedlings and care for young lavenders
Lavender is dived only when the plant forms one pair of real leaves and the third or fourth full leaf begins to develop. As a rule, even young shoots in lavender primarily grow roots, and at this stage quite powerful roots are formed, which will not have enough space in a shallow bowl.
Lavender is transplanted neatly, but plants can easily transfer this procedure. It is advisable to dive into individual pots or cups with a diameter of 5-6 cm, but you can use large boxes, leaving a similar distance between the plants. For lavender seedlings, you can use a peat-sand mixture or a lighter substrate for indoor plants with the addition of perlite and sand. Long-acting fertilizers can be added to the soil.
Lavender is transferred to new containers, trying not to destroy the earthen lump, carefully crushing the earth around the seedlings to accelerate rooting.
Planting Lavender Seedlings
Lavender grown from seeds blooms only the year after emergence. The entire first year the plant does not develop very rapidly: first, lavender roots grow, and only then - shoots. But on the other hand, well-rooted plants in the second year develop very quickly and delight with their fragrant inflorescences.
For planting lavender seedlings, sunny places with light soil, in which organic fertilizers were added, are chosen. Stony, sandy-clay soils are more suitable for this perennial. The optimal pH for this plant is from 6.5 to 7.5. For planting, it is better to prepare a special soil mixture by mixing the soil removed from the planting hole with sand, humus and mineral fertilizers or completely replacing the soil with a mixture of sheet soil, sand and humus in a ratio of 3: 1: 2.
The distance when planting lavender is from 30 to 40 cm. This plant is planted in individual, fairly large planting pits with a depth and diameter of about 30 cm.
Lavender gratefully responds not only to abundant watering, but also to mulching immediately after planting (it is desirable to keep the mulch layer constant, but never let it directly under the base of the bushes).
In the first year after planting seedlings or sowing in the soil, despite all its drought tolerance, it is advisable to ensure regular watering for lavender. Watering is carried out only in drought. But weeding and protection against weeds are needed in the first year regular. In the first year of flowering, it is not necessary to give lavender bloom violently and, moreover, to form seeds: it is advisable to cut off inflorescences as soon as the first flowers bloom. In the second year of flowering, the inflorescences are cut as soon as a third of the flowers open and leaving about a third of all inflorescences on the plant. In subsequent years, such tricks will not be needed.
During the first winter in the soil, lavender grown from seeds is preferably protected with an additional high layer of mulch from dry leaves or spruce branches.
Alternative methods of breeding lavender:
- separation of bushes (seedling growth),
- rooting layers
- cuttings of annual shoots.
Transplanting seedlings in open ground
The first year from sprouting from fragrant flora you should not expect flowers and, in fact, smell. She will spend this time on the formation of roots and will bloom only next year. With the onset of heat, the sprouts can and should be transplanted into the street. How to plant lavender seedlings according to the rules:
- The place for the sprouts needs a sunny, warm.
- Perennial prefers sandy clay soil.
- The soil for lavender must be fertilized with mineral fertilizing before planting.
- The indentations between the bushes should be at least 30 centimeters (better - all 40).
- Lavender seedlings before transplanting need hardening. Pots with it should be taken out for a few hours during the week.
Lavender seedlings on the street
Loosening and top dressing
After wintering during the growing season, lavender must be fed. It is better to choose fertilizers with a high content of potassium, rather than nitrogen. Otherwise, the bush will stretch upward, but will give few buds.
Still this flora needs cultivation of the earth. It needs to be loosened after winter, and also mulched. Mulching is the creation of a layer on top of the soil that helps moisture to evaporate less quickly. Fallen foliage is suitable for these purposes. Under the very root of lavender, the earth is not mulched.
Mulching lavender bushes
Short description of growing
- Landing. Seeds are sown for seedlings in February – March, in open ground in October, and seedlings are transplanted in open soil in the last days of May or in the first days of June.
- Bloom. It begins in the middle of the summer period.
- Illumination. Needs a lot of bright sunlight.
- Priming. It should be dry, well-permeable to water and air, loamy or sandy with a pH of 6.5–7.5.
- Watering. Lavender should be watered systematically and abundantly. During a long dry period, the frequency of irrigation is increased.
- Fertilizer. Feeding is carried out twice during the growing season. In spring, a complex mineral fertilizer with a high nitrogen content is introduced into the soil, and in the autumn - phosphorus-potassium fertilizer.
- Hilling. Old plants need twice a season to high up, do it in the spring and autumn.
- Pruning. When the bush fades, all the inflorescences are removed from it, and in autumn, the branches are shortened. After the plant is 10 years old, it is rejuvenated, all branches are cut off at a height of 50 mm from the soil surface.
- Breeding. By the seed method, as well as by cuttings, layering and dividing the bush.
- Harmful insects. Cicadas, rainbow beetles and aphids.
- Diseases. Gray rot.
Features of lavender
Lavender is an evergreen perennial shrub, the root of which is fibrous and woody, it can go into the soil to a depth of about 200 centimeters. He has many stems, reaching a height of about 0.6 m, which are woody in the lower part. The sessile leaf plates located opposite are linear in shape and have a greenish-silver color; there is a soft pubescence on their surface.
Fragrant flowers are collected in interrupted spike-shaped inflorescences of 6-10 pieces in whorls, they are painted in lilac-blue or blue. Inflorescences are formed in the upper part of leafless shoots. The beginning of flowering of lavender falls in the middle of the summer period.
This plant is considered a wonderful honey plant. If its seed material is stored correctly, then it will have excellent germination even after many years.Such a shrub is considered a relative of the following crops: basil, mint, lemon balm, motherwort, oregano, sage and rosemary.
Growing perennial evergreen lavender in a pot at home
Perennial lavender belongs to the group of evergreens, which is why when growing a house in a pot, it can bloom and delight with aroma all year round. But, here is not everyone in the know that this is not a simple home for many years and you need to know about all of his character traits and whims to conditions.
Some gardeners choose beautiful bushes and place them at home for the winter as an ornamental plant. To properly transplant lavender into a pot, you need to know the nuances of the structure, its root system. You can read in more detail above, but, to be brief, it is a fibrous root, which consists of many hard rhizome shoots that go deep into 2 meters. You need to be as careful as possible with such a process, since an important vital organ is badly damaged.
Smart flower growers, after they dig up lavender, all places subjected to deformation and pruning are cut a couple more cm and treated with charcoal and only then transplanted into a pot. Just as well as planting lavender in the garden, the root neck deepens 3-4 cm under the ground.
For planting lavender, choose a small pot. It should be about 2 liters with a capacity and diameter of not more than 30 cm. It is filled with a nutritious earth mixture, which is laid out in a layer at the bottom. They have rhizome and fall asleep with soil composition, slightly tamping. Immediately after planting, you can water the plants. The first transplant for home lavender will be needed after 5 years, when it will turn into a small bush due to age. In a closed ground, the rhizome does not grow much and therefore flowering occurs more often and brighter.
You can plant lavender with seeds at home. To do this, you can use the seedling method, which is described above, or you can sow planting material directly into the container. It is important that the seeds go through a long stratification.
Watering home lavender is needed daily. During water procedures, apply melt moisture in small portions. In the heat and stuffiness, spray the plant from a small spray with soft water.
After transplanting, you need to make nutritional formulations, namely complex fertilizers. Do this no more than 1 time per week for the first 3 months. In spring and summer, take the plant to the loggia, balcony or put in the garden. Fresh air is good for developing lavender. Also, it is necessary for pollination of the flower, if you want to collect fresh planting material. Abrupt changes in air temperature at night and day will not damage lavender, but only strengthen its immunity.
Watch the cultivation of lavender from seeds in a video that shows all aspects of agricultural technology, from stratification of seeds to planting in open ground:
Preparing for the winter
English lavender can withstand frosts down to -25-30 ° С. But without additional shelter, the flower may not survive such low temperatures.
First, you need to trim the bush. Only 4-5 young shoots are left on it, the rest is cut off.
Secondly, even before the first frosts, the bush needs to be tightly covered with lapnik. Fallen foliage cannot be used - there is a good chance of rot. Crop leaves can be covered. When the first snow falls, it is recommended to separately heat it with a dense layer on improvised shelters. So the plant will have the opportunity to safely survive the winter.
Pot Lavender Care
This flower can also be grown as a houseplant. Growing lavender from seeds in this case will be similar to how it is done for seedlings. In the future, there will be only a few special items for flower care:
- Indoor odorous flora will tolerate dry land more easily than excessive humidity.
- A room with lavender will often have to be aired. In winter, you should definitely take the flower to another room. Frosts will kill him.
- At the bottom of the pot, you must create a layer of expanded clay drainage.
- A home plant needs daylight hours of 6-8 hours. It is best to place the pots with it on the sunny side. In winter, you may need additional lighting with a special lamp.
Lavender potted at home
In general, lavender is a capricious plant. If all the necessary conditions are met, the seeds will quickly please the seedlings, and those with time - lush bushes. Soon, a bush with incredibly fragrant flowers will decorate a person’s apartment or cottage.
Lavender seeds can be sown directly in the open ground in the winter, and more precisely in October. If you grow it through seedlings, then planting seedlings in the garden is carried out in the last days of May. If you decide to grow such a shrub from seeds, then they must be purchased in advance, or rather, in the first winter weeks or in early autumn.
The fact is that before you start sowing seeds, they must be prepared. For this, the seed material is stratified for two months at a temperature of about 5 degrees, which significantly increases its germination. To do this, the seeds must be combined with moistened sand and placed on the shelf of the refrigerator, designed for vegetables.
Sowing seeds for seedlings is carried out in February – March.
In regions with a mild climate and warm winters, it is recommended to sow seeds directly in open ground. Sowing is carried out in October in a pre-prepared area. To do this, they dig it up and simultaneously add peat to the soil.
If the earth is excessively wet, then this can be corrected by adding sand or fine gravel to it, which will increase its drainage properties. The seeds are buried in the soil by 30–40 mm, after which its surface is slightly tamped.
If the autumn is dry, crops are moderately watered. When the first snow falls, they should throw the surface of the site so that they get a not very large snowdrift.
Lavender Care in the Garden
After the first inflorescences form on lavender seedlings, it is recommended to cut them off. Thus, young bushes will not spend their energy on the formation of flowers, but will be able to grow stronger and form a powerful root system.
After planting lavender in the garden, during the first season it is characterized by extremely slow growth, in this regard, weeds should be regularly pulled out, as they can drown young shrubs.
In addition, the bushes will need to be systematically trimmed, and also fed. At the same time, it is recommended to use potash fertilizers for top dressing. The fact is that nitrogen fertilizers and manure contribute to the active growth of green mass, and this negatively affects flowering.
Watering and hilling
In order for lavender to grow and develop well, it needs abundant systematic watering. On hot days, the frequency of watering is significantly increased. Each time after rain or watering, loosen the surface of the soil between the plants and remove all weeds.
In order to significantly reduce the number of weeds, cultivations and irrigation immediately after the seedlings are planted in open soil, the ground between them is covered with a layer of mulch (peat).
Such a shrub needs a systematic pruning, which is carried out every year. Immediately after the bush fades, the inflorescences that have begun to fade are cut off, and in the autumn they shorten the branches to give the lavender a neat shape. Make sure that it does not stretch much up, as due to powerful gusts of wind, the bush can heal, as a result of which it will lose its decorative effect.
After the age of the plant is equal to 10 years or more, if necessary, you can conduct a rejuvenating pruning, for this all branches are pruned, and only segments about 50 mm long should be left. Such pruning can be arranged for a younger shrub, if it blooms very poorly.
Propagation by cuttings
This method of reproduction is suitable for those who already have lavender on the site or have the opportunity to get its lignified annual shoot. The stem is cut into lengths from 80 to 100 mm.
The resulting cuttings are planted for rooting in a loose moistened substrate, while their lower cut is buried by about 20-30 mm. From above they are covered with transparent glass jars. It will be possible to remove the shelter only after the roots grow on the cuttings.
To propagate the culture, a method of dividing the bush is also used. However, the plant should be prepared for this procedure. Choose an adult overgrown shrub. With the onset of autumn, when it fades, it should be pruned to a height of about 10 centimeters, after which it is highly spudded, trying to fill the entire space between the stems with soil. In spring, the plant is rewound. During the summer, abundant growth forms near the shrub.
With the onset of autumn, the bush is removed from the ground and divided into several parts with well-developed roots and stems. Next, the delenki are planted in a new place in separate holes.
Propagation by layering
In order to propagate the bush by layering, in the spring you should select several stems, bend them and lay them in grooves with a depth of 30 to 40 mm, made in the soil near the plant. Lock the shoots in this position, cover them with soil and water well.
During the summer period, make sure that the soil above the layering is always in a slightly moist state. Separate from the bush, which gave the roots of layering is possible only with the onset of the next spring period. Next, cuttings are dug up and planted in a permanent place.
Pests and diseases of lavender
When grown in open soil, lavender has a very high resistance to harmful insects and diseases. However, problems may arise with her. In some cases, the bush is affected by gray rot or rainbow beetles or slobbery pennies (cicadas) settle on it.
If pests have settled on the bush, then you can get rid of them by collecting insects manually. Then be sure to replace the mulching layer under the bush. The development of gray rot contributes to regular stagnation of fluid in the soil, which can be caused by excessively frequent and very heavy irrigation or prolonged rain.
Such a disease cannot be treated, so it is recommended to dig and destroy the affected bush. If the disease is at the initial stage of development, then you can try to save lavender, for this, immediately after detection, all affected parts of the bush are cut out. And then the irrigation regime is necessarily adjusted.
Lavender in winter
If in the region where lavender grows, it is colder minus 25 degrees in winter, then the plant will need reliable shelter. Remember that it is impossible to warm it with foliage, as rot can appear under it on the bush.
Experienced gardeners in the fall carry out mandatory pruning of the bush and throw it with a spruce for the winter. In regions with warmer and milder winters, narrow-leaved lavender does not need shelter.
French lavender (Lavandula stoechas)
Or broadleaf lavender (Lavandula latifolia). The birthplace of this species is South-West Europe. The smell of spectacular flowers of such lavender is very strong, they can be painted in various shades of pink, green, white, purple, lilac or burgundy.
This lavender blooms somewhat earlier than other species, and this happens in April – May. Flowering ends in July, but sometimes in the last summer weeks the bush blooms again. Compared with narrow-leaved lavender, this species is not so resistant to frost, and therefore it is cultivated mainly in regions with a warm and mild climate.
The most popular among gardeners is the variety - Lavandula stoechas pedunculata, or “butterfly” (Papillon): the flowers in this shrub have an unusual, spectacular shape. The best varieties of lavender are:
- Yellow Vale. The foliage of the shrub is greenish yellow, the flowers are dark purple, and the bracts are raspberry.
- Regal Splendur. The flowers are dark purple.
- Rocky Road. This variety appeared relatively recently. Her large flowers, painted in mauve, open in July.
- Tiara. Bracts in large blue cream-colored flowers.
- Helmsdale. The flowers are painted in burgundy-lilac color.
Hybrid Lavender (Dutch)
This group of hybrids, characterized by high decorativeness, was created using English lavender and other species of the genus. Such a large shrub is decorated with narrow leafy plates of silver color, as well as large oblong-shaped flowers located on long peduncles that bend under their weight. It blooms in July. The best varieties include:
- Alba. The flowers are painted white.
- Arabian knight. The color of the flowers is dark purple or dark blue.
- Sawyers. The color of the flowers is pale lilac.
- Grosso. Large beautiful flowers are painted in purple-violet color.
- Richard Gray. A compact bush is decorated with dark purple flowers.
Scalloped Lavender (Lavandula dentata)
This species comes from the Mediterranean. It is a compact shrub characterized by heat loving. The silvery sheet plates are rugged and soft. In July, flowering is observed, during which large fragrant flowers open. The species does not have high resistance to frost. The most popular variety among gardeners is the Royal Crown variety: the flowers are painted in purple.
Narrow-leaved lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
Either English lavender (Lavandula spicata), or medicinal lavender (Lavandula officinalis). The birthplace of this shrub is Southern Europe. This perennial is decorated with foliage of a greenish-silver color, as well as small lilac-blue flowers. Flowering begins in July – August. This species differs from the others in that it has the highest resistance to frost.
The most popular variety of this shrub is lavender dolphin-like: the height of the bush is not more than 0.3 m, it is decorated with very spectacular silver-colored leaves. Highcoat lavender is also widely cultivated, most often it is used to create not very high hedges. The best varieties include:
- Alba. Half-meter bushes are decorated with white flowers.
- Rosea. A low shrub, reaching a height of about 0.4 meters, during flowering forms pinkish-purple inflorescences.
- Manstead. Bright blue flowers bloom on the bush, reaching a height of 0.4 meters.
- Highcoat Giant. The height of such a compact shrub is approximately 0.6 m.
- Hidecote Blue. Violet-blue flowers adorn a compact plant that reaches a height of about 0.4 m.
The healing properties of lavender
In lavender, essential oil is present in all aerial parts; it contains linalool, coumarins, ursolic acid, tannins, geraniol and borneol.
Lavender oil is very useful, because of this it is widely used both in medicine and in the perfume and cosmetics industry. This oil is used in the treatment of bruises and burns.
Lavender is also used in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, convulsions and paralysis after a stroke, and it can also help with dizziness, headaches and drowsiness. The culture has a diuretic effect, and it is also able to eliminate toothache. Tea with this plant is used to eliminate discomfort and stomach cramps.
It can also help with melancholy, irritability, hysteria and neurasthenia, as well as with flu, asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, tuberculosis, enteritis, flatulence, atony of the gastrointestinal tract, worms, rheumatism, cystitis, amenorrhea, hypertension, fever and various rashes .
Experts note that the infusion of lavender has a positive effect on the nervous system of a person as a whole, as well as on his general mental state. It helps to eliminate stress, as well as reduce the negative impact of adverse factors on the mental state and consciousness of a person.
It was also noted that the infusion helps stimulate mental activity and quickly restore energy and strength.
Lavender foliage is used to make medicinal baths, and dried inflorescences are used as an effective anti-moth product when storing clothes, and also as a flavoring of linen and premises.
Lavender oil should not be used by pregnant women, especially in the early stages, because lavender helps to stimulate uterine muscle contraction. It is also forbidden to use after an abortion, as in this case it can cause bleeding.
Still, lavender can not be used simultaneously with drugs, which include iodine or iron. Prolonged use of oil can cause depression, as well as irritation of the gastrointestinal mucosa.
Means made on the basis of lavender have a powerful effect, and therefore can cause a strong allergic reaction. In this regard, before using such a drug for the first time, it is necessary to consult with a qualified specialist.
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