Mirabilis Night Beauty - a perennial exotic plant native to North and South America. The name comes from the Latin word "mirabilis", which means "wonderful." Mirabilis is a flower with an inconspicuous appearance during the day and incredibly transforming in the evening. Its various flowers bloom after dinner, stay open all night, withering only at its peak. The original feature of the plant is its sweet, intoxicating aroma, attracting night pollinators.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Mirabilis Nocturnal beauty is a perennial plant, but gardeners most often cultivated as an annual. The flowering period begins in June and continues until the onset of frost.
erect, densely branched, red, lignified at the bottom
oblong-ovate, petiolate, whole-edge, smooth, dark green, foliage arrangement opposite
funnel-shaped (bell-shaped), 2.5-4 cm in diameter, 3-5 petals per flower
corymbose located on the edges of the shoots
yellow, white, orange, purple, raspberry, bright red, sometimes two-tone
large, single seed, dark brown
Mirabilis flower The night beauty (pictured) belongs to the Niktaginov family, numbering about 60 plant species. Many of them grow in warm countries. In our same climate region, only Yalapa, a native of Mexico, has taken root and is popular. This species of Mirabilis has several decorative and beautiful varieties that are popular with many gardeners.
Tall shrub growing up to 1 m. The stems of the plant are thick, smooth, light green in color. The leaves are oval-oblong, slightly wavy at the edges. The flowers are deep red, about 5-6 cm in diameter. It has increased resistance to disease.
Ti Time Red
A spherical shrub of medium height branching from above. Shoots are smooth, knotty, densely covered with dark green elongated foliage. Corollas of a flower of bright pink shade, medium size. The variety is resistant to temperature extremes and fungal diseases.
Srednerosly, branched variety, with strong, smooth shoots. The leaves are dark green, oblong, slightly pointed at the edges. The diameter of the flowers is 3.0-4.0 cm. The color of the corollas is variegated - white, purple, orange.
A rounded half-meter bush, with thick, powerful, knotty stems branching up. The flowers are medium in size, funnel-shaped, various colors. On the surface, strokes and stripes of different lengths are clearly visible.
Growing Night Beauty
Mirabilis is a thermophilic culture that prefers moderately fertile, loamy soils. The night beauty is photophilous, but can also develop in partial shade. Only without sunlight, the flowering of Mirabilis will not be too rich.
Mirabilis Night beauty needs creating comfortable conditions for growing. In particular, when landing, you should adhere to such rules:
- The site should be selected outdoor, well-lit and warmed up.
- The flower garden should be protected from drafts, strong and cold winds.
- It is not recommended to plant bushes in lowlands, in areas with close occurrence of groundwater. Stagnant moisture at the roots can be detrimental to them.
- With care, Mirabilis should be planted next to other garden plants, as it can sometimes aggressively displace some of them.
The night beauty is an unpretentious plant, so it is very simple to grow from seeds.Growing Mirabilis through seedlings allows you to get early flowering. Sowing seeds is recommended from late March to early April. They germinate for a long time (at least 2 weeks), since the seed coat is very dense. Accelerate the germination of the seeds of the Night Beauty by scarification or soaking in warm water (for 12-24 hours). As a container for planting seeds, you can use plastic cups. In each, you can plant 2 seeds of Mirabilis.
Mirabilis seeds can also be sown immediately in open ground. Preliminary preparation is carried out similar to sowing seedlings. The seeds of the Night Beauty begin to be planted in late April and early May, in grooves about 3 cm deep. Mirabilis seeds are laid out at a distance of 7-8 cm from each other. Having covered them with earth, rows are watered and covered with a film. After emergence, the shelter is removed. Extra sprouts of Mirabilis are removed. You can use them as seedlings.
Planting seedlings in open ground
In the open ground, Night Beauty seedlings are recommended to be planted after the soil has completely warmed up, as soon as the threat of the appearance of nocturnal frosts disappears. The estimated landing date is the end of spring, after May 20.
Mirabilis seedlings The night beauty for several hours before planting must be well watered so that it is well removed from the cups along with a lump of earth. The landing hole should be the size of an earthen coma.
Mirabilis seedlings are planted mainly in rows. The distance between the seedlings should be at least 40-50 cm, so that the plants fully grow and develop. Planting Night Beauty is carried out by transshipment of seedlings in the planting hole. Then pour soil on top and press it with your hands. It is necessary to ensure that the root neck of Mirabilis is flush with the ground. Wells after planting should be well watered.
Mirabilis is a drought tolerant plant; therefore, it needs moderate watering. In dry times, it is enough to water the bushes once a week. The Night Beauty is able to withstand even a small dry period. If the air temperature is too high, you should irrigate Mirabilis bushes with warm water every evening. Leaves that have lost their elasticity quickly recover after watering and irrigation.
Mirabilis Night Beauty is very responsive to care procedures such as weeding and loosening the soil. The flower loves light and loose soil, saturated with oxygen. The loose soil gives the Mirabilis root system the ability to "breathe" and hold the necessary amount of moisture. The soil around the bushes of the Night Beauty must be loosened after each watering and top dressing.
The night beauty does not need pruning, as it independently forms a bush. A necessary procedure during flowering is only the removal of wilted buds to stimulate the formation of new peduncles and prevent self-seeding. But, nevertheless, it is not forbidden to cut branches of Mirabilis or pinch. Pinch the bushes at the stage of 3 true leaves. Such procedures contribute to the development of the crown of the flower, it becomes much more magnificent, and also stimulate flowering.
Description of mirabilis
It is a perennial flower. But since its homeland is South America, then in most of Russia, except the south, it is grown as an annual. The bush of mirabilis is magnificent, 30-80 cm high, hemispherical. Consists of erect branchy shoots. At the base they are thick and woody.
Mirabilis blooms with corollas up to 5-6 cm in diameter. About 15 buds bloom simultaneously on one bush.
Even on one branch, they can be of different colors! Mirabilis colors: white, purple, yellow, pink. Often corollas are two-tone with strokes.
When sown in April-May, flowering begins in the second half of summer and continues until the first frost. The buds open after 16.00 and begin to exude a delicate sweet aroma, attracting night butterflies.
All night, the mirabilis blooms and closes its corollas after sunrise. In addition, they are open during the day in cloudy weather and in the fall. when the heat subsides.
Flavourless varieties are now bred specifically for allergy sufferers. So when buying on bags you need to look for information: with the aroma of a flower or not.
I also liked that the mirabilis gently fades. Corollas fold into a tube, dry out and fall off. The bush does not lose its decorative effect. No need to constantly walk around with scissors and cut withered buds.
On sale you can find both mirabilis seeds and rhizomes.
The seeds are large, they germinate quickly - in 3-4 days.
Seeds are sown for seedlings in April or in open ground when frost is no longer anticipated. In the latter case, the bushes will be smaller, flowering later and more modest.
Rhizomes are planted at the same time as dahlias. In such a way that the seedlings appear no earlier than the frost ends. From the rhizome, the bush will be powerful, large, with earlier and lush flowering.
The place for mirabilis must be sunny. The care includes abundant and regular watering, as well as top dressing.
Mirabilis from seeds will give a tuber by autumn. After the first freezing, the tops will dry out. You can dig up a tuber, cut the tops, dry the cut, wrap it in a film and store it in the refrigerator or cellar until spring.
When propagating by tubers, the color of the corollas is preserved. And if you collect seeds from a flower bed from multi-colored mirabilis, then flowers of unexpected color will grow from them.
In the south, mirabilis propagates by self-sowing, turning into a weed. In other regions, seedlings and rhizomes left in the ground freeze.
I also read on Wikipedia that the leaves of mirabilis are edible and healing. They heal wounds, help with ulcers. And flowers are used to produce food coloring. The roots have a laxative effect. Seeds are poisonous.
That's how much the flower impressed me that I dashed off such a large article 🙂. Be sure to buy seeds, already looked, cost 15-20 p. and sow this year.
Did you know about this flower? Wanted, like me, to sow it? Write in the comments.
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Mirabilis tubers can be laid for winter storage. To do this, the stalk of the Night Beauty in the fall should be cut at a height of 10 cm from the soil surface. After that, the tubers of Mirabilis should be dug up. Outwardly, they resemble carrots, only dark brown in color. The remainder of the stem will eventually dry up and fall away.
The tubers of Night Beauty should be stored in any cool place, preferably in the basement or cellar. It is also possible in the refrigerator, in a box for vegetables. The optimum temperature regime is 3-7 ° C. You can wrap the Mirabilis tubers in thick paper or store in a container, pouring them first with sand or wood sawdust.
Diseases and pests
The rapid growth of Mirabilis shoots can lead to thickening of the plantings, as a result of which air circulation is disturbed. In such conditions, Night Beauty shrubs can be affected by root rot, rust and powdery mildew. The treatment of damaged bushes of Mirabilis is carried out by fungicides, for example, Fundazol.
As preventive measures are:
- thinning thickets,
- compliance with the irrigation regime.
Landscape design application
Spreading, powerful bushes with bright green foliage will help create a beautiful background in the flowerbed. Mirabilis is used Night beauty in the form of a green base for other garden plants, since in the afternoon its flowers are in a closed state. In the evening and morning, the flower becomes a real decoration of the flower garden, exuding an incredible aroma.
The bushes of the Night Beauty are used to decorate mixborders and rabatka. Large and tall varieties of Mirabilis are used to create hedges.In mixed flower gardens, the Night Beauty can comfortably adjoin and harmoniously combine with daisies, petunia, daisies, cloves and marigolds.
Mirabilis The night beauty fully lives up to its name, becoming a real decoration of the garden. It is notable for its flowering at night and is appreciated in decorative gardening for its beautiful and fragrant flowers. Each variety is remarkable in its own way, striking with a variety of colors. The culture is unpretentious in breeding, drought tolerant, so it will take root even with an inexperienced grower.
Mirabilis: seed cultivation
The perennial tropical plant Mirabilis attracts gardeners with the brightness of inflorescences, delicate aroma, and healing properties. The plant tolerates drought, heat, blooms in difficult conditions, on loamy soil. Minus temperatures ruin even the roots of the "night beauty", so flower cultivation is preferable to seeds.
Mirabilis from seeds at home
Pick a tropical flower the best place to grow. Provide early flowering for guaranteed seed ripening:
- find the warmest, sunny place in the garden,
- protect plants from drafts, strong winds,
- prepare soil neutral or slightly acidic,
- shade in the hottest afternoon hours,
- exclude lowland areas for landing.
Extend the period for seed ripening in regions with early frosts using non-woven material. They wrap a plant or make a small protective frame.
Preparation of soil and planting material
Light neutral soil is suitable for the “night beauty”, but it also grows on loams. The site should be fertile, with good drainage performance. Waterlogging and increased acidity negatively affect the development of the plant. The cultivated area for planting mirabilis is recommended to be prepared in the fall. Under digging on a full bayonet, shovels make fertilizers: potassium salt, humus, calcium nitrate, wood ash. Light soil is weighted with clay at the rate of 18-20 kg / m. Lime and dolomite flour are introduced with excessive soil acidity.
The following method has proven itself well. A ditch is dug to a depth of 30 cm, removed weeds and food waste are laid in it, and dug with soil from above. Before landing, sprinkle with ash.
When and how to plant mirabilis seeds
They analyze the climatic situation of their region. About two months pass from the moment of seed planting to the beginning of flowering, another three weeks are necessary for the formation of seeds. Therefore, planting prepared planting material saves time. Germination of seeds is preceded by treatment with a solution of thick pink potassium permanganate for 2 hours
Accelerate the emergence of seedlings:
- apply scarification: carefully thin the seed coat with sandpaper, a nail file,
- warm up with hot water for half an hour,
- placed between wet cotton pads,
- use solutions of growth stimulants (Epin-extra) for germination.
In the southern regions, mirabilis perfectly propagates by self-sowing. The grown shoots are thinned out depending on the variety. For low varieties, 30 cm is enough, large ones need 50-60 cm.
Air and earth warmed up to +10 ° C, the danger of frost has passed - seeds are planted in open ground. The processed, sprouted peas of mirabilis are laid out along the grooves with an interval of 5-8 cm. They are sprinkled with a substrate of 2 cm, watered with water, covered with a non-woven material.
Growing seedlings of mirabilis at home
In regions with a cold climate, mirabilis is grown in seedlings. This provides early flowering and makes it possible to collect seed material. Choose a period from late March to mid-April so that 1.5 months are left before planting in open ground.
Strong seedlings are obtained by following these recommendations:
- Choose deep plastic glasses or pots. The roots of mirabilis develop inland and they need enough space.
- Universal neutral reaction mixtures are used or peat, river sand, garden soil are mixed in equal portions and containers for seedlings are filled with the obtained substrate.
- They neutralize the soil by adding wood ash or dolomite flour to the mixture. Spill it with a fungicide solution.
- Before planting, the seeds are soaked, removing pop-up specimens. The remaining planting material is placed in a humid environment for 12-20 hours.
- Only 2-3 peas are deepened by 2 cm into the prepared substrate, reserving space for large, powerful seedlings.
- Watered with warm water and cover using glass or film. Periodically ventilate.
- The shoots are already exposed on the illuminated windowsill with a couple of leaves. Avoiding drafts, conduct hardening on the street, if climatic conditions allow.
- Moisturize the soil abundantly before transplantation and the method of transshipment, preserving the roots, arrange the plant in open ground in a prepared place.
- The earth around the plant is mulched.
Seedlings from greenhouses are placed on the flower beds:
- Moscow Region and the Middle Strip - early June,
- Ural - the third decade of June,
- southern areas - the end of May.
Mr. Dachnik informs: the collection and storage of mirabilis seeds
With proper storage, the germination rate of the collected planting material lasts 3 years.
Choose a strong plant, with the desired color of the petals. It is taken into account that the color of gramophones is not inherited when crossing and the manifestation of incomplete dominance (the Mendel law) is typical for mirabilis.
Like a perennial, the first seeds of the "night beauty" appear two weeks after the beginning of flowering. Inside the inflorescences with blooming gramophones, a seed box with a pentahedral dark brown fruit is visible inside. Signals the readiness of the seeds, a change in its color from dark green to straw.
There are several ways to collect mirabilis fruits:
- Selectively tear open seed boxes.
- Substitute a wide basin or cardboard box under the plant, shake it, collect peas that have crumbled.
- Cut the plant with brown lower bolls, lay in a dry place and leave the upper peduncles to ripen.
- The upper part of the plant is removed, a paper bag is put on the remaining part, turned over and hung in a warm room until the seeds gradually ripen and crumble.
- Be sure to finish, ripen the fruits collected in advance.
- lay boxes with peas on paper (preferably a net) or on drawers, for comprehensive drying with a thin layer,
- choose a place for ripening with good ventilation,
- mix periodically and monitor the appearance of mold,
- sign the collected material, if it is of several varieties or of different colors,
- thresh seed boxes and remove excess debris.
- The optimum temperature is from zero to +10 ° C, relative humidity 60%.
- Use paper bags or envelopes, linen bags.
- Sign, indicating the grade, color, year of collection of mirabilis.
It is recommended not to store the seeds in plastic or plastic containers.
Rooms with high humidity (bathroom, kitchen) are not used. If this cannot be avoided, they contain seeds in glass jars with screw caps. Silica gel (drying agent) is placed there.
Night beauty or mirabilis - planting and care in the open ground
Mirabilis is an amazing plant. It is not by chance that they call it Night Beauty. Flowers bloom only in the evening, filling the air with fragrance and withering in the morning. Gardeners appreciate Mirabilis for its decorativeness, unpretentiousness and ability to grow well in open ground.
Perennial shrub, with thick roots in the form of tubers. In our climate it does not tolerate winter cold, therefore, the Night Beauty is annually grown from seeds. In nature, there are about 60 species of shrubs, Mirabilis Yalapa and Mirabilis Himalayan - the most common and loved by gardeners.Plants do not require special care and are little susceptible to pest attacks.
Flowers night beauty: description, features of growing and care, photo
- October 19, 2018
- Anisimova Svetlana
Flowers of the night beauty once could be seen in each front garden, but recently they have become almost a rarity. This unpretentious plant with a light and pleasant aroma returns to our gardens again. Its Latin name "mirabilis" in translation into Russian means "amazing." But what is surprising about him? Ordinary flowers, unremarkable bushes. So why so love the night beauty?
The fact is that these flowers bloom in the evening, when everyone else closes, and delight the eye all night. They close the petals with the first rays of the sun. In the afternoon it is inconspicuous, even and accurate bush. Flowers on it are almost invisible. Its time is evening and night.
This Russian name is associated with this property - night beauty, since it is at night that the bush is covered with bright pink or white flowers, which produce a surprisingly delicate and, at the same time, spicy aroma. Through the efforts of breeders, new colors of the night beauty have appeared. Flowers can be purple, yellow with pink accents, orange, red.
This flower was introduced to Europe from the American continent and quickly adapted. Gradually, it began to be grown in almost all European countries, as well as in Asia, where it was loved for its unpretentiousness and amazing property - to bloom at night, spreading a wonderful aroma.
Flowers in the form of a funnel, with a large cup (up to 2.5 cm in diameter) and a long tube (see photo). Coloring is two-tone or monophonic, always bright - raspberry, violet, orange, white, red, yellow. Thyroid inflorescences are collected at the top.
Mirabilis is from North America. The flowers open in the evening, and fade very quickly, after a few hours. Pollinated by hawks - butterflies that fly at night. Instead of wilted flowers, new ones come, this continues all season, until the fall. The aroma is rich, very pleasant, tropical.
The fruits of the plant are dense boxes with one achene. Dark brown, ribbed fruits can be stored for up to 3-5 years, while maintaining germination.
Landscape designers use Mirabilis as a low decorative hedge, framed by paths and alleys. High grades are well suited as background filler in mixborders.
The plant is used to decorate terraces, balconies, planting in deep large pots. The bushes look equally good both in single and in group plantings in the neighborhood of marigolds, zinnia, and daisies.
Florists eagerly grow Mirabilis multiflorum - its inflorescences are formed by leaf axils, in each bell-shaped bedspread there are 5-6 purple large flowers. The round-leafed appearance of the Night Beauty is compact, only up to 30 cm tall and is interesting by the oval shape of the leaves. The most famous plant species:
- Red lollipop - characterized by large (diameter 6 cm) flowers of bright red color, the height of the bush is about 1 m,
- Ti Time Red - bushes for balconies of medium height with saturated pink flowers,
- Iolanta - branched bushes up to 0.5 m, flowers of an unusual color - with strokes,
- Ti time Fomula Mix - colorful inflorescences are very attractive, neat spherical bushes, 70-90 cm.
Description of mirabilis (Mirabilis jalapa)
This is a perennial plant, but in Russia it is an annual due to cold winters. It branches well and forms a beautiful spherical bush, the height of which reaches one meter. The shoots of mirabilis are brittle. Leaflets with short petioles of bright green color, elongated, with a sharp tip and smooth edges.
Small tubers form on the stem roots, from which a plant sprouts in spring. Of particular value are medium-sized bright flowers of a night beauty (pictured). Their description is simple.They look like small gramophone records and represent five fused petals, inside of which there are small stamens.
After they fade, round fruits are formed in which there are solid seeds of black color. Mirabilis blooms at night. This is due to the fact that flowers are pollinated by night butterflies, which are called hawks. They are attracted by the delicate aroma of flowers. It is interesting that on one bush there may be flowers of different colors.
Lighting and location
For planting, choose well-lit places, warmed up, warm, possibly with light partial shade. Lowlands will not work, as well as constantly moist areas with heavy poor soils. The plant needs a lot of free space, because the root system is superficial. The night beauty will recapture the earth, taking it from the neighboring plants, if the plantings are too tight.
How to choose a landing place
Many flower growers, focusing on the name of the flowers of a night beauty, whose photos will decorate more than one album, try to plant them in a shaded place. But this is a mistake. The plant loves the sun, fertilized soil and sufficient watering, although it tolerates drought well. In a shaded place, mirabilis will not even be able to form a bush and will remain a small bush.
Even in partial shade it will be elongated and not as thick as in the sun, and there will be less flowers. We should not forget that its homeland is the areas of Peru and Mexico, where there is a lot of sun and heat. Therefore, the plant needs to be planted in a sunny and well-lit place. In the photo presented in the article - a flower is a night beauty, the planting and care of which were carried out correctly.
It should be noted that the plant feels comfortable on slightly alkaline soils. But still it is necessary to give preference to clay or loamy soil, taking care of good drainage. If the plot has acidic soils, then digging it up, you need to make a small amount of lime.
Planting mirabilis seeds
The plant propagates with the help of tubers, cuttings and seeds. But when grafting the plant simply does not have time to form. In Russia, for the most part, flowers are planted using seeds that are brought into the soil, or seedlings are grown in advance. To do this, the seeds are placed in cups with earth. In late May, seedlings are planted in prepared soil. When planted with seeds in the ground, the plant is planted in prepared soil in early May.
Looking at beautiful photos of flowers of a night beauty, it should be remembered that planting time and plant care play a large role in the formation of the bush and the size of the flowers. Experts advise to file a little each seed before planting, since their skin is quite dense. This will reduce germination time. There is another way for quick germination - soak them before planting in warm water for a day. Mirabilis has a lot of seeds, which are collected as they ripen.
Tuber planting mirabilis
Nowadays, in special stores you can buy tubers of flowers of the night beauty. In the photo you can see these small, oblong, more like thickened roots of tubers. They land in a rather warm soil from mid to late April. If sprouts appeared on them, then on top of them it is necessary to cover them with non-woven material or cut plastic bottles.
After establishing warm weather, shelters can be removed. If the shoots are too weak, then you can pinch the crown of the plant, leaving at least 10 cm of the stem. Plant the plant should be at a distance of 50 centimeters from each other. This will enable them to feel comfortable in the summer, when the bushes grow.
The night beauty lends itself well to any molding and does not require any special skills. It can be cut, pinched, without fear that the plant will be harmed. From this it becomes even more beautiful and attractive. The bush, formed in the form of a ball, which in the evening is completely covered with bright flowers, looks especially impressive.
Water mirabilis is necessary no more than three times a week. It should be remembered that excessive watering leads to the fact that the plant stretches and practically ceases to bloom. It tolerates a lack of moisture well, but ceases to grow and bloom. Therefore, regular watering is necessary for him. It will also be useful to spray the plant with water.
Flower night beauty is resistant to pests and diseases, so no treatment is necessary. When feeding, use only organic fertilizers, such as manure or chicken droppings. If they are not, then you can use humate. It must be carried out every month (for the season - no more than three times). You need to feed flowers in the root zone.
The plant blooms from spring to autumn. After it fades, you need to cut the stems and dig up the tubers. The collected seeds are poured into paper bags or cloth bags and cleaned until spring in a dry, dark and cool place. The seeds are covered with a strong shell, so no special storage conditions are required.
If you want to plant tubers in the springtime at night, you need to dry them well and put them in a dark, dry and cool place. It can be a cellar or a shelf for storing vegetables in the refrigerator. The optimum temperature should be +5 degrees. If you observe these simple conditions, you can keep the tubers in good condition and grow from them a full-fledged, abundantly flowering plant.
In the southern regions of the country, tubers winter well in the land. In autumn, you need to cut the stems, fill up the place where the flowers of the night beauty grew, sawdust or straw. The tubers winter well and, with the onset of spring, the first sprouts appear, from which new bushes with bright flowers and a pleasant aroma will grow.
In our time, undersized varieties of flower night beauty have appeared. ” The photo shows that they are no different from ordinary varieties. This is Tea Time Red with red and white flowers and Tea Time Formula Mixture with cheerful multi-colored flowers. Their height does not exceed 30 centimeters. They are conveniently grown in special containers or planters on balconies and terraces. A cache-pot with amazing colors can be used to decorate arbors or verandas.
Planting and caring for such plants do not differ from the procedures with ordinary tall varieties planted in the ground. If you plant several plants in a container, then the distance between them should not be less than 30 centimeters. Blooming balls can also be formed from them using pruning and pinching. An evening rest or tea party in the gazebo will be brightened up with beautiful flowers with an amazing delicate and at the same time spicy aroma.
As you have seen, growing mirabilis is not at all difficult. It will take a little effort, but your work will be paid in full. Bright flowers will bloom and smell in your garden or even on the balcony of a city apartment at night, the amount of which will surprise you all summer. It is not for nothing that this plant is called mirabilis, which means "amazing flower." The night beauty will give you joy and cheer you up.
Night Beauty - Mirabilis
Russian name - night beauty - tells you exactly when to expect them. From delicate to the brightest - choose a shade to your taste. The first flower growers who showed interest in the plant were the Aztecs, who inhabited the territory of modern Mexico. They began to grow the most decorative forms, different shades. Today, mirabilis yalapa has disappeared from the wild of Mexico, but feral plants, in the old days extremely popular as a decorative culture, are still found on the site of former gardens. Thanks tuberous roots mirabilis copes with drought perfectly and does not require special care. After the Spanish conquered Mexico, the seeds of the night beauty came to Spain, and then to England and other European powers. Over the past centuries, it has spread around the world and has become "their own" in countries with a warm climate. In Egypt, she came to the court so much that a guest from another continent in Cairo was called the pearl of Egypt. In Morocco, thanks to the Spaniards, mirabilis also gained popularity. One of the varieties with striped yellow-pink flowers in orange speckles even bears the name "Marrakesh". Mirabilis propagates by seeds, dividing the bush and semi-lignified cuttings. Seeds before sowing, soak for a day. Sow 1-2 seeds in small pots filled with loose light earth, a month before planting in open ground. When seedlings appear, in each pot only one, the strongest sprout is left. You can transplant young plants into the garden at the same time as seedlings, for example, tomatoes - when the threat of frost finally passes. Cuttings rooted in a light peaty substrate with the addition of coarse sand. Mirabilis is so easy to grow from seeds that it is considered inappropriate to keep tubers in winter. However, plants planted with tubers have an advantage in size, they develop faster and bloom two weeks earlier. In addition, you know exactly what color shade you get. Dig tubers to frost and store in a dry, dark place, like dahlias. From the end of November, when the annual shoots partially die off, and until mid-March, the night beauty is at rest. At this time, it is watered every 2 months. In order for the plant to survive this period safely, remove the thin subordinate roots, place it in a fibrous peat with sawdust and store at a low temperature. In spring, overwintered mirabilis is planted in a substrate consisting of:
Mirabilis jalapa (Mirabilis jalapa) represents the family Noctifolia, or Nyctaginaceae (Nyctaginaceae). This family has few plants familiar to us, one of them is the bougainvillea popular in the south.
From delicate to the brightest - choose a shade to your taste.
The first flower growers who showed interest in the plant were the Aztecs, who inhabited the territory of modern Mexico. They began to grow the most decorative forms, different shades. Today, mirabilis yalapa has disappeared from the wild of Mexico, but feral plants, in the old days extremely popular as a decorative culture, are still found on the site of former gardens. Thanks tuberous roots mirabilis copes with drought perfectly and does not require special care.
After the Spanish conquered Mexico, the seeds of the night beauty came to Spain, and then to England and other European powers. Over the past centuries, it has spread around the world and has become "their own" in countries with a warm climate. In Egypt, she came to the court so much that a guest from another continent in Cairo was called the pearl of Egypt. In Morocco, thanks to the Spaniards, mirabilis also gained popularity. One of the varieties with striped yellow-pink flowers in orange speckles even bears the name "Marrakesh".
Mirabilis propagates by seeds, dividing the bush and semi-lignified cuttings.
Seeds before sowing, soak for a day. Sow 1-2 seeds in small pots filled with loose light earth, a month before planting in open ground. When seedlings appear, in each pot only one, the strongest sprout is left. You can transplant young plants into the garden at the same time as seedlings, for example, tomatoes - when the threat of frost finally passes.
Cuttings rooted in a light peaty substrate with the addition of coarse sand. Mirabilis is so easy to grow from seeds that it is considered inappropriate to keep tubers in winter. However, plants planted with tubers have an advantage in size, they develop faster and bloom two weeks earlier. In addition, you know exactly what color shade you get. Dig tubers to frost and store in a dry, dark place, like dahlias.
From the end of November, when the annual shoots partially die off, and until mid-March, the night beauty is at rest. At this time, it is watered every 2 months. In order for the plant to survive this period safely, remove the thin subordinate roots, place it in a fibrous peat with sawdust and store at a low temperature.
In spring, overwintered mirabilis is planted in a substrate consisting of:
In our gardens, the aroma of mirabilis is not felt as brightly as in the south. Therefore, the wondrous perfume of night beauties is easier to catch from a close distance. It is no coincidence that mirabilis is one of the traditional plants for a border along paths.
In the open ground on cultivated soil, mirabilis quickly turns into a powerful branching bush in the upper part with knotted stems about 1 m high and about the same width. Maximum height 1.2 m plant reaches the sun on rich soil with sufficient watering. The size of container plants depends on the amount of land provided. So, in two-liter pots, the height of the bush is only about 0.5 m.
Most of all, this plant is suitable for those who are busy all day, and can enjoy their favorite flowers only in the evenings and in the mornings, looking around dear to the heart of pets before you go to work. Mirabilis will patiently wait all day for his admirers and build up strength in order to reveal more flowers by the evening date. “4 o'clock” - another of his names - even indicates the time when to appear on a date.
However, it is not worth checking the clock for mirabilis. In cloudy weather, flowers open earlier and last longer. In the bright sun, in the heat and in the wind, they open, only sensing the approach of night coolness, and in the morning they wither faster. Therefore, the flower schedule is also affected by where the plant is in the garden and what time of day the sun illuminates it. In the afternoon, the flower folds into a tube and soon falls. In the evening, the night beauty is again ready to go out. And by dawn, the flower curls into a bud.
Beautiful juicy green leaves make Mirabilis attractive after flowering.
Step-by-step landing process
Mirabilis is sown in early April in the greenhouse, and in open ground in May. The main condition is ground warmed up to + 15 ° С.At home, seedlings are obtained by planting seeds of 2 pieces in a cup, which is covered with a film. The temperature is maintained at +18, + 20 ° C so that the sprouts do not stretch.
- Seeds are buried 1.5-3 cm deep.
- The soil is watered with warm water and covered.
- When sprouts appear (on days 5-6), a protective film is removed.
- With the advent of the first true leaf, thinning is carried out, removing weak sprouts.
- Transplanted seedlings to open ground as soon as the soil warms up and the threat of frost disappears.
- Planted rows are watered.
- The distance between plants is at least 40 cm.
The depth of the pit for seedlings is made so that the earthen lump, extracted from the glass, fits completely. Before planting, seedlings are carefully watered so that transshipment passes without damage to the root system.
To a bright dress - an exquisite perfume!
Mirabilis miraculously replenishes a few list of plants, fragrant at night. Mirabilis uses delicate perfumes. This is not a thick stupefying aroma of royal lilies, but a light delicate bouquet of floral and spicy notes, tangible only at a fairly close distance.
However, already a small flock of these charming plants will make you turn off the path and come closer to them. Fragrance is difficult to analyze and describe. Here, the aroma of mirabilis is one reminiscent of vanilla, the other orange color, the third tropical jasmine and gardenia. But we will not offend the night beauty by comparison with fragrant rivals and call it perfume simply - unique!
Mirabilis Yalapa very prolific. You can generously bestow all your neighbors and friends with seeds of your own collection.
- For abundant flowering, mirabilis needs a sunny place, protected from the wind. The night beauty also feels good in partial shade, but her floral outfit in poor lighting will be less magnificent.
- The plant prefers moderately fertile, loamy soil. Good drainage is needed. Mirabilis does not tolerate acidic soils and stagnation of water.
- Mirabilis Yalapa is a perennial with erect stems and tuber-like thickened roots. In a warm climate, it winters well and propagates easily by self-sowing. In countries with frosty winters, the plant is often grown as an annual, renewed annually with seeds. In spring, ready-to-plant tubers also appear on sale.
Text: I. Volkovskaya.
Photo: Legion-Media, Visions Pictures & Photography, Fotosearch RM, Zoonar GmbH RM / Russian Look, adinamnt / Fotolia.com, I. Volkovskaya.
Discussion in our group on VK:
Pearl Catcher: Mirabilis is one of my favorite flowers. Flowers bloom in the evening and remain open until morning. They have an intense sweet aroma. Just for fans in the evening or night cool to sit on a bench or in the gazebo. Propagated much easier than described. You can, of course, and so, but you can just plant the seeds immediately in the ground after the ground has thawed and warmed up a bit. For central Russia - in mid-April. So the plants are stronger and bloom faster. You can, of course, dig up the rhizome, which in Miralibis looks like a carrot, and store it in the cellar in winter. But if you don’t feel like messing around or not in the cellar, you can grow it like an airman. I do not see any difference. Still mirabilis willingly propagates by self-seeding. In more southern areas it can become a weed, as it is sown a lot and sprouts anywhere.
Lyudmila Emchenko: A great unpretentious flower, but along the paths I would not plant it. Last season, the plants were half-human and very spreading, all strewn with flowers.
Lyudmila Emchenko: Catcher, it’s precisely self-seeding that he breeds with us
Pearl Catcher: Lyudmila, in what region do you live? When I was visiting near Voronezh, the hosts strongly swore at myrabilis and regretted that they had once planted it, because it scattered all over the garden on their own.
Lyudmila Emchenko: Catcher, Lugansk People's Republic (aka Lugansk region, Ukraine until 2014)
Pearl Catcher: Lyudmila, oh yes! You have a heavenly climate there. Everything blooms and grows almost by itself.
Anna Ovchinnikova: Lyudmila, and in Western Siberia we have to plant seedlings in January
Lyudmila Emchenko: Catcher, well, it’s not that in recent years it’s either overcoming droughts or pouring showers, but the flowers don’t complain, we are comfortable
Lyudmila Emchenko: Anna, wow, and not too early? It will bloom in the room while you warm
Lyudmila Emchenko: Trapper, yet this creeper strives to fill all the available space. Perennial propagating by processes.
Anna Ovchinnikova: Yes, it happens and bloom, but then they quickly grow. They have been waiting for heat for a very long time.
Pearl Catcher: Lyudmila, does your campsite feel so good in the open ground? My American friends grow in the garden. What are they terribly proud of
Lyudmila Emchenko: Catcher, it is in the garden, in the open ground. Winters without shelter even for a year.
Tatyana Mayorova: I noticed, if planted in the shade, the flowers do not close all day.
Sveta Schemelyova: And I dig out the roots, like dahlias))
You can participate in the discussion by going to the page in our VKontakte group.
Flower night beauty: species, breeding, planting and care
The night beauty is a flower from the Niktaginov family (the botanical name of the plant is Mirabilis, which means “amazing” in translation), grows mainly in the southern regions with a warm climate. The birthplace of the night beauty is South America. The culture has more than 50 species.
A characteristic feature of Mirabilis (photo) is flowering period, the beginning of which falls in the afternoon and lasts until the first rays of the sun. This feature has a simple explanation: the pollinator of the flower is the brazhnik butterfly, which leads a nocturnal lifestyle.
Flower Night Beauty - photo and description of the species
Mirabilis flowers, depending on the variety, can have a motley or pastel color: white, pink, yellow, red, purple, etc. The flowers of the plant have a funnel-shaped elongated shape, combine into inflorescences in an amount of 3-5 buds.
The culture belongs to herbaceous perennials. Bushes can reach a height of 30 to 80 cm. The stems of a night flower are straight with a widely branched structure, have a red tint. With age, at the base of the plant, the stems become stiff. The root system is tuberous, but flower propagation also occurs in the seed way. It blooms with the onset of the first steady heat, usually in the first half of June.
Interesting fact! If you cross the bushes of Mirabilis with flowers of different colors, the plant will not inherit any of them. The result can be unpredictable, since the plant belongs to cultures with incomplete dominance, where the genes are of equal strength and are not suppressed by each other.
Among the many types of night beauty, we will single out the most popular and suitable for growing in the climate of the middle zone.
During the intensive growth of the Night Beauty and flowering, 2-3 top dressings are carried out. At the beginning of summer, in the middle and at the end of the season, fertilizers are introduced into the root zone. Fresh organics are avoided, only rotted compost, and mineral fertilizers are selected different.
In the spring, the main emphasis is on nitrogen components, for example, ammonium nitrate 10-20 g per 1 square. m. In the midst of flowering, superphosphate 40 g per 1 sq. m is used. m, urea 10 g per 1 square. m. Closer to autumn, nitrate is added to 30 g, potash fertilizers - 10 g per 1 sq. km. m
Tea Time Red
Spherical shrub, characterized by the density of flowering. Buds of a pink, saturated shade. Stems, on the contrary, are pale and branched to the top. It can be used for cultivation in regions with a cold climate. - the grade is frost-resistant.
Tea Time Formula Mixture
The height of the branches of a spherical bush can reach up to 90 cm. The foliage is thicker in the upper part, while the stems are bare and smooth to the bottom. The small buds are small, only 3 cm in diameter, the edges are wavy, the color is motley.
Helpful information! The high thermophilicity of the plant, as a rule, leads to the fact that even the bushes sheltered for the winter still die in severe frosts. But this does not mean that the culture is not worth growing - even in a cool climate, albeit as an annual plant, Mirabilis will fill the garden with bright colors and a pleasant aroma.
In the southern regions, the shrub carries the dormant season in the cold period under a layer of mulch. You can save the plant in winter in harsh climates. To do this, observe the following algorithm:
- carefully dig up the bush, trying not to damage the root system,
- cut the stem to a height of 10 cm,
- thin subordinate roots are removed,
- wrapped in horse peat fiber mixed with sawdust or paper and sand,
- cleaned in a cold place, maintain a mode of no higher than +3, + 7 ° C,
- get out in March, prepare for landing.
Pots for planting tubers Nights are filled with a mixture of 2 parts of turf, 1.5 parts of peat, 1 part of sand and a few handfuls of brick chips.
Mirabilis is practically not attacked by insects. Watering should be monitored to prevent constant stagnation of water in the soil, waterlogging causes fungal infections - rust or spotting.
To combat these infections, you need to regulate watering, drying the area. At the same time, the affected flowers and leaves are collected and the soil is treated with a solution of fungicides, for example, Fundazole (10 g per 10 l of water).
Night - an attractive ornamental shrub with an unusual wonderful tropical aroma of flowers. Infrequently, the plant is found in personal plots, but it is steadily gaining popularity due to its unpretentiousness and unusual decorative appearance.
Mirabilis: planting and care in the garden, growing from seeds
Mirabilis (lat.Mirabilis) - a genus of flowering plants of the Niktaginovy family, which includes more than 50 species that grow in the temperate and tropical regions, mostly in North and South America, although one species comes from South Asia. Translated from Latin, “mirabilis” means “amazing.” The Mirabilis flower of the Yalapa species, which is widely popular, is called a night beauty. This plant combines simplicity and mysterious appeal, filling the garden with an amazing aroma. It is unpretentious to growing conditions and unpretentious in leaving. Mirabilis is often used to form a low but vibrant hedge.
Planting and care of mirabilis
- Bloom: from July to autumn frosts. Flowers open in the evening and close in the morning.
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in early or mid-April, planting seedlings in open ground - in the second half of May. Sowing seeds directly into the ground - in early May.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: fertile clay or loamy soils of slightly alkaline reaction.
- Watering: periodic but plentiful. In extreme heat and drought - from 1 to 3 times a week, but in the season with the usual amount of rainfall, you can not water the plot at all.
- Top dressing: 2-3 times per season with complex mineral fertilizers: before the formation of buds, in mid-summer and late August. Of organic fertilizers, humus and compost are used, and the mineral compositions introduced in the second and third term should contain a minimum amount of nitrogen.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: not affected.
- Disease root rot, rust, spotting.
Mirabilis (night beauty) - description
Mirabilis Yalapa is from Mexico. This is a perennial plant with swollen tuberous roots, grown in an annual culture. Its elongated-rounded bushes reach a height of 30 to 80 cm.On erect, densely branched reddish stems, lignified in the lower part, elongated-ovate, bare, whole-extreme green leaves are opposite on the petioles. Yalupa flowers - funnel-shaped, up to 25 mm in diameter, white, raspberry, violet, orange, yellow, purple, bright red or two-three-colored, opening after 16 hours and closing at dawn - are collected in apical fragrant corymbose inflorescences. In cloudy weather, flowers can be open all day. The night beauty plant has the ability to form flowers of different colors on one bush. For example, on one plant can be flowers of all shades of pink from salmon to raspberry, and sometimes the petals of the plant are decorated with colorful stripes. The fruit of mirabilis is large, single-seeded, dark brown in color, with sharp ribs. Seeds of the night beauty retain germination up to 3 years.
Sowing mirabilis for seedlings
The flower of the night beauty propagates by seeds, which must be scarified before sowing, that is, slightly damage their hard shell with a file or sandpaper. Then the seeds of night beauty for a day are placed in a thermos with warm water. When to sow mirabilis? Mirabilis seeds are sown in early or mid-April in cups filled with light neutral or slightly alkaline soil: you can buy ready-made soil in the store, or you can make a substrate yourself by mixing two parts of sod land and peat, one part humus or compost, half half washed sand and adding for every 5 liters of the resulting soil mixture half a glass of wood ash or 2 tablespoons of dolomite flour. Cups are filled by ¾ of the volume, compact the mixture and abundantly watered with a fungicide solution. Two seeds are placed in each cup, sprinkled with a layer of loose soil 1-1.5 cm thick and sprayed with water from a finely dispersed sprayer.
Crops are placed in a hotbed and kept at a temperature of 18-20 ºC.
Sowing Mirabilis seeds in open ground
Planting mirabilis seeds can be carried out directly in open ground. The seeds are prepared for sowing by the method already described by us, and they are sown in late April or early May. Try to distribute the seeds in the furrow in increments of 7-8 cm. After planting the seeds in the soil to a depth of 3 cm, the area is watered with warm water and covered with non-woven material or film until seedlings appear. As soon as the threat of frost passes, the shelter is removed. Subsequently, seedlings of mirabilis will have to be thinned out.
When to plant mirabilis in the ground
Mirabilis seedlings are planted in open ground in late spring, when the soil warms up and the probability of frost passes. The area under mirabilis should be warmed up well and shined with the sun, since the plant is very thermophilic. Do not spare the place for mirabilis, otherwise it will take it from other plants: mirabilis is quite aggressive. Mirabilis grows best in fertile clay or loamy soil containing lime, so acidic soils must be liming before planting. Mirabilis does not like excess moisture, so do not plant it in a lowland or on moist soils.
How to plant mirabilis in the garden
Mirabilis landing is carried out at a distance of 40-50 cm in a row. The depth of each hole should be such that it fits the root system of the seedling with an earthen lump, that is, the entire contents of the pot. An hour or two before planting, seedlings in pots are watered so that it is easier to remove and reload into the hole. After planting mirabilis and sealing holes, do not forget to water the site.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
You can sow seeds for growing seedlings of nocturnal beauty in mid-April. Mirabilis has strong seeds, therefore Before sowing, they are lightly treated with fine sandpaper. Then they are placed in a container of warm water for a day. The container needs to be covered in order to maintain heat - this is a kind of stimulation for the early germination of seeds.
The soil for filling the containers in which the sowing will be carried out should consist of:
- turf land and clean sand,
- humus or compost (optional),
- wood ash or dolmitovy flour (optional) based on 5 liters of soil 0.5 tbsp. or 2 tbsp. l respectively.
All the components mix well and fill the containers (pots, cups) with them half (you can slightly more). As a preventive measure, the soil is treated with a fungicide solution. Two seeds are taken in one small container. After immersing them in a container with planting soil, the seeds are sprinkled on top with the same soil and lightly sprayed with warm water from the spray gun.
Seedling care is simple:
- put containers in place with maximum light,
- provide moderate watering and a temperature of no lower than 20 ° C.
Under such conditions, the first sprouts appear already in the first week after sowing.
Important! After the appearance of the first large leaf, it is necessary to trim the smaller ones, which are located at the very bottom near the ground. Then the plant will grow faster.
When the bush reaches a height of 15 cm, it is required feed the seedling with mineral fertilizers. After that, Mirabilis begins to "accustom" to street climatic conditions - they take the night beauty out to the garden or to the open balcony, increasing every day its presence in the natural environment.
Transplanting seedlings in the open ground
Planting seedlings is carried out in the second half of May, and provided that the soil is well warmed up. An ideal place to land is:
- a well-lit area
- loamy or clay soil with an alkaline environment (it will not be superfluous to sprinkle the earth with a small amount of lime).
It is worth avoiding areas with a close occurrence of groundwater. - the plant does not like strong humidity. The transplant is carried out together with the land into which the seeds were sown, therefore the holes for the night beauty should be deep. The distance between seedlings should be at least 30-40 cm. After planting, the plant needs abundant watering.
This method of propagation of Mirabilis is rarely used by gardeners because of the greater complexity in terms of its implementation in comparison with other methods of planting a night beauty.
For cuttings, take part of a lignified bush and dry the slices well. Further the stalk is placed in a growth promoter. Provide an optimum temperature for germination of sprouts on cuttings at a temperature of about 22 ° C. Cuttings prepared in this way planted in nutrient soil not earlier than in mid-April, or rather, when warm weather is established.
Diseases and the fight against them
With proper care, the bushes of the night beauty grow strong and strong. The plant is famous for its immunity to various types of diseases. But novice gardeners need to know what ailments to fear when growing this plant.
- Root rot - The most dangerous disease for Mirabilisa. It occurs due to abundant watering or high soil moisture with close occurrence of groundwater in the areas where the crop grows. There are no effective methods to combat this disease. You must immediately dig up a diseased bush to prevent infection of other plantings in the garden. As a preventive measure, the site where the bush was treated must be treated with a fungicide solution.
Night Beauty and Medicine
In addition to its decorative qualities, night beauty is actively used in medicine:
- leaves - used as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing agent,
- tubers - have an effective laxative effect,
- flowers - act as a raw material for homeopathic medicines.
In addition to the above, night beauty flowers are used in the food industry, receiving confectionery dyes from them. But the seeds of Mirabilis contain poisonous substances, but also found their application - the extract from the seeds is used to make various cosmetics.
Flower night beauty: Photo and description (mirabilis) how to grow + Video
What flower impresses with an abundance of colors, pleasant aroma and blooming of bright buds even after sunset? This is the night beauty of mirabilis! Mirabilis or night beauty, translated from Latin, means "amazing." But she is often called a more sonorous and significant name, which she received for the peculiarity of opening the buds after 17-00 and delighting them with color and aroma until the morning - therefore, she was popularly called the “night beauty”.
Pests and diseases of mirabilis
The night beauty is very resistant to harmful insects and diseases, but from regular waterlogging, it can get root rot. The affected plant will have to be removed, and the soil in which it grew should be shed with a fungicide solution, such as Fundazole. And so that the story does not happen again, adjust the wetting mode of the site.
Sometimes rust or some kind of spotting can affect myrabilis - fungal diseases, which can be combated with a solution of fungicidal preparations, but first tear off the affected leaves and flowers on the bushes.
Mirabilis after flowering
If it is difficult for you to part with the plant in the fall, dig up its tubers, similar to black carrots, cut the stems at a height of 10 cm: after drying, they will fall off by themselves. Wrap the tubers with thick paper, or better cover them with sand and store at 3-7 ºC. With the onset of spring, the tuber is planted in warm soil or germinated in a pot on the windowsill, and when heat is established, transplanted into the open ground.
As you can see, planting mirabilis and caring for it are simple and not time-consuming.
Types and varieties of mirabilis
As we already wrote, most often in culture they grow mirabilis Yalapa, or laxative laxative, or nocturnal beauty. We gave a description of this species at the beginning of the article. The most famous varieties of mirabilis yalap are:
- Iolanthe - a rounded bush up to 50 cm high with thick and strong knotted stems that branch heavily in the upper part. Medium-sized funnel-shaped flowers of bright color with dashed stripes throughout the corolla bloom from late June to frost,
- Red lollipop - a large plant up to 90 cm high with thick and smooth light green stems branched in the upper part. The leaves of the plant are oblong-oval, simple, wavy at the edges. Funnel-shaped flowers up to 6 cm in diameter are painted in bright red color,
- Elvira - medium-sized dense bush with strong and smooth branched stems, dark green oblong leaves with a pointed top and bright flowers with a diameter of up to 35 mm,
- Ti Time Red - medium-sized bushes with smooth knotty, very branched stems in the upper part, oval-oblong dark green leaves and medium-sized flowers of saturated pink color,
- Ti Time Fyomula Mixche - a spherical bush 70-90 cm high with simple oblong leaves with pointed tops on branched, smooth and bare stems in the lower part. The flowers in plants of this cultivar series are funnel-shaped, smooth, with wavy edges, variegated colors, 25 mm in diameter.
Many-flowered mirabilis is also grown in culture - a herbaceous perennial about 80 cm high with upright bare stems covered with elongated ovoid smooth leaves. In May, axillary inflorescences are formed on the multi-flowered mirabilis, consisting of 2-6 tubular purple flowers located in the same bell-shaped bedspread from 4 to 6 cm in diameter.
Known to gardeners and round-leaved mirabilis - a compact plant up to 30 cm high, covered with oval, sticky leaves 5-7 cm long.In apical inflorescences, up to three purple-pink flowers with a diameter of up to 1 cm are formed in the general veil. As with all mirabilis, flowers of this species open later in the evening and close with the first rays of the sun.
Night Beauty Description
Mirabilis has its pedigree from Mexico, Chile and Peru. It was introduced to Europe in the 18th century.
In vivo, over 60 species of this amazing flower grow.
The night beauty has a very powerful stalk and numerous shoots, thanks to which, she is famous for her adaptability to climatic conditions. She took root in the middle zone of Russia and is cultivated by gardeners both as a perennial and as an annual plant.
An adult plant has the shape of a bush, reaching a height of one meter (although there are dwarf species, up to 40 cm in height). The bush is covered with an abundance of small, dark green leaves, lanceolate. Five petals fused together form an elegant funnel, the upper diameter of which is 2.5 cm, and the lower one goes into a narrow long tube. The most common petal colors are yellow, raspberry, white and scarlet. Of the less common, pink, salmon and orange, as well as very rare flowers, combining two or three colors can be called: one half of the petals is yellow, and the second is raspberry.
The night beauty has the habit of opening the buds when the activity of the sun is reduced: in cloudy weather, or in the late afternoon. The plant blooms profusely. The first flowers can be seen in July and admire them until the frost. At the same time on one bush you can see up to five different colors of the flower. The fruit of flowering mirabilis are seeds similar to nuts and covered with a hard black shell. If the summer turned out to be dry and warm, then the seeds can be easily harvested independently. With proper storage, the seeds remain viable for three years.
The flower fell in love with gardeners because it adapts well to weather conditions in the middle zone, is drought tolerant and grows on almost any soil (ideally, it should be planted in fertile loam), and it is easy to care for it. It is only necessary to ensure that there is no stagnation of water, the soil is loose (with good drainage) and not acidic, and the flower grows in a well-lit place. Well, remember about dressing. Mirabilis responds well to the introduction of complex or organic fertilizers (about three times per season), releasing new shoots and tying buds.
- The seeds. Mirabilis seeds are sown on seedlings in late March - early April. And for those who have at least once in their life grown seedlings on the windowsill, this procedure will not be a hassle.
Sowing is carried out in seedlings, to a depth of not more than two centimeters. The soil should be moist and warm, because the optimum temperature for peeling seeds is 18-20 ° C. Before planting, seeds can be soaked for faster germination. And after planting, cover the seedling box with film or spanbond to create a microclimate in the greenhouse. After the appearance of the first shoots, the shelter will need to be removed. Planting a night beauty in open ground is better when the threat of freezing frost is over, and the soil warms up so that the night beauty feels comfortable. When planting, leave a distance between bushes of 30 cm. It is better to transplant in rainy weather, this will guarantee a quick survival and adaptation in a new place.
- Tubers. Planting stock can be easily found in flower shops, markets and collectors. If you already have mirabilis, then you can dig up the tuber and store it in the winter in sawdust at a temperature of about 5 ° C (for example, in the vegetable box of the refrigerator). In spring, the tuber is half placed in a moist substrate, which consists of peat (1 hour), earth (2 hours), sand (1 hour), a handful of dolomite flour and expanded clay, which provides drainage. When sprouts appear, they can be broken down and rooted in separate containers.The tubers themselves can be planted in open ground when the soil warms up by 10-15 centimeters (late April - early May)
- Cuttings. Gardeners do not like to cut mirabilis. Despite the fact that such a method exists, it is not always effective and is time consuming and labor-intensive. Cuttings are cut from half-lignified shoots and placed in a solution with a growth stimulator for a couple of hours. And then they land in seedlings or in beds, observing the distance between the cuttings. If the soil under the cuttings is moist, and the temperature is in the range from 20 to 24 ° C, then the roots on the cuttings will appear within two weeks. In Russia, mirabilis is grown mainly as an annual crop, due to the fact that its roots do not tolerate winter frosts. But grafting will help to grow a tuberous root by autumn and thus save it for the winter.
- Division of the bush is a rare and less effective method of reproduction, in comparison with the ones listed above, but there are also its adherents. The bush is carefully dug up and removed from the soil. The earth is shaken off from the roots with neat movements. The bush is cut with a sharp knife into several parts, each of which should have both a stem and a root fragment. The separated parts of the plant are planted immediately in a permanent place, and well shed with water. The distance between the planted parts must be at least 40 cm.
Varieties of mirabilis
- Mirabilis jalapa (yalapa) - family Noctifolia (Niktaginovye). The bush grows up to half a meter high and is covered with succulent leaves. The flowers are painted in purple. Blossom after 4-5 pm. It blooms until the end of October, provided there is no frost.
- Iolanthe. Bush up to 50-60 centimeters in height, spherical in shape. The stems are powerful, knotty. Flowers are painted not in a single color, but in strokes.
- Elvira. The bush is low, round, covered with dark leaves with pointed tips. The color of the flowers is bright and colorful.
- Red lollipop. Bush up to a meter high. The stems are branched and smooth. The flowers are large, painted in a deep red color.
- Marbles ("Marble"). Flowers are painted in a very original way: stripes, strokes of different widths and splashes.
"Marbles white-red" - white flowers with carmine-red pattern. Marbles yellow-red is a combination of yellow orange, red and pink brush strokes.
Marble yellow-white is a combination of white and yellow strokes.
Pests and diseases: control measures
- Spotting or rust. We remove the damaged leaves and treat the plant with fungicide.
- Root decay - appears from excess moisture. It is less to water and treat the plant with phytosporin. If these measures do not help, you need to remove the damaged plant.
Use in landscape design
In addition to aesthetic value, mirabilis has practical value in landscape design. Due to the meter height and a large number of shoots, the bush can be used as a hedge or a windbreaker.
Low-growing varieties are planted in flower beds in large groups, creating variegation, and are also used in discounts, borders and mixborders. The night beauty is planted together with daisies, peonies, marigolds, tall roses, dolphiniums and other flowers. Low-growing bushes are grown as a pot culture.
In places where the climate is warm, mirabilis is considered a perennial plant, in a cold climate it is annual. This is explained by the fact that the gentle root of mirabilis simply freezes in the cold winter.
The flower is not whimsical and not demanding. Mirabilis is a very good option for inexperienced beginner gardeners. Mirabilis is a compact grassy bush, about 80 cm high. With good care, a beauty bush can reach one meter.
The stems of the flower branch a little, have a shade of reddish color. As the stem grows, it stiffens. The leaves on the shoot are arranged one after another. They have an ovoid shape. The root of the plant is tuberous, similar to turnip.During flowering, a delicate mirabilis flower blooms on each shoot. Its flowers can be varied, in all colors and shades. In addition, beautiful flowers can be speckled, spotted or striped. Moreover, a bush can bloom both in one color and have flowers of various shades.
The flowering period of mirabilis begins in mid-May and continues until the frosts. When flowering, the night beauty exudes a unique tropical smell. At night, he is very attracted to butterflies, which pollinate the plant. After the flower fades, a dark brown box is formed instead of the former gramophone. It stores the only seed of the plant. The oval dark seed has germinated for three years.
The culture comes from the tropics, so loves sunlight very much. It must be planted in open sunny areas. If a flower is planted in partial shade under trees or shrubs, sunlight will not be enough for it and it will not be able to fully bloom. In this case, the flowers will be small, and the bush itself will grow worse. In addition, mirabilis does not tolerate acidic soil and stagnation of water. Therefore, it can not be planted in a lowland or in marshy places. Fertile loamy and clay soils will be a great option for this tropical guest. In such soil, he will feel comfortable.
The flower grows quickly and grows well, so when planting it is necessary to leave enough free space for it to grow. It is not recommended to plant a plant in front of the house to those gardeners who cannot tolerate a sharp suffocating smell.
There are many ways to plant a flower. As a rule, mirabilis is grown from seeds. Although it can perfectly propagate by tubers and cuttings. You can also buy a beautiful seedling in the store. When buying seedlings, you need to pay attention to the appearance of the plant. Flower buds should be even and dense, in no case wrinkled. Leaves - smooth without any specks, peppy and strong.
To grow mirabilis seedlings, it will be enough plant 1-2 seeds in a pot. Each pot under the seedlings should have drainage holes. The water in the pot should not stagnate. A soil mixture is very easy to prepare.
For the substrate you need:
- 1 part of fertile soil
- 1 h peat
- 1.5 hours of gravel or coarse river sand.
All components are thoroughly mixed and scattered in pots.
Seed planting time is the end of May, in extreme cases, the beginning of April. The air temperature should be 18 - 20 degrees above zero. In order for the seeds to sprout faster, they must be kept for 6 - 8 hours in a cloth moistened with water before planting. A seed is planted in the soil to a depth of 2 cm.
Watering should be moderate, in any case it is impossible to allow increased soil moisture. If everything is done correctly, after 2 weeks, the first shoots of these lovely flowers will appear. Then you need to harden the resulting seedlings. To do this, you just need to take her outside. So she quickly gets used to the new climatic conditions.
In the spring, when nature wakes up, you can plant a flower of a night beauty in a flower garden for permanent residence.
Mirabilis should be planted in the flower garden very carefully. Each plant experiences stress during transplantation; mirabilis is no exception. Therefore, do not immediately expose the flower to direct sunlight. For several days, the flower should be slightly covered from the light. You can use it with branches of spruce branches, foliage or newspapers. After the final adaptation, the protection can be removed.
In the southern regions of mirabilis, it is recommended to immediately plant directly in the prepared soil seeds. The soil here quickly warms up, so the plant emerges from the seed quickly enough. In the northern regions, it is recommended that you first grow seedlings, and only then plant the seedlings in the soil.In order to properly plant a plant, it is necessary to prepare the soil for mirabilis in advance.
In the hole prepared for the plant, wood ash and mineral fertilizers should be added in advance. It is necessary to plant a flower at a distance of 7 -10 cm from each other. It should be remembered that the plant has the ability to grow rapidly.
If a plant is planted in the soil with seeds, they are planted similarly with seedlings, the only difference is that after planting and watering the holes, it is necessary to cover the plant with covering material. In this form, the flower will begin to grow faster.
If for some reason the flower did not produce seeds, you can propagate the flower by the cuttings method. To do this, you can use a sharp knife to cut off the woody shoot of the plant and allow it to dry well. Then place it in a container in a solution of a growth stimulator.
In order for the stem to give roots faster, you can slightly warm the bottom of the tank to a temperature of 20 -24 degrees. After some time - plant the cuttings in fertile fertilized soil, where it will quickly take root. This will take approximately 14 to 20 days.
Mirabilis or nocturnal beauty: the best varieties, planting and care, reproduction
Mirabilis perennial plant, but grow it as an annual. He is also called night beautysince it blooms in the evening and has an amazing aroma.
- Iolanthe. It is a spherical bush 50 cm in length. It has thick stems with excellent branching at the top. Inflorescences are bright with strokes on the petals. Flowering period from June to frost.
- Tea Time Formula Mixture. The height of the shoots is up to 90 cm. The leaves have an oblong shape with a sharp end. The stems branch well, but their lower part is bare. Inflorescences with variegated color and 2.5 cm in diameter.
- Tea Time Red. It is a spherical bush. The stems are knotty and smooth with a light green tint. The upper part of them branches perfectly. Inflorescences are saturated pink. The flower perfectly takes root in the northern regions and is resistant to various diseases. The flowering period begins in the second decade of July, right up to frost.
When and how to plant?
- For the southern regions, the landing time of the night beauty is April.
- In central Russia, you can plant a flower in May. For those who want to plant them a little earlier, you should think about covering them with film or agrofiber.
- For the northern regions, it is better to prepare seedlings indoors and, as soon as the weather is constantly warm, plant seedlings in the ground. Peat cups are good for this.
- A sunny plot is being prepared.
- Freed from weeds and debris.
- The soil is dug, and grooves are prepared.
- Then, they should be shed well with water.
- Seeds can be soaked before sowing, but they have excellent germination without it.
- At a depth of 2 cm, planting material is sown.
- In order to protect them from frost or for better germination, you can cover with a film.
- As soon as the shoots appear, and the weather does not portend frost, the shelter is removed.
- When 3 leaves appear, seedlings dive.
- Leave a distance between seedlings of 25-30 cm (tall varieties - 50).
- Two weeks after germination, you can make the first bait with complex fertilizers.
Mirabilis is considered an unpretentious plant and yet it is necessary to fulfill some requirements.
- The plant loves rich and moist soil.
- It is worth ensuring that the land is not overdried before flowering. Otherwise, the buds may fall, and the leaves will fade.
- Maintain a sufficient distance between the bushes (relative to each variety) so that the shoots do not stretch up.
- Monthly fertilize with complex fertilizers. This will perfectly affect the abundant flowering.
- Regularly release the plant from weeds.
- To carry out loosening of the soil.
- In the fall, tubers are dug up and stored.
- The plant can propagate by self-sowing.Therefore, in the spring they need to be planted so that the bushes do not grow, too often from each other.
- Mirabilis is very rarely ill. Diseases can be transmitted from neighbors, such as aphids. To destroy it, a soap solution is used that processes the leaves until the parasite is completely dead.
- Also, the bush can become infected with rust. Processing should be carried out with special preparations (fungicides) not only of mirabilis, but also of its neighbors.
- After flowering, collect seeds and release from wilted inflorescences.
This method of reproduction is considered more effective. Since the germination of seeds is 99%. The optimal time for sowing planting material is March. This can be done at home and in greenhouses, in order to obtain seedlings.
- To plant seeds in open ground, you need to wait until the soil warms up around May-June. Protect planting material from frost, you can agrofibre or other material.
- Before planting, the seeds are soaked for 6 hours in a damp cloth.
- Then sow into the soil to a depth of 2 cm.
- After 2 weeks, shoots can be expected.
- As soon as the shoots appear, a pick should be carried out.
- This applies to seedlings grown at home and in the open ground.
Planting material is purchased at any flower shop or procured independently.
- To do this, you need to dig up the tubers from the bush and send them for storage in sawdust or sand.
- The temperature should be + 5 ° C.
- In spring, tubers are pulled out for germination.
- Then, the prepared material is planted in the ground.
Dividing the bush
This method of propagation is applied to dwarf varieties.
- A young bush is planted in a deep flowerpot.
- The resting period of the flower is November-March. Therefore, tubers should be pulled out and sent to a cool place.
- In the spring they are separated and planted in separate containers.
- As soon as the leaves appear, the plant is ready for planting in the ground.