Salute, Liatris: 10 ideas for flower beds with fluffy "candles"

The perennial lyatris enjoys deserved popularity among flower growers, planting and caring in the open ground for which will not be difficult even for a beginner. The flower is unpretentious, endurance, has long flowering and the original form of inflorescences. In combination with other plants, the lyatris looks spectacular in small compositions, serves as an element of landscape design in the design of parks and squares.

Description of the lyatris: varieties and varieties

Liatris is a perennial flowering plant of the Astrov family (Compositae). It is found in the wild in North America, where it grows everywhere. In areas with a warm climate, the height of the bush reaches 1.5-2 m. In European gardens, liatris flower has been known since the 18th century.

Of the 50 known botanical species, only three are cultivated:

  • spikelet (Liatris spicata) - the most common species in cultural floriculture, characterized by unpretentiousness. Its height is 40-80 cm, depending on the variety,
  • membranous (Liatris scariosa) with wider (up to 3 cm) shiny leaves,
  • rough (Liatris aspera) - the tallest species, the height of the plant reaches one and a half meters. Pink panicles are inconspicuous; the species is rarely found in flower beds.

According to the description, the perennial is a rosette with narrow whorled dark green leaves of a lanceolate shape, pointed at the end. Before flowering, throws 40-60 cm long peduncles leafy in the lower part. Tubular flowers of the lyatris form tiny inflorescences-baskets, collected in common spike-shaped inflorescences.

For your information! A distinctive property of the perennial is that the first flowers bloom at the top of the peduncle.

The color of the petals is diverse:

Note! Folk flower names — deer tongue, funny feathers.

The root system of the lyatris is a corm, connected by roots into nests of several pieces. The fruit is an oblong achene, covered with villi.

The efforts of breeders brought the following varieties:

  • Cobalt (Kobold) - a compact undersized bush with a height of 30-50 cm. Flower stalks of violet color reach 30 cm. Flowering of lyatris is possible from June to October,
  • Blue Berd (Blu Berd) - a low plant with spike-shaped inflorescences of the original blue-purple color. It blooms from mid-June to mid-August,
  • Alba (Alba) - a plant 60-100 cm high, inflorescences are covered with small snow-white flowers with lace petals,
  • Flamingo is a chic variety with fluffy pink peduncles. It blooms a little later, in the second half of summer, is drought tolerant,

Liatris may have different colors

  • Floristan Violett is a tall plant 0.8-1.2 m with purple-lilac flowers. The variety is demanding on light,
  • Bengal lights - a tiny bush with purple spikelets of saturated colors. With a height of not more than 30-40 cm produces a large number of peduncles, has a long flowering period,
  • A burning star throws out colorful cherry stalks 60-70 cm in size. Blossoms in July-August. The variety is unpretentious, frost-resistant, often propagated by self-sowing,
  • Picador is a plant with fluffy red-violet inflorescences, similar to peaks, 60 cm high. The variety is photophilous, prefers moderate watering.

For your information! The name of the flower “liatri” found on the Internet is incorrect. The correct spelling is "liatris".

Variety Florictan Violett

Landing location and soil

Liatris prefers open areas with good lighting. He does not like to grow in lowlands with stagnation of water, in shaded areas, in places with close occurrence of groundwater. Perennial grows well on fertile, air- and waterproof, slightly acidic soils with a pH of 6.0-6.5.

A plant can grow and bloom on poor sandy and sandy loamy soils, but the bush will be smaller, and flower stalks and flowers smaller. Heavy clay soils are not suitable for perennial cultivation.

For planting in pots and containers, the soil is prepared in the following proportions:

  • peat - 60%,
  • sand or perlite - 10%,
  • turf land - 30%.

Sowing the seeds of lithium in open ground

Perennial seeds ripen during the growing season on peduncles. Even in temperate climates, they can be collected and used during planting. Germination of planting material does not exceed 50%. For the seeds of the lyatris to sprout, they need stratification - staying in a cool place. When sown in November, this process will occur naturally during wintering. With spring sowing, seeds need to be kept for about a month in the refrigerator.

During seed propagation, the resulting seedlings do not fully retain the properties of the mother plant, especially if several varieties grow on the site.

Outdoor shoots

Before sowing, calibration is carried out in salt water, rejecting hollow, immature seeds. Planting stock is soaked in a solution of potassium humate (0.5 g per 1 liter of water) for 12 hours. Preplanting preparation improves germination, accelerates seed germination.

The landing site is cleaned of weeds, dug with humus or compost - 1 bucket per 1 m². Furrows are made at a distance of 10 cm, the seeds are planted to a depth of 1 cm. When spring planting, they emerge in two weeks. When these leaves appear, the seedlings are thinned out.

Note! When sowing seeds in open ground, plants begin to bloom only in the third year.

Landing Liatris in the open ground

Perennial can be grown in seedlings, planting seedlings in the soil at the age of 50-60 days. Seeds that have passed stratification and pre-planting treatment are sown in a container with previously disinfected soil. The composition of the substrate should be light, breathable. Sowing is carried out in January-March, planting material is buried by 1 cm. The container with crops is closed with a film or glass, put in a warm place with a temperature of 22-25 ° C.

Important! When seedlings appear, the temperature is reduced to 16-18 ° C, the box with the plantings is put in the most lit place.

When 1-2 real leaves appear, the seedlings dive into separate small pots, after a month they do transshipment in larger containers. Transplanted seedlings in open ground when the threat of night frost is over. The distance between plants can withstand 20-25 cm.

Watering and loosening the soil

Spikelet Liatris refers to drought-tolerant plants that tolerate a lack of moisture better than its excess. Most of the growing season, rainwater is sufficient for the plant. In hot, dry weather, the flower is rarely watered, but abundantly so that the quality of flowering does not deteriorate.

Note! Excessive watering can lead to decay of the perennial root system.

In the process of growth, the root system is exposed in the lyatris, corms are on the soil surface. With the help of loosening, which must be carried out very carefully so as not to damage the roots, the tubers are buried in the ground. The flower responds well to basal mulching with peat, mowed grass, fallen leaves. This measure protects the root system, serves as a fertilizer, prevention from diseases.

Breeding methods

Liatris is extremely unpretentious when landing and leaving. Propagation of the plant is possible in several ways:

  • seeds
  • corms,
  • dividing the bush.

The plant grows well in one place for no more than three years. Older bushes need to be shared. Old neglected plantings begin to throw out a small number of peduncles of lower height.

Attention! Vegetative propagation of lyatris is carried out in early spring before the start of active growth or in late autumn after the end of the growing season.

The plant is completely dug from the ground, shaken from the soil, cut with a shovel, trying to divide into 2-3 identical parts. Dividers are planted in prepared soil, seasoned with organic matter, to the same depth as the growth of an old bush. Liatris practically does not suffer from the procedure performed, blooms in the current season or next year, depending on the breeding time.

If a grower plans to plant a larger number of plants, corms of at least 2 cm in diameter can be separated from the mother bush. They are planted with a notch upwards at a distance of 20 cm and a depth of 8-10 cm, depending on the size. When planting in autumn, the bed is mulched with a thick layer of leaf litter.

For spring planting, corms are stored in the basement in the winter. Bulbs are planted in the soil in late April-May. The first sprouts of new plants appear a month later. Flowering can be expected next year.

Feeding and transplanting

Fertilizing is carried out three times a year:

  • in May - nitrogen top dressing,
  • during the extension of peduncles and the formation of buds, bushes are mineral compounds with phosphorus and potassium,
  • during flowering - liquid fertilizers for flowering plants.

For your information! To increase the number of peduncles and a more saturated color of buds in spring, the soil surface around the bushes is covered with mullein.

If the bushes of the lyatris need to be transplanted to a new place, plants are dug up in the spring or in the fall, planted in a new place at the same depth. Rotted manure is added to the hole. The transplant procedure is useful to combine with the division of the bush.

Liatris spikelet

Decorates flower beds with flowers during June-July. Their color depends on the variety and is pinkish, white, purple, lilac, lilac, azure. The pedicel resembles a tube, covered with small flowers along its entire length. The stems grow to 80 cm, completely covered with foliage. Paniculate inflorescences of spikelet liatris reach 25 cm in length.

The well-known subspecies of the spiky variety developed on the basis of the varieties of Spicata lyatris (spicata) include:

  • Floristan Violett (Floristan Violett) - with petals painted in a different shade of blue-lilac,
  • Florian Weiss - the stems of the culture reach 90 cm, large inflorescences resemble snow-white candles,
  • Liatris Kobold (kobold or cobalt) - has flowers of lilac-pink color, located on stems with a length of 40 cm.

It's important to know! The spikelet lyatris has an unusual snow-white shade of flowers and growth from 50 to 80 cm.

Liatris membranous

It has large and wide leaves, pedicels - fluffy and whitish. Inflorescences in appearance resemble balls consisting of minimal flowers of lilac and pink tones. Filmy varieties are preferred to use in landscape design, when creating alpine slides or single flower beds.

Popular varieties of Liatris membranous are represented:

Liatris grungy

Belongs to the tallest, in nature there are options up to 2 m high. The culture has strong shoots and foliage with a green tone. On long pedicels are small purple flowers. The representatives of the species include Uyat Spyr, which has snow-white buds. Of particular interest is the purple Picador. Its distinguishing feature is considered to be high and bright inflorescences and a love of moderate watering, easy reproduction.

Landing location, soil

Planting and caring for the lyatris begins with the selection of a suitable site. He prefers fertile soils with easy permeability and slightly acid reaction, in the range of 6-6.5 units. Culture loves sunny places where the rays fall on the bushes for 6 or more hours.

On a note! When growing on sandy and dry soil, in partial shade, the lithium (Liatris flower) blooms weaker. If it is planted on sandstone, then growth slows down, and inflorescences are shortened.

The long-living variety does not tolerate boggy and heavy soils - in such places it is at risk of the spread of tuber rot. When planted in flower containers, the substrate is made of peat, clay and perlite (sand).

Plant portrait

These unpretentious winter-hardy perennials form dense bushes with erect stems, covered from top to bottom with numerous very narrow leaves. The top of each peduncle is decorated with fluffy "candles" of inflorescences of various shades of pink and purple. They may be white. Lyatris blooms usually in the middle - the end of summer, but in the southern regions it blooms about a month earlier.

Liatris in any flower garden plays the role of a festive firework

Total known about 40 species lyatris, all of them are from North America. However, in the gardens you can find only a few of them:

  • The most popular among gardeners - spikelet (Liatris spicata) with long tight candles of inflorescences. Famous varieties: purple 'Kobold' (height 30–45 cm) and 'Floristan Violett' (80–90 cm), white 'Alba' (60 cm) and 'Floristan Weiss' (80–90 cm), light purple' Septemberglory '(90 cm) and dark purple with a particularly bright autumn coloring of the leaves of' Picador '(90 cm). The Floristan series has been developed for use in floristry: these cultivars are distinguished by long inflorescences on short stems and can be grown from seeds.

  • Pretty similar to each other lathris membranous (L. scariosa, 70 cm) and liatris (L. pycnostachya, 80–120 cm).

  • Liatris small-headed (L. microcephala) reaches only 30 to 60 cm in height.

These four species of inflorescences open from top to bottom, which is quite unusual.

  • At rough lathris (L. aspera, 80–120 cm) “candles” are much looser, and flowers collected in separate bunches open all at the same time or from the bottom up.

Optimal conditions

Liatris loves the sun, but will grow and bloom in light partial shading. There are no special requirements to the mechanical composition of soils, it is only important that the water does not stagnate.

Liatris loves the sun, but will grow and bloom in light partial shading.

Spikelet and bushy-headed Liatris prefer wet soil in summer. However, even their roots can rot if the dampness in winter and in the off-season is combined with heavy soils. All other species are drought tolerant. Liatris feels great on poor and moderately fertile soils. And on the rich or improved compost bushes will be sprawling and tall, the stems can fall apart and require garter.

Seasonal Care

  • Spring. Planting new plants, replanting and dividing old ones is best in early spring. Pot seedlings or large delenki planted at a distance of 30 cm, that is, about 9 pieces per 1 m². Rhizomes, which are sold in packages in the spring (very often they can be found among bulbous dahlias blooming in summer), are planted at a distance of 10 cm from each other to a depth of 5 cm. In the absence of rain, new plantings should be regularly watered. Liatris responds well to mulching with organic material. For high species and varieties in the spring it is worthwhile to establish supports. It is better if it is not a very noticeable cellular structure (of branches, metal, etc.) through which the lyatris can grow.

  • Summer. At the end of flowering, the inflorescences can be completely removed, leaving only bushes of neat foliage or left so that narrow beautiful vertical fruit trees adorn the flower garden before snow. In the latter case, self-seeding can be expected. In drought, regular plentiful watering is needed.

  • Autumn. In early September, you can also divide old bushes or plant new acquisitions, but in the spring it is preferable. You can trim the bushes to the ground immediately after the leaves dry out or in early spring. Weeding planting with lyatris is best in the fall.

Types and varieties with photos

There are about 20 types of lyatris. The most popular are:

  • spikelet or spiky liatris (Liatris spicata),
  • membranous liatris ((Liatris scariosa),
  • rough (Liatris aspera).

The most popular type is spiny lyatris. Its stem has a height of about 90 cm and ends with inflorescences-candles from 20 to 25 cm.The flowering of this species begins quite early - in early June, and continues until the end of July. The plant gives abundant seeds, propagates not only by them, but also by dividing the bushes. Hardy and drought resistant. This species includes varieties with a varied color of flowers.

Variety Floristan Weib (Floristan Weib) has a well-leafy stem and a white tall flower in the shape of a "brush". It blooms up to 40 days from mid-June. It does not tolerate excess moisture due to possible rotting of the roots.

Another representative of white varieties is Liatris Alba. This variety belongs to the filmy species, blooms from late July to late August. It grows well in a sunny outdoor place. Winter-hardy.

Purple varieties include Floristan Violett. Its sturdy flower stalks reach 80 cm in height, and a purple cap of inflorescences rises above them. Violet is unpretentious, winter-resistant. When landing, it is worth considering his love of the sun, and therefore it is better to place it in open areas.

Pink perennial - Liatris Kobold (Kobold) reaches only 40 cm in height. Has narrow, pointed from above leaves. Popular not only due to its color, but also to its long flowering. In small baskets, creating dense spike-shaped inflorescences, from 10 to 10 lilac-pink inflorescences bloom from July to September. Prefers moderately moist soils and sunny places.

Also a chic variety among pink-blooming lyatris is Flamingo. A beautiful inflorescence rises above a tall stalk. Blooms profusely from mid-July. It does not require special care, winter-hardy and drought-resistant.

Grade Liatris Bengal Fire accurately reproduces its name. Purple-red flowers are collected in an inflorescence reaching 35 cm. They seem to light up during flowering and delight them for a long time.

The representative of lilac-blue varieties is Blue Bird. This neat beauty pleases with aroma and flowering from late June to mid August. Prefers moderately moist soil and placement in a sunny place.

Liatris Spicata Violet Blue - a plant with an unusually beautiful shade of inflorescences, the stems of which reach 50 cm in height, well leafy. The spike-shaped inflorescence up to 35 cm is covered with small baskets of boxes, which in turn consist of 8-13 flowers. It blooms in June, blooms from 35 to 40 days.

Purple grade Pikador reaches 60 cm in height. Inflorescences are tall, bright. Easily propagated, photophilous and prefers moderate watering.

Liatris Burning Star - a plant with purple, like lights, inflorescences. Reaches a height of 65 cm. Photophilous, tolerates frosts, self-sown. It blooms from mid-July to the end of August.

Liatris roughth is the tallest species: the stems reach a meter high. Its inflorescences are long and fluffy, with small flowers. The leaves are shiny, narrowed up.

Film Liatris has wider leaves at the base of the stem, reaching 70-90 cm in height. The inflorescences are large, with many box flowers opening from top to bottom.

Reproduction, growing from seeds

Admiring the photos of flowers, of course, is pleasant, but it is much more pleasant to enjoy the aroma, long-term flowering and exoticism in the flowerbed by independently growing liatris.

Reproduction of lyatris is carried out in three ways:

  • seeds
  • tubers
  • dividing the bush.

Before planting, it is worth considering that the plant does not tolerate frequent and plentiful wateringas well as the proximity to groundwater. This can lead to decay of the root system, which means the death of the plant. Dry soil and scarce rainfall are the best options for the lyatris.

In the early spring, there comes a period when planting seeds is most favorable. The planting process in a seedlingless manner is carried out in early March by sowing seeds into small grooves of a cold greenhouse or directly into the ground. After that, lightly cover with earth and water abundantly. It is recommended to pre-soak the seeds in a weak solution of manganese or humate for several hours. The soil is dug up in advance and humus is added. Saplings hatch depending on the weather, and this can happen from 2 weeks to a month and a half. Shoots are grown until mid-October. Tubers are dug up together with the earth and stored until early to mid-spring. Do this after the death of the foliage. Nothing terrible will happen if the plant stays for the winter. Already in the spring it will please the first weak flowering.

Planting tubers

The rhizome of the lyatris is presented in the form of tubers, which are interconnected by processes that resemble a bulb in shape. Dividing the rhizome into parts, you can get and grow bushes, blooming in the first year.

It is better to dig up the rhizomes in the fall, when the leaves have died out. It is preferable to choose tubers at least 2 cm, without rotting and damage. Planting is carried out in fertilized soil, in which holes are made 8-10 cm deep. It is important not to confuse and place the tuber with the right side up. A recess will help in this, from which shoots will later appear.

Bush division

A fairly simple way in which young shoots of an adult lyatris bush in early spring or late autumn are shared with the roots. For a young shoot to take root, it must have a powerful maternal part. Such shoots are placed in holes to a depth of 10-15 cm, pre-filled with one third of humus. Wells should be placed at a distance of at least 35 cm from each other. After planting the beds, it is better to mulch the humus. This method of propagation is preferably carried out to an adult plant every three to four years.

Liatris unpretentious, frost-resistant and drought-resistant. It is not prone to diseases and is practically not damaged by pests and microorganisms. However, on heavy, damp soils, the plant rots, and therefore does not recommend abundant watering.

It is recommended to apply phosphate-potash fertilizers several times during the season., as well as add soil due to the highly located root system. In addition, carefully loosen and remove weeds around the plant. If the bush is tall and bends under the weight of inflorescences, it should be tied to a support.

Winter preparations

After the lyatris has faded, inflorescences are cut off. This is done not so much for aesthetic beauty (dry lyatris is quite attractive), but to prevent seeds from planting in the wind over the entire area. When the foliage loses its power and beauty, the plant is cut off under the root and covered with humus or foliage for the winter to prevent freezing. However, a plant can do without shelter and freezes only in harsh, snowless winters.

Landscape design application

Properly selected plants will help to elegantly decorate a landscape design. Original in this regard are the lyatris, who with their harmony and the lights of colorful inflorescences will add exotic to the flower garden or alpine hill. Low-growing species are excellent as their foots, and tall species - to complete the composition in the back rows.

The horsetail leaves of the lyatris remain juicy and attractive throughout the summer. In the autumn period, foliage falls and covers the flower bed with a bronze carpet, giving a peculiar decoration to the site.

The bright inflorescences of the lyatris are adorable. They harmoniously fit into the landscape of any corner of the garden or flower garden. Liatris spikelet blue (Liatris Spicata Blue) goes well with white, purple lilac, pink and purple flowers. With abundant flowering creates a hedge of bright inflorescences.

Unusually friendly, Liatris Spikata is growing with field representatives, including daisies, poppies, cornflowers.

Bright inflorescences of "Picador" will create a contrast against the background with snow-white bells and delphinium. Equally well combined with non-flowering undersized shrubs of phlox.

Among the strong boulders of the rockery, the lowest representatives of the varieties of lyatris look very harmoniously. These include Kobold. It grows no higher than 40 cm and being the owner of bright purple and purple shades of inflorescences, it looks spectacular.

In a mixed type of flower beds, white lyatris will look very profitable with Echinacea purpurea. Also, snow-white or purple shades of spicata inflorescences will create spectacularly expressive compositions with terry wine-red daylily or bright yellow evening primrose.

Another option for decorating the flower arrangement will be a single lyatris, which has risen next door to a pond, fountain, broad-leaved ferns, hydrangea, phlox, etc.

“Deer Tongue” is also an excellent soloist. Plant contrasting varieties in rows or staggered, and you get a wonderful contrast from unusual flowers.

Please yourself with the aroma and look of the cut lyatris and be sure to take a photo at the cottage during the period when the beautiful lyatris blooms. On winter evenings, it will cheer you up.

Description of Liatris

Gardeners love Liatris due to the pleasant aroma of freshly cut hay and vanilla, as well as for a beautiful decorative look. The flower is also called a deer tongue, a funny feather or a blazing star. No less interesting are its properties in repelling moths. A bag of dried flowers can be hung in the closet and protect your belongings from the pest.

Liatris is a perennial herbaceous flower of the family Asteraceae. It is also often referred to as astro. Most often, the plant is found in North America, Mexico and the Bahamas.

Liatris flower has an unusual appearance: strict and aesthetic. It grows with long standing shoots, and they can also branch. All branches are densely covered with leaves. With proper care, the culture grows about 2 m. The leaves of Liatris are long, and the flowers have a tubular shape.

Hues range from white and pale pink to bright lilac and purple.

During flowering, Lyatris fires an arrow with inflorescences. Flowers bloom from top to bottom. The length of peduncles reaches 50 cm. They resemble a spikelet, which consists of several tiers of small groups of flowers. Flowering lasts about a month and even a little more. In different regions, the time when Liatris blooms differs due to climatic conditions. But usually this happens in June-July. After flowering, small bolls with seeds are formed - achenes. They are covered with fine pile.

After cutting, the flowers remain fresh for up to 10 days. And when dry, they are suitable for creating Ekibana. In the garden, the plant works well solo and together with other flowers, for example, phlox, gypsophila, verbena or armeria. Liatris has excellent decorative qualities. It is used in mixborders, alpine hills, flower beds and rockeries.

The roots of Liatris are similar to tubers that are connected by roots. They are quite close to the surface.

It looks like a tuber Lyatris

In addition, Liatris has healing qualities. Decoctions from this plant treated various diseases, even snakebites.

Landing Liatris

You can plant a Liatris both on the sunny side and in the shade. The plant grows well and develops in any conditions. In the shade, it even bushes better, and young shoots appear from young bulbs.

Fertile soil with good drainage is suitable for the plant. It does not like waterlogging, but the drying up of the earth is destructive for him. Provide the plant with timely watering. The soil for planting Liatris should be neutral or slightly acidic. And heavy, alkaline and marshy - are contraindicated. You can not plant a plant near groundwater or in a lowland.

They are planted in open ground Liatris in the spring, when the soil warms up and freezes pass or in the fall until frost. Although the plant tolerates temperature differences well. Time varies in different regions, but perennial planting can begin in April. If planting is planned in the fall, then spend it in September, so that the plant has time to take root.

Perennials that will interest you:

There are several ways to plant Liatris. This can be done in shifts or in a vegetative way. The latter is the simplest and most effective. The landing pattern of the Liatris is simple. Since it is planted only for decorative purposes, you can place the bushes in any order. The main thing is to deepen the tubers 3-7 cm into the soil and observe a distance of 20-30 cm between them. Planting with seedlings or tubers allows you to get flowering already this year, and if you sow seeds, then the flowers will appear only for 3-4 years of growth.

Liatris: planting by seed

Growing Liatris from seeds is the easiest way to propagate. But it will begin to bloom only after 2-3 years. Seeds can be bought at a specialty store or collected at the end of flowering.

Prepare planting material before planting. Soak the seeds in plain water at room temperature for 10 hours. You can add growth stimulants Epin, Kornevin, Gumata, etc. You can sow seeds immediately in the open ground in the spring at the end of April or May. Prepare the soil so that it is acidic, light and nutritious. Fertilize: a bucket of rotted humus per 1 sq. m and dig everything up. Water the beds carefully.

Sow the seeds in small grooves to a depth of 1-2 cm and lightly sprinkle with earth. The sowing place can be covered with mulch until the first shoots appear. Better to plant more, and then thin out.

Popular types and varieties

Today, there is a wide variety of varieties and types of garden lyatris. Moreover, the plant contains both white and lilac varieties. Consider the most popular and favorite gardeners varieties of lyatris.

  • Kobold. This type of lyatris is suitable for dry unpaved areas. In height, it reaches an indicator of 70 cm and, according to botanical characteristics, it belongs to the category of spikelet plants. The flowers of the Kobold variety are rather small in size, they are collected in an inflorescence, which can be painted in red and purple shades. Kobold is a photophilous variety, so it should be grown in well-lit areas. The growing period is about 4 years.

  • Floristan Violet. A perennial plant can grow up to 80 cm in height. It differs from other types of fluffy spikelets in their texture, which have a lilac hue. The stems of the plant are erect. Flowering time falls in mid-summer.

  • "Picador". The highest plant height is 0.5 meters. In this case, the flowers are painted in different shades of red and purple. The narrow leaves of the Picador cultivar are collected in a socket. The flowering process falls in the middle of summer and lasts for 1–1.5 months.

  • Flamingo A perennial lilac flower can reach a height of 70 cm. In this case, the diameter of the direct inflorescences ranges from 20 to 30 cm. People call the Flamingo variety a deer tongue (due to the unusual color of the plant).

  • "Spicata." The height of the representatives of the variety ranges from 40 to 80 cm. Flowering varieties "Spicata" begins in June or July and can last until October. The process of blooming flowers is quite unusual - it occurs from top to bottom.

Important! Today there is a wide variety of varieties of lyatris. Despite their general similarity (this is especially true in relation to the botanical properties of the plant), each species has individual external and internal characteristics.

Landing Features

The traditional way of planting and growing lyatris is the seed method. At the same time, gardeners use both seedling and seedling method. The second option is more popular.This is due precisely to the properties of the plant itself. So, Liatris is stable against unfavorably low ambient temperatures, it is quite undemanding in care and tenacious. The direct procedure for sowing seeds in open soil should occur in late autumn or early spring. But before embarking on this process, it is necessary to prepare the seeds. So, they need to be placed in a humate solution for 12 hours.

When the seeds are in the preparatory stage, you should also deal with the preparation of the site for planting. So, it needs to be dug up and flavored. In this case, humus is considered an ideal top dressing (this substance is added in the amount of 1 bucket per 1 square meter of soil). After that, make special recesses for the seeds (it is worth noting that their depth should be no more than 1.5 cm).

After 12 hours, the seeds are removed from the solution and laid out in the wells. Do not forget to sprinkle the seeds on top with a small amount of soil and water. Remember that with this variant of planting, the plant will bloom only for 2 or 3 years.

Problems and Solutions

Rhizomes of lyatris are a favorite delicacy of voles. So if you have a lot of mice on the plot, protect the underground part of the lyatris from rodents wire mesh.

On moist soils with stagnant water lyatris is prone to root and stem rot - for planting, the plant needs to select only a well-drained area. Other pests and diseases - nematodes, powdery mildew and rust - usually attack the lyatris so rarely that they should not be taken seriously.

In the flower beds, where the lyatris is adjacent to the ornamental cereals, often the herbs are sown directly into the curtains of the lyatris. In the spring, such unwanted seedlings cannot be distinguished from similar young leaves of lyatris. However, in the fall, the lyatris dries much earlier than the cereals, and their yellow-green leaves are clearly visible in brown bushes. It's time for weeding!

Pests and diseases

Liatris is little susceptible to disease. Root rot appears on tubers when planted in shaded areas with heavy soil. In rainy years, foliage may be slightly affected by powdery mildew. Fungal diseases destroy mostly weakened bushes. Timely plant division and compliance with agricultural technology - the best disease prevention.

The most dangerous perennial pests are mouse voles. They are attracted to the sweet taste of tubers. Experienced flower growers plant liatris in baskets buried in the ground.

Also, the soil parasite of the bear often nibbles the root system. In rainy years, plants attack slugs.

What does the bear look like?

The best chemicals for pest control of lyatris are thunderstorm, medvetox.

How to prepare for wintering

In the south of Russia, the lyatris winters well without shelter. In areas of the Middle Strip, a perennial flower is sheltered if early winter cooling is expected below −20 ° C without snow cover. Bushes spud, mulch with peat. Cover with spruce branches or fallen leaves.

Important! You can not use straw as a mulch, mouse nests can be arranged in it.

Flowering period and care after

Perennial flowering lasts about 40 days from June to October. For the appearance of buds, the plant needs a 14-hour daylight, in areas with a temperate climate, the bush blooms in June-August. Liatris, whose flower contains essential oils and coumarin, has a pleasant aroma of freshly cut hay with sweet vanilla notes.

The plant is a beautiful honey plant, especially a white-flowered lyatris. In the cut spike-shaped inflorescences last up to 10 days. To keep the flowers longer, a little liquid fertilizer is added to the water.

Flowering liatris alba

Stems with faded peduncles are pruned, they can be dried and used in winter bouquets. After flowering, the perennial is not watered or fed. The only care is weeding and loosening.

Use in landscape design

Liatris Spicata with peculiar spike-shaped inflorescences is a godsend for landscape decorators. The plant takes up little space, fits perfectly into the composition when you need to place vertical accents. Perennials are planted along the paths, on the flower beds, they make out complex mixborders. Designers skillfully use a variety of colors of plants. Spikelet Liatris goes well with lush green host, bright yellow evening primrose, monarda.

Note! The plant can be successfully used by arranging in longitudinal landings along the line of the sun.

Low-growing varieties are used in the design of alpine hills, planted near artificial ponds, grown in containers (Kathold lyatris). Pink and lilac varieties look good with lush flowering plants - roses, phlox. Vertical candles of a lyatris create colorful compositions with foliage of lavender, decorative wormwood.

Perennial in the composition of plants

Cultivation in regions with difficult climates

Lyatris cultivation in the northern regions of the Urals, Siberia and the Far East is possible. The most frost-resistant varieties should be planted: Liatris Violetta, Alba, Burning Star. In the conditions of a short northern summer, the duration of flowering is shorter, the seeds do not have time to ripen on the plant. Particular attention should be paid to preparing the perennial for wintering. In September, the plant is fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, in the late autumn they carry out high hilling of the bush. Before the onset of frost, the lyatris is covered with fallen leaves, insulated with covering material.

The original flower lyatris is a perennial enjoying the well-deserved love of flower growers. This plant does not require special care, rarely gets sick, pleases with prolonged flowering in any weather conditions.

Features Liatris

Liatris is a perennial. This rhizome plant has branched or simple standing shoots that are densely leafy. Linear pointed sheet plates can be alternately arranged and whorled. Tuberous roots are similar in appearance to bulbs, and they are connected by thin roots. If you choose the right place for such a flower and take good care of it, then it is able to grow up to 200 centimeters. The color of the tubular flowers can be purplish-violet, red, purplish-red, pink, and also white. Flowers are part of baskets collected in half-meter inflorescences, with a racemose or spike-shaped. Flowering begins in the summer, with flowers blooming from top to bottom in turn. The fruits are ribbed oblong achenes, on the surface of which there is a pile. A plant such as a solo is planted, as well as together with such flowers as: Brunner, phlox, gypsophila, verbena and armeria. Cut flowers are able to maintain their freshness in a bouquet for up to 1.5 weeks. Dry inflorescences are great for making winter bouquets.

Growing lyatris from seeds

You can grow lyatris from seeds, and both the seedling and seedling method are used for this. However, gardeners are more likely to use the seedlingless method of reproduction, since this flower is cold-resistant, is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and vitality. Sowing seeds in open ground can be done before winter or at the beginning of the spring period. Before starting sowing, the seeds must be held for 12 hours in a humate solution. The site must first be dug up, while humus must be added to the soil (1 bucket of organics is taken per 1 m 2). Then you need to prepare the grooves for seeds, the depth of which should not be more than 10-15 millimeters. Prepared seeds need to be laid out along the grooves and sprinkled with soil, and then watered. When growing lyatris from seeds, it should be remembered that such a flower begins to bloom fully only in the second or third year of life. In autumn, this plant propagates independently by self-sowing, in connection with this, with the advent of seedlings in the spring, you only need to thin them.


Material is bought in a flower shop or independently procured in the autumn. For the procedure, bushes of 2-3 years of age, starting from 2 cm in size, are suitable. Small bulbs are made in the bulbs - shoots will go from them. Landing is carried out in the spring or in September-October, before the onset of cold weather.

If desired, nodules can be germinated in advance. In tanks they are planted at a distance of 15 cm in a soil mixture, which includes peat, river sand and humus. The bushes need to provide good drainage. Tanks are sent to a cool and darkened room until the first shoots appear. After the emergence of young shoots, it is planted under the open sky.

Liatris pruning

Some varieties of crops can grow up to 1 m, which requires binding. Strong sticks are driven near the shrubbery and a tight rope or wire is pulled. Shoots are tied to the resulting structure. If the procedure is not carried out, then under adverse weather conditions or under the weight of its own mass, the shoots may break, and the bush may die.

Pruning is recommended after the flowering of individual inflorescences. This approach will improve the appearance of the entire bush, help the foliage acquire a brighter color. After the growing season, many gardeners prefer to carry out a complete crop pruning.

Growing seedlings

To increase the germination capacity of Lyatris seeds, it is better to sow them on seedlings, and then plant them in open ground. You can start doing this in early April, when there is already enough sunlight.

Soak the seeds for a day in a solution of a growth accelerator or plain water. Prepare a mixture of peat, earth and sand, or use universal soil with a neutral pH. It is better to grow seedlings in containers or crates. Water the soil well, before draining water into the pan. Be sure to pour it. To plant the seeds, make grooves at a distance of 5 cm from each other and a depth of 1-2 cm. Evenly distribute the planting material, sprinkle lightly and spray from the spray gun so as not to erode the seeds. Cover the container with glass or film and put it in a place with a temperature of 18-20 degrees. Shoots appear after 20 days. Remove the glass and move the seedlings to a warm and sunny place.

As soon as the first true leaves appear, seedlings are dived into separate pots or cassettes with a diameter of 10-12 cm. You can also immediately sow the seeds in a separate container so that you do not transplant them later. To do this, use peat tablets. You can buy them at any garden store. They consist of a nutrient mixture. Before planting, the seeds must be soaked in a stimulant solution or plain water for several hours, and soak the tablets themselves with water. Be sure to drain excess water from the sump. Place a seed in the center of the tablet and squeeze it. To speed up germination, cover the peat tablets with a film.

Plant seedlings grown in late May or early June along with the substrate, especially if the seeds were grown in peat tablets.

The main advantage of planting Liatris seedlings is that you do not have to dive sprouting plants. In this case, already finished plants are planted at a constant place of growth in the right order and with the required frequency. Seedlings take root better, especially planted in tablets or a special substrate, as this protects the roots from damage.

Liatris Care

The first feeding of Liatris is carried out in the spring a month after planting, with potassium and phosphorus. This usually happens in May-June. Feed the second time during flowering in the summer. At this time, the plant needs more nutrients. This time, use rotted manure or compost. The third fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers can be carried out in the fall before preparing the plants for wintering, so that the Liatris regains strength.

Care during Lyatris cultivation includes the following points:

  • To minimize the spread of disease and weeds, regularly weed away weeds.
  • Loosening the soil helps improve oxygen supply to the roots. But do it carefully so as not to damage the roots, as the bulbs are close to the surface.
  • Carry out hilling so that the roots are not exposed due to irrigation of cultivation and rains.
  • Be sure to ensure that the earth around the bush does not dry out. If it has not rained for a long time, carry out regular watering.
  • Permanently remove wilted and dried inflorescences. And in the fall, when the whole aerial part of Lyatris dies, cut it completely to the base.
  • If the winter is not snowy, then cover the plant with a layer of dry peat or leaves, spruce branches and non-woven material.

Most often, the bush is affected by powdery mildew, various types of rot. Infected areas of the plant must be immediately cut and burned. As a prophylaxis, spray the plant with fungicides. And to prevent the appearance of pests, such as a bear, slugs, snails, mice, etch the soil with insecticides. Find out what methods exist in the fight against slugs in a summer cottage.

Liatris transplant

Liatris transplantation is necessary to rejuvenate the bush. Strongly overgrown rhizome prevents flowering. Liatris needs to be transplanted to another place every 4-5 years. This will help rejuvenate the flower and prevent the development of diseases, as well as pest damage. An old plant is more susceptible to them.

This is a simple procedure. A transplant is like dividing a bush. Run it as follows:

  1. Dig the bush carefully without damaging the bulbs,
  2. Divide the rhizome into several equal parts. Treat the separation sites with ash for disinfection,
  3. Each new plant should have a root neck and a full onion,
  4. Prepare the wells in advance for planting,
  5. Plant new plants in the wells, sprinkle with earth and water abundantly.

Liatris in winter

The flower tolerates cold winters. Low temperatures do not cause frostbite of shoots, since before the winter the whole aerial part is cut off. The plant grows and blooms anew every spring. Digging tubers of Liatris for the winter is not necessary. It is enough to cover them with dry leaves, sawdust, needles or spruce branches with a thickness of 10-15 cm, in case there is little snow. This will help keep the flower in good condition until spring. Digging bulbs is carried out in order to propagate Lyatris and plant young plants in spring.

Reproduction Liatris

There are several ways to propagate a bush of Lyatris. This can be done by separating the young bulbs from an adult plant, which is 3-4 years old, by dividing the plant and seeds.

Dividing a bush, as well as planting a Lyatris - a simple procedure

Seeds are harvested after the flowering of Lyatris, when the inflorescences have bloomed and withered. Oval achenes form on the spikelet. Collect them as soon as possible, as self-propagation can occur and the seeds will scatter throughout the garden.

It’s better not to wait for the wind to spread the seeds around

Seeds collected in autumn are stored until spring, and only then sown immediately in open ground or seedlings.

What time to land

Liatris is very simple and easy to propagate in a vegetative way. In the event that such a flower already exists in the garden, then in August or September it is possible to divide the tuber of the plant into parts. Also, planting material can be purchased at special flower shops. However, before thinking about where it is better to buy a lyatris, for its cultivation you need to choose the most suitable place in the garden. For such a plant, you need to choose an open area that is well lit. Direct sunlight will not harm the flower, while it stubbornly tolerates the heat, so the July heat is not terrible for him. The soil should be saturated with nutrients, loose and well-drained.It should be remembered that the lyatris reacts extremely negatively to fluid stagnation in the soil, since rot appears on its roots in a short time. In this regard, such a flower can not be planted in places with moist, heavy soil, in troughs and lowlands, as well as in areas where groundwater lies too close to the surface of the earth. Landing is recommended at the beginning of the spring period or in the fall.

Liatrix Care

Liatris needs to be watered, weeded in a timely manner, as well as systematically hob, since the surface root system after heavy rains can bare. Due to leaching of roots to the area where the flowers grow, it is recommended to periodically top up the ground. Peduncles in such plants are very high, so in some cases there is a need to tie them to the support. Experts also recommend that you fill the area with a layer of mulch, as it can not only supply nutrients to the roots, but also protect them, which will greatly facilitate the care of flowers. Also, Liatris must be fed with mineral fertilizers. As a rule, during the season it will need to be fed 3 times, as follows: in spring use nitrogen-containing fertilizers, and in the summer - phosphorus-potassium. It is also necessary to remove inflorescences that have begun to fade, this will save the decorativeness of the bushes, which, after flowering ends, will decorate the garden with their bright green foliage.


Fertilizer is the most important step in the process of plant care. Experts advise periodically to fill up the soil on which the lyatris grows with a layer of mulch. It not only feeds the plant, but also protects it from all sorts of negative external influences. In addition to mulch, mineral complexes are used as fertilizer. The recommended frequency of feeding is 3 times a season.

Moreover, depending on the season, the composition of the fertilizer mixtures should change. So, in the summer, phosphorus and potassium compounds should be preferred, and in the spring - nitrogen-containing mixtures should be chosen.

Breeding options

At home, lyatris can be propagated by repeatedly planting seeds. This process is described above.

Another way to propagate a flower is vegetative. It is suitable for those gardeners who already have lyatris on their site (or can access an already adult and mature plant). In the absence of a lyatris in your garden, you can use the purchased material for planting (it can be found in specialized gardening stores). By dividing the root or tubers, the flower is best propagated in the summer-autumn period (namely, in August or September).

The plant propagates quite simply. However, before proceeding with this procedure, it is important to select the most suitable site.

So, for the best growth and development of liatris should be planted in an open area with a sufficient amount of lighting (it is possible to choose even those areas in which direct sunlight).

Pay attention to the general condition, as well as the mineral composition of the soil: there should be a sufficient amount of nutrient components, a reliable and high-quality drainage system. Do not forget to carry out the cultivation procedure before planting. It is strictly forbidden to plant a plant on moist and heavy soil. The thing is that excess moisture has a negative effect on the lyatris and can lead to root rot, respectively, to the death of the plant.

Important! When propagated by tubers, they should be placed in the ground to a depth of 3 to 10 cm. There should be a distance of at least 15 cm between the plants.

Diseases and Pests

According to experienced gardeners, as well as botanists, lyatris is a fairly unpretentious and resistant plant that can withstand a large number of diseases, as well as the negative effects of harmful insects. In the same time organisms such as snails and bears can be very harmful to the plant.. If you notice that your flower is suffering from their influence, you should immediately begin the treatment process. In this case, the folk method is considered the most effective.

So, to prepare a treatment solution, you need to take 0.5 cups of beer and put this liquid in a bottle. This container must be carefully dug into the soil at a 45-degree angle. It is important that the neck of the bottle is 0.2–0.3 cm below ground level. Insects will fall into such a trap.

With regard to diseases, then the most common ailment of a lyatris is rot. It occurs in the presence of excess moisture in the soil. The first thing to do is to carefully analyze and, accordingly, reduce the frequency and intensity of irrigation. The next necessary step is to treat the plant with a fungicidal agent. This disease is treated quite difficult.


Liatris decorates any flower beds and flower beds with its flowers and lush greens. This flower has good decorative properties. It is suitable for decorating both garden beds and city parks. The advantage of this plant is that planting and caring for Liatris in the open ground are simple. For it to grow in the debt area, it needs to be started once. Liatris will survive both dry summers and frosty winters.

To all readers of a good time of day! For some time, gardening affairs somewhat receded into the background.

In order for the garden to become more decorative and beautiful, many gardeners plant plants in it.

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Gatzania, or gazania (Gazania) - a flower from warm countries, or rather, from the African continent, like the African one.

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Landing and care of the lithatrix

  • Landing: in early spring or fall.
  • Bloom: June July.
  • Lighting: bright sunshine.
  • The soil: fresh, loose, moderately dry, nutritious.
  • Watering: as needed.
  • Hilling: regular, instead of loosening, because the plant has a superficial root system.
  • Mulching: obligatory.
  • Garter: tall varieties need a garter to support.
  • Top dressing: mineral fertilizers three times a season: in spring - nitrogen, in summer - potassium-phosphorus.
  • Reproduction: seeds and dividing the bush.
  • Pests: slugs, snails and bears.
  • Disease gray and root rot.

Lyatris flower - description

Lyatris flower is a perennial rhizome plant with simple or branched erect stems, densely leafy alternate or whorled, pointed linear leaves. The tuberoid roots of the lyatris, similar to bulbs, are interconnected by thin roots. With the right location and with good care, the height of the lyatris can reach two meters. Tubular reddish-purple, violet-purple, pink, red and white flowers make up baskets, which in turn are collected in spike-like or racemose inflorescences up to half a meter long.

The summer flower blooms, and unlike other flowers, the flower begins to bloom from the top, not the bottom of the inflorescence. The fruits of the lyatris are oblong ribbed achenes covered with nap. It is used in landscape design and as a solo plant, and in combination with other flowers - gypsophila, brunner, verbena, phlox, armeria. The flower stalks of the lyatris are cut perfectly - up to ten days, and dried inflorescences are used to create winter bouquets.

When to plant lyatris

The easiest way to propagate perennial lyatris is in a vegetative way. If your site already grows lyatris, then you can get planting material in August or September, dividing the tuber of the lyatris into parts. Planting stock is also sold in flower shops. But first you need to choose a site on which the plant will grow comfortably. An open sunny place is suitable for a lyatris. Direct rays will not harm him, and the lyatris is indifferent to high temperatures, so it will endure the July heat steadily.

The soil is preferable loose, nutritious and well-drained: what the lyatris is afraid of is the water in the roots, from which its root system quickly decays, therefore heavy moist substrates and areas in lowlands, hollows and in places with close to the ground surface are not suitable water Landing of a lyatris is carried out in the early spring or in the fall.

How to care for lyatris

Care for the flower of the lyatris consists of watering it as necessary, removing weeds, periodically hilling the bushes instead of loosening the soil, since the root system of the plant is superficial and can be exposed during prolonged rains. For the same reason, there is a need to add soil to the site. High peduncles of the lyatris sometimes have to be tied to a support. Do not neglect the mulching of the site, which, protecting and nourishing the roots of the plant, significantly reduces the laboriousness of caring for the lyatris.

In addition, the lyatris needs fertilizing with mineral fertilizers, which are applied three times per season: in the spring, the plant is fed with nitrogen fertilizer, in the summer - potassium-phosphorus. It is also necessary to prune the faded inflorescences of the lyatris so that the plant does not lose its decorative effect and even after flowering delights the eyes with its bright green foliage.

Liatris transplant

The fall of a lyatris in the fall is usually carried out simultaneously with the division of the tuber once every three to four years. They dig up the lyatris, carefully divide the bush into parts so that each delenka has a root neck with tubers, then the delenki are planted in holes at a distance of 25 to 40 cm from each other, deepening the tubers into the soil by 8-15 cm. A third of the hole is covered humus, then supplement it with garden soil and rammed. After watering, the site is mulched with humus.

Liatris after flowering

When the liatris blooms and the leaves turn yellow and fall, cut off the ground part of the plant, and mulch the surface of the plot with a layer of compost, peat, dry foliage or spruce branches 10-15 cm high. Do not use straw as a mulch, because field rodents like to nest there, feeding in winter with rhizome of lyatris. If the winters in your area are not severe, the lyatris can winter without shelter.

10 ideas for flower beds with lyatris

1. Liatris is accustomed to reaching out to the sun among a variety of numerous neighbors in the North American meadows. And this habit makes her wonderful vertical accent in any flower garden. In the traditional English mixborder at the cottage garden, it is in this role that the lyatris is often used.

Left: the habit of reaching for the sun makes the lyatris a wonderful vertical accent in any flower garden. Right: compact cultivars of Liatris will add rich colors to the rockery palette.

2. Compact cultivars Liatris will bring juicy colors to the rocariya's palette, diluting the greens of coniferous and ground cover plants.

3. Purple and violet species and varieties Lyatris will fit perfectly into the theme purple flower garden. Good neighbors in the palette will be panicled phlox varieties, monarda, highlander stem-bearing (svezhevyidnogo), sage oak, grapevines with dark foliage and other perennials.

Purple and violet species and varieties of lyatris fit perfectly into the theme flower garden

4. In addition to the nuanced coloristic flower beds, you can make contrasting compositions: purple varieties of lyatris are effectively combined with perennials with yellow flowers and foliage. For example, with rudbeckia, geleniums, autumn cesleria.

Left: violet varieties of lyatris are effectively combined with perennials of a contrasting color. Right: white varieties of Liatris will reduce the degree in a hot flower garden.

5. White varieties of Liatris complement the composition of the white garden or reduce the degree in the "hot" flower garden with red, orange or yellow flowers.

6. Bushes of lyatris are attractive already before flowering. due to the dense structure, densely leafy stems and long narrow foliage. From spring to June they cope perfectly with the role of deciduous plants.

Left: bushes of lyatris are attractive already before flowering. Right: vertical “candles” are asked to pick perennials with flat inflorescences in their neighbors

7. The vertical "candles" of the lyatris are asked to pick them in the neighbors perennials with flat inflorescences - yarrows, stonecases - or with large "daisies": nyvnyaki, echinacea. Such a partnership pleases with spectacular contrast in the form of inflorescences.

8. With decreasing temperature the color of the leaves of the lyatris becomes bright yellow or wine red. This autumn color will be a bright accent in the September flower garden.

Left: with decreasing temperature, the color of the leaves of the lyatris becomes bright yellow or wine red. Right: when the foliage dries up, the narrow fruit candles will adorn the winter garden

9. And when the foliage dries up, narrow winter fruit candles will adorn the winter flower gardenuntil the wind and the birds spread the seeds and the bushes are covered with snow. A frosted liatris looks charming.

10. In meadow and prairie flower gardens, among decorative cereals and new perennials, the lyatris is a recognized “star”, attracting butterflies and bees to the garden. In such flower beds they plant it denser - up to 12 bushes per 1 m².

In meadow and prairie flower gardens, lathris is planted denser

Diseases and pests

Planting and growing a lyatris will not be difficult for a gardener. This plant is distinguished not only by its unpretentiousness, but also by its high resistance to diseases. But at the same time, snails and bears can cause significant harm to him. As a rule, in order to get rid of such pests, it is recommended to resort to a simple folk method. Half a glass of beer is poured into the bottle, and then it is instilled into the soil at an angle of 45 degrees, and the neck should be located 20-30 mm below the surface of the earth in a not very large hole. Snails and bears, attracted by the aroma of beer, fall into the trap. However, it should be noted that beer in such a trap must be changed systematically.

If stagnation of moisture is observed in the soil, then rot may appear on the flower. In this case, it is necessary to cut off all the affected areas on the aerial part of the flower and only after that treat the bush with a fungicidal agent. If decay has arisen due to excessively heavy soil or a close occurrence of groundwater, then you need to think about changing the site.

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